The University of Bradford is a public, plate glass university located in the city of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The university received its Royal Charter in 1966, making it the 40th university to be created in Britain, but its origins date back to the early 19th century. There are two campuses: the main campus located on Richmond Road and the School of Management, at Emm Lane.The student population includes 10,525 undergraduate and 3,050 postgraduate students. Mature students make up around a third of the undergraduate community. 22% of students are foreign, and come from over 110 different countries. There were 14,406 applications to the university through UCAS in 2010, of which 3,421 were accepted.It was the first British university to establish a Department of Peace Studies in 1973, which is currently the world's largest university centre for the study of peace and conflict. The division has a reputation as a centre of excellence in peace research, international relations, security studies, conflict resolution and development and peace studies. Wikipedia.
University of Bradford | Date: 2017-05-10
The present invention relates to effervescent compositions which are resistant to water vapour in the atmosphere and to methods of preparing such compositions. In particular, the invention relates to an effervescent composition comprisinga co-crystal. The co- crystal comprises an acidic component and a basic component is separate. The co-crystal comprising the acidic component is resistant to water uptake avoiding initiating the effervescence prematurely. Upon dissolution of the co-crystal and the basic component effervescence occurs.
University of Bradford | Date: 2015-07-02
The present invention relates to effervescent compositions which are resistant to water vapour in the atmosphere and to methods of preparing such compositions. In particular, the invention relates to an effervescent composition comprising a co-crystal. The co-crystal comprises an acidic component and a basic component is separate. The co-crystal comprising the acidic component is resistant to water uptake avoiding initiating the effervescence prematurely. Upon dissolution of the co-crystal and the basic component effervescence occurs.
Williams A.C.,University of Bradford |
Barry B.W.,University of Bradford
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2012
One long-standing approach for improving transdermal drug delivery uses penetration enhancers (also called sorption promoters or accelerants) which penetrate into skin to reversibly decrease the barrier resistance. Numerous compounds have been evaluated for penetration enhancing activity, including sulphoxides (such as dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO), Azones (e.g. laurocapram), pyrrolidones (for example 2-pyrrolidone, 2P), alcohols and alkanols (ethanol, or decanol), glycols (for example propylene glycol, PG, a common excipient in topically applied dosage forms), surfactants (also common in dosage forms) and terpenes. Many potential sites and modes of action have been identified for skin penetration enhancers; the intercellular lipid matrix in which the accelerants may disrupt the packing motif, the intracellular keratin domains or through increasing drug partitioning into the tissue by acting as a solvent for the permeant within the membrane. Further potential mechanisms of action, for example with the enhancers acting on desmosomal connections between corneocytes or altering metabolic activity within the skin, or exerting an influence on the thermodynamic activity/solubility of the drug in its vehicle are also feasible, and are also considered in this review. © 2012.
Kantamneni S.,University of Bradford
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Brain function depends on co-ordinated transmission of signals from both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters acting upon target neurons. NMDA, AMPA and mGluR receptors are the major subclasses of glutamate receptors that are involved in excitatory transmission at synapses, mechanisms of activity dependent synaptic plasticity, brain development and many neurological diseases. In addition to canonical role of regulating presynaptic release and activating postsynaptic potassium channels, GABAB receptors also regulate glutamate receptors. There is increasing evidence that metabotropic GABAB receptors are now known to play an important role in modulating the excitability of circuits throughout the brain by directly influencing different types of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Specifically, GABAB receptors affect the expression, activity and signaling of glutamate receptors under physiological and pathological conditions. Conversely, NMDA receptor activity differentially regulates GABAB receptor subunit expression, signaling and function. In this review I will describe how GABAB receptor activity influence glutamate receptor function and vice versa. Such a modulation has widespread implications for the control of neurotransmission, calcium-dependent neuronal function, pain pathways and in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 Kantamneni.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 721.30K | Year: 2016
My proposed Fellowship will revolutionise the use of High Performance Computing (HPC) within The University of Sheffield by changing perceptions of how people utilise software and are trained and supported in writing code which scales to increasingly large computer systems. I will provide leadership by demonstrating the effectiveness of specific research software engineer roles, and by growing a team of research software engineer at The University of Sheffield in order to accommodate our expanding programme of research computing. I will achieve this by: 1) developing the FLAME and FLAME GPU software to facilitate and demonstrate the impact of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computing on the areas of complex systems simulation; 2) vastly extending the remit of GPUComputing@Sheffield to provide advanced training and research consultancy, and to embed specific software engineering skills for high-performance data parallel computing (with GPUs and Xeon Phis) across EPSRC-remit research areas at The University of Sheffield. My first activity will enable long-term support of the extensive use of FLAME and FLAME GPU for EPSRC, industry and EU-funded research projects. The computational science and engineering projects supported will include those as diverse as computational economics, bioinformatics and transport simulation. Additionally, my software will provide a platform for more fundamental computer science research into complexity science, graphics and visualisation, programming languages and compilers, and software engineering. My second activity will champion GPU computing within The University of Sheffield (and beyond to its collaborators and industrial partners). It will demonstrate how a specific area of research software engineering can be embedded into The University of Sheffield, and act as a model for further improvement in areas such as research software and data storage. I will change the way people develop and use research software by providing training to students and researchers who can then embed GPU software engineering skills across research domains. I will also aid researchers who work on computationally demanding research by providing software engineering consultancy in areas that can benefit from GPU acceleration, such as, mobile GPU computing for robotics, deep neural network simulation for machine learning (including speech, hearing and Natural language processing) and real time signal processing. The impact of my Fellowship will vastly expand the scale and quality of research computing at The University of Sheffield, embed skills within students and researchers (with long-term and wide-reaching results) and ensure energy-efficient use of HPC. This will promote the understanding and wider use of GPU computing within research, as well as transitioning researchers to larger regional and national HPC facilities. Ultimately my research software engineer fellowship will facilitate the delivery of excellent science whilst promoting the unique and important role of the Research Software Engineer.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2016 | Award Amount: 3.27M | Year: 2017
SECRET is a collaborative European Training Network (ETN) committed to create an excellent educational training platform; that is multi-disciplinary and intersectoral in nature, for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) in the field of wireless communications and networking. In this dynamic field, the challenges are always evolving and more stringent in line with market expectation, and socio-economical requirements. The chapter of 4G (4th Generation) of mobile systems is finally coming to an end, with waves of 4G systems deployed over Europe and worldwide. 4G systems provide a universal platform for broadband mobile services at any time, any place and anywhere. However, mobile traffic is still growing at an unprecedented rate and the need for more sophisticated broadband services is still further pushing the limits on current standards to provide even tighter integration between wireless technologies and higher speeds. The increase in number of mobile devices and traffic, the change in the nature of service and device, along with the pressure on operation and capital costs, and energy efficiency are all continuously putting stringent limits on the requirement of the design of mobile networks. It is widely accepted that incremental enhancements of current networking paradigm will not achieve or come close to meeting the requirements of networking by 2020 . This has led to the need of a new generation of mobile communications: the so-called 5G. The interests of stakeholders and academic researchers are now focused on 5G paradigm. Although 5G systems are not expected to penetrate the market till 2020, the evolution towards 5G is widely accepted to be the convergence of internet services with existing mobile networking standards leading to the commonly used term mobile internet over heterogeneous networks (HetNets), with very high connectivity speeds. This proposal aims to narrow the gap between current networking technologies and the foreseen requirements of future 2
Beggs C.B.,University of Bradford
BMC Medicine | Year: 2013
Venous abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions. This paper reviews the literature regarding venous abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS), leukoaraiosis, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The review is supplemented with hydrodynamic analysis to assess the effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cerebral blood flow (CBF) of venous hypertension in general, and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in particular.CCSVI-like venous anomalies seem unlikely to account for reduced CBF in patients with MS, thus other mechanisms must be at work, which increase the hydraulic resistance of the cerebral vascular bed in MS. Similarly, hydrodynamic changes appear to be responsible for reduced CBF in leukoaraiosis. The hydrodynamic properties of the periventricular veins make these vessels particularly vulnerable to ischemia and plaque formation.Venous hypertension in the dural sinuses can alter intracranial compliance. Consequently, venous hypertension may change the CSF dynamics, affecting the intracranial windkessel mechanism. MS and NPH appear to share some similar characteristics, with both conditions exhibiting increased CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius.CCSVI appears to be a real phenomenon associated with MS, which causes venous hypertension in the dural sinuses. However, the role of CCSVI in the pathophysiology of MS remains unclear. © 2013 Beggs; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
McIlhagga W.,University of Bradford
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2011
Canny (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Image Proc. 8(6):679-698, 1986) suggested that an optimal edge detector should maximize both signal-to-noise ratio and localization, and he derived mathematical expressions for these criteria. Based on these criteria, he claimed that the optimal step edge detector was similar to a derivative of a gaussian. However, Canny's work suffers from two problems. First, his derivation of localization criterion is incorrect. Here we provide a more accurate localization criterion and derive the optimal detector from it. Second, and more seriously, the Canny criteria yield an infinitely wide optimal edge detector. The width of the optimal detector can however be limited by considering the effect of the neighbouring edges in the image. If we do so, we find that the optimal step edge detector, according to the Canny criteria, is the derivative of an ISEF filter, proposed by Shen and Castan (Graph. Models Image Proc. 54:112-133, 1992). In addition, if we also consider detecting blurred (or non-sharp) gaussian edges of different widths, we find that the optimal blurred-edge detector is the above optimal step edge detector convolved with a gaussian. This implies that edge detection must be performed at multiple scales to cover all the blur widths in the image. We derive a simple scale selection procedure for edge detection, and demonstrate it in one and two dimensions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.03M | Year: 2016
In a circular economy value is created by keeping products and materials in flow through effective recirculation and re-use to optimise their highest economic potential and minimise the use of virgin materials and external environmental costs. New construction and existing building stocks present the highest potential for circular economy innovation, value retention and creation opportunities, estimated to be worth approximately Euro 450 - 600M p.a. Innovation in the reclamation of currently hard to re-use building products - concrete, steel, brick, from end of service life (EOSL) buildings and their remanufacture into new modular products for new builds which would then be designed for future deconstruction, is therefore a major economic opportunity. REBUILD proposes that materials are directly reused and remanufactured into new builds with minimal re-processing. The project proposes a new circular economy system to address key barriers in the current linear approaches to demolition and new building construction, and build capabilities and tools to create significant new value by the early adoption of novel technologies, high value remanufacture, new system arrangements and the scaling up good practices. The magnitude of the opportunity is considerable. Existing buildings were not designed for adaptation, dis-assembly, or high value reuse. Therefore, the current option is to demolish them when they reach EOSL. In the UK approximately 50,000 buildings are demolished each year generating 45Mt of wastes, the majority of this is concrete and masonry, brick and steel. Of this 45Mt, only a small percentage is reclaimed, mostly for heritage products or easily demountable structures such as steel sections from portal frames. EOSL buildings are treated as costs to be minimised with speed of clearance commercially critical and a subsequent major loss of embedded carbon, energy, materials and potential value. For circularity to become mainstream in the building construction industry, it is imperative that barriers to reuse hard to deconstruct buildings, including using cement mortar based masonry, reinforced concrete, steel-concrete composite structures, which account for the vast majority of UK construction tonnage and cost, must be removed. REBUILD starts the process of converting all current building at the end of their first life and future buildings into material and product banks allowing the retention of high value materials and products for future repeat reuse. The cost of transport and storage means that repair, remanufacture and reuse of products to be commercially successful will need to be regional/local scale. To create demand acceptance for re-used products REBUILD testing processes are designed to demonstrate industry standards of quality assurance of technical performance. Creating demand requires a system re-design and co-ordination to integrate all the activities in the value chain including construction and manufacture, demolition and other key activities (financing, public procurement, planning), in new ways to collaborate to unlock and share value from product re-use. This integration is likely to be optimal at city scale within a circular economy regional hub. This system design will be created and modelled with our industrial stakeholders. The project will quantify, measure and evaluate the magnitude of value creation and product re-use for different system configurations and scenarios against a Business as Usual (BAU) reference case. Continual interactions with the industrial stakeholder group, and through their networks the wider construction industry, will make sure that the direction of our project stays close to industrial needs and the outcomes of our research are communicated to the industry in the most effective way.
Agency: GTR | Branch: MRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 544.99K | Year: 2016
The skin is an organ that covers the body and protects us from a variety of environmental insults, such as mechanical injury, invasion of microorganisms, ultra-violet irradiation and also prevents water loss. To fulfil such important function, skin has to constantly regenerate itself throughout of a persons life, and this ability of the skin for self-regeneration relies on proper functioning of epithelial stem cells present in the epidermis and hair follicles, the major epithelial structures of the skin. These stem cells are long-living cells, while producing short-living specialised progenies that form all protective epidermal cell layers and hairs. As the skin ages, functional activities of the stem cells decline leading to a thinning of the epidermis and hair loss, as well as reducing their ability to regenerate the skin after injury. Data obtained during the last decade have revealed that there are multiple cellular biochemical pathways controlling skin stem cells activity, with recent data demonstrating that activity of these biochemical pathways can be governed by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. One of such epigenetic mechanisms is the modification of histones, proteins closely interacting with DNA, by the Polycomb group proteins to repress the expression of genes and thus change many important cellular functions. This project will look at how a Polycomb group gene Cbx4, which represses many genes, impacts on normal physiological and injury-induced regeneration. We will also explore how Cbx4 regulates different molecular signals in the epithelial stem cells and their progenies (those which form the epidermis and hair), and their involvement in wound healing. In addition, we will examine how Cbx4 controls long-term survival of the skin stem cells and their ability to produce skin-specific progeny. Studying the skin as a model system in this way, will cast light on the mechanisms that control the development and regeneration of other epithelial tissues, such as the epithelia of the intestine, teeth, kidney and lung. The knowledge gained from this study will therefore provide new opportunities to aid in the development of novel epigenetic therapies intended to prevent aberrant tissue growth and regenerative limitations, such as impaired wound healing in diabetic patients and in elderly individuals.