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Bradford, United Kingdom

The University of Bradford is a public, plate glass university located in the city of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The university received its Royal Charter in 1966, making it the 40th university to be created in Britain, but its origins date back to the early 19th century. There are two campuses: the main campus located on Richmond Road and the School of Management, at Emm Lane.The student population includes 10,525 undergraduate and 3,050 postgraduate students. Mature students make up around a third of the undergraduate community. 22% of students are foreign, and come from over 110 different countries. There were 14,406 applications to the university through UCAS in 2010, of which 3,421 were accepted.It was the first British university to establish a Department of Peace Studies in 1973, which is currently the world's largest university centre for the study of peace and conflict. The division has a reputation as a centre of excellence in peace research, international relations, security studies, conflict resolution and development and peace studies. Wikipedia.

Nicolaou A.,University of Bradford
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2013

Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

McIlhagga W.,University of Bradford
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2011

Canny (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Image Proc. 8(6):679-698, 1986) suggested that an optimal edge detector should maximize both signal-to-noise ratio and localization, and he derived mathematical expressions for these criteria. Based on these criteria, he claimed that the optimal step edge detector was similar to a derivative of a gaussian. However, Canny's work suffers from two problems. First, his derivation of localization criterion is incorrect. Here we provide a more accurate localization criterion and derive the optimal detector from it. Second, and more seriously, the Canny criteria yield an infinitely wide optimal edge detector. The width of the optimal detector can however be limited by considering the effect of the neighbouring edges in the image. If we do so, we find that the optimal step edge detector, according to the Canny criteria, is the derivative of an ISEF filter, proposed by Shen and Castan (Graph. Models Image Proc. 54:112-133, 1992). In addition, if we also consider detecting blurred (or non-sharp) gaussian edges of different widths, we find that the optimal blurred-edge detector is the above optimal step edge detector convolved with a gaussian. This implies that edge detection must be performed at multiple scales to cover all the blur widths in the image. We derive a simple scale selection procedure for edge detection, and demonstrate it in one and two dimensions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Botchkareva N.V.,University of Bradford
Cell Cycle | Year: 2012

Skin development, postnatal growth and regeneration are governed by complex and well-balanced programs of gene activation and silencing. The crosstalk between small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs is highly important for steadiness of signal transduction and transcriptional activities as well as for maintenance of homeostasis in many organs, including the skin. Recent data demonstrated that the expression of many genes, including cell type-specific master transcription regulators implicated in the control of skin development and homeostasis, is regulated by miRNAs. In addition, individual miRNAs could mediate the effects of these signaling pathways through being their downstream components. In turn, the expression of a major constituent of the miRNA processing machinery, Dicer, can be controlled by cell type-specific transcription factors, which form negative feedback loop mechanisms essential for the proper execution of cell differentiation- associated gene expression programs and cell-cell communications during normal skin development and regeneration. This review summarizes the available data on how miRNA/mRNA regulatory networks are involved in the control of skin development, epidermal homeostasis, hair cycle-associated tissue remodeling and pigmentation. Understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern skin development and regeneration will contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches for many pathological skin conditions by using miRNA-based interventions. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source

Anwar J.,University of Bradford | Zahn D.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Exploring nucleation processes by molecular simulation provides a mechanistic understanding at the atomic level and also enables kinetic and thermodynamic quantities to be estimated. However, whilst the potential for modeling crystal nucleation and growth processes is immense, there are specific technical challenges to modeling. In general, rare events, such as nucleation cannot be simulated using a direct "brute force" molecular dynamics approach. The limited time and length scales that are accessible by conventional molecular dynamics simulations have inspired a number of advances to tackle problems that were considered outside the scope of molecular simulation. While general insights and features could be explored from efficient generic models, new methods paved the way to realistic crystal nucleation scenarios. The association of single ions in solvent environments, the mechanisms of motif formation, ripening reactions, and the self-organization of nanocrystals can now be investigated at the molecular level. The analysis of interactions with growth-controlling additives gives a new understanding of functionalized nanocrystals and the precipitation of composite materials. Crystal clear? New techniques of molecular simulation pave the way to explore realistic scenarios of crystal nucleation (see picture). Prospective insights into ion association, motif formation, ripening, and additive association will support experiment and, in the long run, the rational design of new materials. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Cantor B.,University of Bradford
Entropy | Year: 2014

This paper describes some underlying principles of multicomponent and high entropy alloys, and gives some examples of these materials. Different types of multicomponent alloy and different methods of accessing multicomponent phase space are discussed. The alloys were manufactured by conventional and high speed solidification techniques, and their macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscale structures were studied by optical, X-ray and electron microscope methods. They exhibit a variety of amorphous, quasicrystalline, dendritic and eutectic structures. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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