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Tulua, Colombia

Garcia-Santos G.,University of Zurich | Garcia-Santos G.,Klagenfurt University | Feola G.,University of Zurich | Feola G.,University of Reading | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Offsite pesticide losses in tropical mountainous regions have been little studied. One example is measuring pesticide drift soil deposition, which can support pesticide risk assessment for surface water, soil, bystanders, and off-target plants and fauna. This is considered a serious gap, given the evidence of pesticide-related poisoning in those regions. Empirical data of drift deposition of a pesticide surrogate, Uranine tracer, within one of the highest potato-producing regions in Colombia, characterized by small plots and mountain orography, is presented. High drift values encountered in this study reflect the actual spray conditions using hand-held knapsack sprayers. Comparison between measured and predicted drift values using three existing empirical equations showed important underestimation. However, after their optimization based on measured drift information, the equations showed a strong predictive power for this study area and the study conditions. The most suitable curve to assess mean relative drift was the IMAG calculator after optimization. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Rochat D.,SOFIES Solutions for Industrial Ecosystems in Geneva | Binder C.R.,University of Michigan | Diaz J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Jolliet O.,University of Boyaca
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2013

Summary: Three assessment methods, material flow analysis (MFA), life cycle analysis (LCA), and multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) are systematically combined for supporting the choice of best end-of-life scenarios for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste in a municipality of a developing country. MFA analyzes the material and energy balance of a firm, a region, or a nation, identifying the most relevant processes; LCA evaluates multiple environmental impacts of a product or a service from cradle to grave; and MAUT allows for inclusion of other aspects along with the ecological ones in the assessment. We first systematically coupled MFA and LCA by defining "the service offered by the total PET used during one year in the region" as the functional unit. Inventory and impacts were calculated by multiplying MFA flows with LCA impacts per kilogram. We used MAUT to include social and economic aspects in the assessment. To integrate the subjective point of view of stakeholders in the MAUT, we normalized the environmental, social, and economic variables with respect to the magnitude of overall impacts or benefits in the country. The results show large benefits for recycling scenarios from all points of view and also provide information about waste treatment optimization. The combination of the three assessment methods offers a powerful integrative assessment of impacts and benefits. Further research should focus on data collection methods to easily determine relevant material flows. LCA impact factors specific to Colombia should be developed, as well as more reliable social indicators. © 2013 by Yale University.

Objective. To assess the clinical usefulness of the articulated orotracheal catheter (AOC). Clinical scenario. Operating rooms of Clínica San Pedro Claver de Bogotá, between February and August 2007, operating rooms of Hospital Universitario Mayor de Bogotá, between September 2007 and July 2008, intensive care unit of Clínica Especializada de los Andes in Tunja, between September 2008 and April 2010. Materials and methods. After designing a cross-sectional descriptive study, information of 71 patients was collected. Anesthesiologists filled 22 forms (30 %) and anesthesia residents filled 49 (70 %) of the forms, when using the articulated orotracheal catheter. AOC was included in the algorithm for airway management in both institutions. Afterwards a clinical analysis of its usefulness was performed. Results. The orotracheal articulated catheter was successfully inserted in the trachea on the first attempt by the first physician in 70 of 71 patients (98.6 %). In only one case (1.4 %) was it impossible to introduce the catheter, and in another one the catheter was introduced but the orotracheal tube could not be slid into the trachea on the first attempt. The success rate of the first physician was strongly influenced by the degree of difficulty of the direct laryngoscopy. On the first attempt of the second physician, both patients were successfully intubated. In four patients (5.6 %), airway trauma was detected because of aspiration of bloody secretions from the orotracheal tube. Conclusions. The articulated orotracheal catheter is highly effective to achieve orotracheal intubation, but it can produce minor airway trauma.

The article presents a part of the Spatial Analysis research into traffic accidents in the urban area of Bogota D.C, one of whose aims was to obtain models with which to evaluate road traffic accident rates in the urban area, at town level. To this end a systemic focus was designed in order to address the analysis of the variables, through geo-statistical analysis techniques and methods, with the support of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results show that the occurrence of accidents is not so very random, due to their deterministic, repetitive, spatial and temporal characteristics, which identify them as events that may be easily predicted in order to plan a way to tackle them. These events possess a very marked territorial and time-based element which correlates closely with the physical and socio-economic characteristics of the space analysed, inter-related variables which define them as a multi-causal rather than uni-causal problem, and which in turn made it possible to establish the patterns of accident clusters and spreads, a fundamental model-formulating input in order to diagnose which areas present the greatest risks. This new knowledge aids urban designers who are taking road safety into account.

Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz & Pavon) G. Don and Ternstroemia meridionalis Mutis ex L.f. are ornithochorous species of the high-Andean forest; the first is abundant at Natural Municipal Park Rancheria, and the second rare at local level. The seed rain and fruiting phenology of G. punctatum and T. meridionalis were evaluated. Records were kept between March and December of 2010. This period included dry and wet seasons. Eight traps with a recollection surface of 1 m2 were intalled. Fruiting of G. punctatum and T. meridionalis was continued with a high percentage of unripe fruits. The higher fruiting was shown in the wet season. Both species presented seed rain during all the study. G. punctatum had higher seed rain with an average of 169/m2; while T. meridionalis only 50 seeds/m2. Most abundance of G. punctatum's seeds was recorded in the dry season, while for T. meridionalis in wet season. In spite of low seed rain for T. meridionalis it showed a high percentage of viable seeds. G. punctatum presented more propagules that could explained the high number of individuals by area. Although the number of seeds of T. meridionalis is not very high, it represents a potential for prevalence of this specie and the need of looking for factors that to block the persistence of this propagules.

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