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Gaborone, Botswana

The University of Botswana, or UB was established in 1982 as the first institution of higher education in Botswana. The university has four campuses: two in the capital city Gaborone, one in Francistown, and another in Maun. The university is divided into six faculties: Business, Education, Engineering, Humanities, Science and Social science. A Faculty of Medicine is scheduled to enroll students in 2009 as part of a collaboration with the University of Melbourne in Australia. Wikipedia.

The paper addresses an important and often overlooked cultural aspect of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This relates to how different policy organisations conceptualise soil management problem, its causes and solutions and how these framings intersect with, and incorporate smallholders' indigenous knowledge. The article provides a brief review of the positionality of modernists and post-modernists on knowledge production and the politics which the process entails. Considering the ideology of some continental and global initiatives on integrated soil fertility management (ISFM), the paper identifies and addresses institutional framings of soil fertility problem in SSA. It also analyses the political economy [and ecology] of soil management in SSA; and investigates how farmers' knowledge are incorporated into ISFM in the sub-continent. Drawing from some empirical evidences, the paper suggests that there is need for an economically viable and socio-culturally acceptable framework for the integration of both western and local knowledge in ISFM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Letamo G.,University of Botswana
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and socio-demographic factors associated with, overweight and obesity in Botswana. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 using a multistage sampling method to select a representative sample of 4107 men and 4916 women aged 20-49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity. Mean BMI values for men and women were 21.7 kg/m2 and 24.4 kg/m2, respectively. Both overweight and obesity levels were higher among women than men. Overall, 23% of women were overweight compared with 13% of men. Obese women constituted about 15% compared with only 3% of men. However, 19% of men were underweight compared with 12% of women. The main socio-demographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were being older, living in a city/town, being married and having attained higher levels of education, and these relationships were statistically significant at the 5% level. Although over-nutrition is prevalent among adult female Batswana, underweight remains an important public health problem for males. Programmes and other interventions aimed at concurrently addressing both under-nutrition and overweight need to be developed. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Singh G.S.,University of Botswana | Mollet K.,Ghent University | D'Hooghe M.,Ghent University | De Kimpe N.,Ghent University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Unsymmetrical substitution of the epoxide moiety in epihalohydrins allows the introduction of chirality, making these molecules valuable substrates in enantioselective synthesis as well. As the concept of chirality has become an important issue and challenge in organic and medicinal chemistry, chiral epihalohydrins provide a convenient entry into a wide range of enantiomerically pure target molecules, including complex natural products. The hydrolytic kinetic resolution of terminal oxiranes has been reported for the first time using a Cosalen complex. A major and characteristic property of epihalohydrins is their high reactivity toward a wide variety of nucleophilic reagents, an effect undoubtedly resulting from the presence of three electrophilic carbon centers and the strain associated with the three-membered ring system.

Chaturvedi P.,University of Botswana
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2012

Momordica charantia fruits are used as a vegetable in many countries. From time immemorial, it has also been used for management of diabetes in the Ayurvedic and Chinese systems of medicine. Information regarding the standardization of this vegetable for its usage as an antidiabetic drug is scanty. There are many reports on its effects on glucose and lipid levels in diabetic animals and some in clinical trials. Reports regarding its mechanism of action are limited. So in the present review all the information is considered to produce some concrete findings on the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Studies have shown that M. charantia repairs damaged β-cells, increases insulin levels, and also enhance the sensitivity of insulin. It inhibits the absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and also suppresses the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine. It stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones and adiponectin and enhances the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Effects of M. charantia like transport of glucose in the cells, transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria, modulation of insulin secretion, and elevation of levels of uncoupling proteins in adipose and skeletal muscles are similar to those of AMPK and thyroxine. Therefore it is proposed that effects of M. charantia on carbohydrate and fat metabolism are through thyroxine and AMPK. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.

The Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) program in Botswana aims at achieving conservation and rural development. In the Okavango Delta, some communities are involved in tourism through CBNRM to improve their livelihoods. However, research has not adequately analyzed changes caused by CBNRM on traditional livelihood activities and lifestyles. This study, therefore, uses modernization theory to analyze changes on traditional livelihood activities and lifestyles caused by CBNRM at Sankoyo, Mababe and Khwai villages in the Okavango Delta. Using primary and secondary data sources, results indicate that CBNRM is causing a decline in traditional livelihood activities like subsistence hunting, gathering, crop and livestock farming. As a result, a modern cash economy has emerged. New livelihood activities done by communities include: employment in CBNRM projects, the sale of crafts to tourists and thatching grass to tourism lodges. Income derived from CBNRM affords households to build modern houses, buy foreign foods and household equipment like: four-burner gas stoves, kitchen utensils, and satellite televisions. Conversely, this causes a decline in the consumption of traditional foods and the use of huts and household utensils. CBNRM is thus a modernization tool since it is causing a transformation of traditional livelihood activities and lifestyles. However, even though changes in livelihood activities and lifestyles may be an indication of the dynamism of culture in study villages, sudden change and modernization may increase livelihood insecurity. As such, tourism planning should ensure that modernization is sensitive to traditional economic systems and the need for rural livelihood sustainability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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