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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 831.10K | Year: 2014

The overall aim of the proposed staff exchange programme is to establish a long lasting collaboration between Moroccan, South African and European research teams involved in clinical epidemiological and public health research. This effort should ultimately lead to improved mother and child health and better control of sexual transmitted diseases. The proposal is therefore structured in seven work packages: 1. Management and coordination 2. Maternal & newborn health research 3. STI research 4. HPV research 5. Antibiotic resistance 6. Public Health and Social Health Protection 7. Clinical, epidemiological and public health research This project will brings partners together from Europe, Morocco and South Africa that have common research interests but that work in very different settings. Several partners have already been collaborating with each other but mainly on an ad hoc basis and not as a network: 1. The International Health Research Centre of Barcelona (CRESIB), Spain 2. The Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium 3. University Mohamed V Soussi Rabat, Morocco 4. University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah of Fez, Morocco 5. University of Marrakech, Morocco 6. The Ministry of Health of Morocco - National Institute of Health Administration (INAS) 7. University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), South Africa 8. University of Southampton, United Kingdom 9. The Bordeaux School of Public Health (ISPED), University Bordeaux Segalen, France For European researchers and professionals, the interaction with Moroccan and South African national health systems and research groups can contribute to a better understanding of common health challenges, including health related topics with human mobility and migrations between both continents and access to care for migrant groups in Europe. This collaboration involving several high profile groups (Europe, Morocco, South Africa) strengthens a global perspective on key maternal, newborn and reproductive health topics.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.1.2-04 | Award Amount: 8.49M | Year: 2013

The strategic goal of the project is to help the European vineyard sector facing the increasingly global competition by meeting: * Consumer demands for diversified high quality wines and concerns for food safety * Citizens requests for environment-friendly production systems involving decreased or no use of pesticides and spare of not renewable natural resources * Producers needs of plant material, tools and methods to help them cope with the negative impacts of climate change while responding to demands for quality, environmental friendliness and needs of profitability To reach this overall goal, the project will: * At the plant level, improve and design agricultural practices (canopy management, irrigation, fertilisation, training systems, pest and disease control, etc.) aimed at maximising berry quality, durable resistance to pests and and diseases, and adaptation to climate change (higher CO2, drought, UV light, and higher temperatures) * At the vineyard level, design, develop and test innovative agronomic systems integrating new agricultural practices and taking into account the variability of constraints met by European vineyards grown under a wide range of environments * At the breeding level, diversify grapevine varieties with regard to desirable adaptative traits building on tools and knowledge developed through international breeding and genomic initiatives. The project will combine short, medium, and long-term approaches to respectively conceive innovative viticulture systems, design and test novel agronomic practices and decision support systems, and exploit the genetic diversity of grapevine that all together will ensure a progress towards sustainable viticulture.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-5 | Award Amount: 7.81M | Year: 2013

Neuro-immune alterations in the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulate both immune and neuronal processes. Therefore, ncRNAPain proposes that ncRNAs are critically important master switches for chronic pain. ncRNAPain represents a multidisciplinary consortium of clinical partners, molecular and systems-level neuroscientists, bioinformatics and ncRNA experts. In order to gain knowledge on the mechanisms of chronic pain, ncRNAPain will investigate ncRNAs specifically in neurogenic and neuropathic pain, including headache. ncRNAPain will provide novel understanding of ncRNA regulation of processes modulating nociception and endogenous analgesia and of the importance of ncRNAs in circuitries and cognitive, emotional and behavioural components of pain. ncRNAPain will reveal insights into the concerted function of ncRNAs in the control of macromolecular complexes in neurons, glia and immune cells and signals used for neuroimmune communication in the pain pathway. Based on these findings, ncRNAPain will identify and validate specific ncRNAs as new druggable molecular targets for pain prevention and relief. ncRNAPain will identify pain predisposing ncRNA expression patterns and polymorphisms in ncRNAS and/or their binding sites as biomarkers for pain and inter-individual variations in the response to painful stimuli and analgesic drugs. ncRNA-based diagnostic tools will be developed and provided to enable better patient stratification, improved mechanism-based treatment and targeted prevention strategies for high risk individuals. ncRNAPain will provide novel understanding of the induction and maintenance of chronic pain and is committed to translate pre-clinical and clinical results and developments into clinical applications for the benefit of the patients, to improve the patients quality of life and reduce the societal burden of chronic pain across Europe.

Nanobiotix, French National Center for Scientific Research and University of Bordeaux Segalen | Date: 2015-10-19

The present application relates to a method of monitoring the membrane permeabilization of liposome and the incidental release of a compound of interest.

Harizi H.,University of Bordeaux Segalen
Cellular and Molecular Immunology | Year: 2013

The reciprocal activating crosstalk between dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NK) cells plays a pivotal role in regulating immune defense against viruses and tumors. The cytokine-producing capacity, Th-cell polarizing ability and chemokine expression, migration and stimulatory functions of DCs are regulated by activated NK cells. Conversely, the innate and effector functions of NK cells require close interactions with activated DCs. Cell membrane-associated molecules and soluble mediators, including cytokines and prostaglandins (PGs), contribute to the bidirectional crosstalk between DCs and NK cells. One of the most well-known and well-studied PGs is PGE2. Produced by many cell types, PGE2 has been shown to affect various aspects of the immune and inflammatory responses by acting on all components of the immune system. There is emerging evidence that PGE2 plays crucial roles in DC and NK cell biology. Several studies have shown that DCs are not only a source of PGE2, but also a target of its immunomodulatory action in normal immune response and during immune disorders. Although NK cells appear to be unable to produce PGE2, they are described as powerful PGE2-responding cells, as they express all PGE2 E-prostanoid (EP) receptors. Several NK cell functions (lysis, migration, proliferation, cytokine production) are influenced by PGE2. This review highlights the effects of PGE2 on DC-NK cell crosstalk and its subsequent impact on immune regulations in normal and immunopathological processes. © 2013 CSI and USTC.

Saupe S.J.,University of Bordeaux Segalen
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

[Het-s] is a prion from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina and corresponds to a self-perpetuating amyloid aggregate of the HET-s protein. This prion protein is involved in a fungal self/non-self discrimination process termed heterokaryon incompatibility corresponding to a cell death reaction occurring upon fusion of genetically unlike strains. Two antagonistic allelic variants of this protein exist: HET-s, the prion form of which corresponds to [Het-s] and HET-S, incapable of prion formation. Fusion of a [Het-s] and HET-S strain triggers the incompatibility reaction, so that interaction of HET-S with the [Het-s] prion leads to cell death. HET-s and HET-S are highly homologous two domain proteins with a N-terminal globular domain termed HeLo and a C-terminal unstructured prion forming domain (PFD). The structure of the prion form of the HET-s PFD has been solved by solid state NMR and corresponds to a very well ordered β-solenoid fold with a triangular hydrophobic core. The ability to form this β-solenoid fold is retained in a distant homolog of HET-s from another fungal species. A model for the mechanism of [Het-s]/HET-S incompatibility has been proposed. It is believe that when interacting with the [Het-s] prion seed, the HET-S C-terminal region adopts the β-solenoid fold. This would act as a conformational switch to induce refolding and activation of the HeLo domain which then would exert its toxicity by a yet unknown mechanism. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chaouloff F.,University of Bordeaux Segalen
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2013

Interest has recently surged in the use of social stress models, especially social defeat. Such interest lies both in the recognition that stressors of social origin play a major role in human psychopathologies and in the acknowledgement that natural and hence ethologically-based stress models have important translational value. The use of the most recent technology has allowed the recognition of the mechanisms through which social defeat might have enduring psychoneuroendocrine effects, especially social avoidance and anhedonia, two behaviours relevant to human depression. In view of the sensitivity of these behavioural outcomes to repeated antidepressant treatments, the social defeat model has been proposed as a possible animal model of depression. The present survey is aimed at examining the limits of such an interpretation and focuses on methodological aspects and on the relevance of social defeat to the study of anxiety-related pathologies. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Targeted therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has recently expanded the available treatment options for patients with these malignancies. The rapid introduction of novel treatment options into clinical practice within a relatively short time frame has created some new challenges pertaining to adverse event (AE) management in patients with advanced RCC. Accumulating safety data from the pivotal phase III clinical trials of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab plus interferon, VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib), and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (temsirolimus and everolimus) have served to characterize the toxicity profiles of these novel agents. Overall, it is evident that RCC-directed targeted therapy differs from immunotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy in terms of a number of unique nonhematologic AEs (some of which have not been traditionally encountered in oncology practice) and that there are distinctions within and across the various classes of agents with respect to the most prominent AEs and the risk for less common but serious complications. Although treatment-associated AEs are common, the majority of AEs reported during clinical trial experiences were grade 1 or 2 in severity and manageable with intervention in the form of supportive measures and/or dosage modification. Therefore, despite the relatively complex AE profiles of RCC-directed targeted therapy, patient education, consistent monitoring with a focus on early detection by health care providers (oncologists, general physicians, nurses), and the application of emerging AE management strategies may allow for prolonged treatment in most patients with advanced RCC.

Sifrim D.,Queen Mary, University of London | Zerbib F.,University of Bordeaux Segalen
Gut | Year: 2012

Approximately a third of patients with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are resistant or partial responders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Many of these patients do not have gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, but suffer from functional heartburn or dyspepsia. The potential mechanisms underlying failure of PPI treatment in patients with reflux-related symptoms include persistence of isolated or mixed acid, weakly acidic, bile or gas reflux, impaired oesophageal mucosal integrity, chemical or mechanical hypersensitivity to refluxates and psychological comorbidity. After thorough clinical evaluation and failure of empirical changes in PPI dose regime, diagnostic investigations include endoscopy and reflux monitoring with pH or pH-impedance monitoring. If symptoms are clearly related to persistent reflux, baclofen, antireflux surgery or pain modulators can be considered. If not, pain modulators are the only currently available therapy.

French Institute of Health, Medical Research, University of Bordeaux Segalen and University Paris Diderot | Date: 2015-06-02

The present invention relate to three dimensional porous polysaccharide matrices able to induce mineralisation of a tissue in osseous site, as well as in non-osseous site, in the absence of stent cells or growth factors.

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