PubMed | University Hospital of Bonn, University of Bonn and University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
Type: | Journal: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2017
In case of apnea, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) decreases, while partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) increases. To avoid damage to hypoxia sensitive organs such as the brain, compensatory circulatory mechanisms help to maintain an adequate oxygen supply. This is mainly achieved by increased cerebral blood flow. Intermittent hypoxia is a commonly seen phenomenon in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Acute airway obstruction can also result in hypoxia and hypercapnia. Until now, no adequate model has been established to simulate these dynamics in humans. Previous investigations focusing on human hypoxia used inhaled hypoxic gas mixtures. However, the resulting hypoxia was combined with hyperventilation and is therefore more representative of high altitude environments than of apnea. Furthermore, the transferability of previously performed animal experiments to humans is limited and the pathophysiological background of apnea induced physiological changes is poorly understood. In this study, healthy human apneic divers were utilized to mimic clinically relevant hypoxia and hypercapnia during apnea. Additionally, pulse-oximetry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to evaluate changes in cerebral and peripheral oxygen saturation before, during, and after apnea.
PubMed | University Hospital of Bonn
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2016
OBJECTIVE Recent advances in radiotherapy and neuroimaging have called into question the traditional role of aggressive resections in patients with meningiomas. In the present study the authors reviewed their institutional experience with a policy based on maximal safe resections for meningiomas, and they analyzed the impact of the degree of resection on functional outcome and progression-free survival (PFS). METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed 901 consecutive patients with primary meningiomas (716 WHO Grade I, 174 Grade II, and 11 Grade III) who underwent resections at the University Hospital of Bonn between 1996 and 2008. Clinical and treatment parameters as well as tumor characteristics were analyzed using standard statistical methods. RESULTS The median follow-up was 62 months. PFS rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.6% and 86.0%, respectively. Younger age, higher preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, and convexity tumor location, but not the degree of resection, were identified as independent predictors of a good functional outcome (defined as KPS Score 90-100). Independent predictors of PFS were degree of resection (Simpson Grade I vs II vs III vs IV), MIB-1 index (< 5% vs 5%-10% vs >10%), histological grade (WHO I vs II vs III), tumor size ( 6 vs > 6 cm), tumor multiplicity, and location. A Simpson Grade II rather than Grade I resection more than doubled the risk of recurrence at 10 years in the overall series (18.8% vs 8.5%). The impact of aggressive resections was much stronger in higher grade meningiomas. CONCLUSIONS A policy of maximal safe resections for meningiomas prolongs PFS and is not associated with increased morbidity.