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Birmingham, United Kingdom

The University of Birmingham is a red brick university located in the city of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Queen's College, Birmingham and Mason Science College . Birmingham was the first red brick university to gain a charter. It is a founding member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21.The University of Birmingham was ranked 11th in the UK and 64th in the world by QS World University Rankings. In 2013, Birmingham was named 'University of the Year 2014' in the Times Higher Education awards. Birmingham is also ranked 4th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2015.The student population includes around 19,000 undergraduate and 9,000 postgraduate students, which is the 11th largest in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2010–11 was £470.7 million, with an expenditure of £443.7 million.The university is home to the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, housing works by Van Gogh, Picasso and Monet, the Lapworth Museum of Geology, the Cadbury Research Library home to the Mingana Collections of Middle Eastern manuscripts and the Chamberlain Collection, and the Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower, which is a prominent landmark visible from many parts of the city. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain, and Stanley Baldwin, and eight Nobel laureates. Wikipedia.

Rickinson A.B.,University of Birmingham
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2014

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is aetiologically linked to a wide range of human tumours. Some arise as accidents of the virus' lifestyle in its natural niche, the B lymphoid system; these include B-lymphoproliferative disease of the immunocompromised, Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma and particular forms of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Interestingly, HIV infection increases the incidence of each of these B cell malignancies, though by different degrees and for different reasons. Other EBV-associated tumours arise through rare viral entry into unnatural target tissues; these include all cases of nasal T/NK cell lymphoma and of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma plus a small but significant subset of gastric carcinomas, a tumour type more generally associated with chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Understanding EBV's involvement in the pathogenesis of these different malignancies is an important long-term goal. This article focuses on two overlapping, but relatively neglected, areas of research that could contribute to that goal. The first addresses the mechanisms whereby coincident infections with other pathogens increase the risk of EBV-positive malignancies, and takes as its paradigm the actions of holoendemic malaria and HIV infections as co-factors in Burkitt lymphomagenesis. The second widens the argument to include both infectious and non-infectious sources of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of EBV-positive tumours such as T/NK cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma. © 2014.

Britton M.M.,University of Birmingham
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as one of the most important tools in medical diagnosis and research. However, MRI is also well placed to image chemical reactions and processes, determine the concentration of chemical species, and look at how chemistry couples with environmental factors, such as flow and heterogeneous media. This tutorial review will explain how magnetic resonance imaging works, reviewing its application in chemistry and its ability to directly visualise chemical processes. It will give information on what resolution and contrast are possible, and what chemical and physical parameters can be measured. It will provide examples of the use of MRI to study chemical systems, its application in chemical engineering and the identification of contrast agents for non-clinical applications. A number of studies are presented including investigation of chemical conversion and selectivity in fixed-bed reactors, temperature probes for catalyst pellets, ion mobility during tablet dissolution, solvent dynamics and ion transport in Nafion polymers and the formation of chemical waves and patterns. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

The SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and Shp2 have been implicated in regulating signaling from a variety of platelet and megakaryocyte receptors. In this study, we investigate the functions of Shp1 and Shp2 in megakaryocytes and platelets. Megakaryocyte/platelet (MP)-specific deletion of Shp1 in mice resulted in platelets being less responsive to collagen-related peptide due to reduced GPVI expression and signaling via the Src family kinase (SFK)-Syk-PLCγ2 pathway, and fibrinogen due to reduced SFK activity. By contrast, deletion of Shp2 in the MP lineage resulted in macrothrombocytopenia and platelets being hyper-responsive to anti-CLEC-2 antibody and fibrinogen. Shp1- and Shp2-deficient megakaryocytes had partial blocks at 2N/4N ploidy; however, only the latter exhibited reduced proplatelet formation, thrombopoietin, and integrin signaling. Mice deficient in both Shp1 and Shp2 were severely macrothrombocytopenic and had reduced platelet surface glycoprotein expression, including GPVI, αIIbβ3, and GPIbα. Megakaryocytes from these mice were blocked at 2N/4N ploidy and did not survive ex vivo. Deletion of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif-containing receptor G6b-B in the MP lineage phenocopied multiple features of Shp1/2-deficient mice, suggesting G6b-B is a critical regulator of Shp1 and Shp2. This study establishes Shp1 and Shp2 as major regulators of megakaryocyte development, platelet production, and function.

Mendes P.M.,University of Birmingham
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Recently, there has been an outburst of research on engineered cell-material interfaces driven by nanotechnology and its tools and techniques. This tutorial review begins by providing a brief introduction to nanostructured materials, followed by an overview of the wealth of nanoscale fabrication and analysis tools available for their development. This background serves as the basis for a discussion of early breakthroughs and recent key developments in the endeavour to develop nanostructured materials as smart interfaces for fundamental cellular studies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The review covers three major aspects of nanostructured interfaces-nanotopographical control, dynamic behaviour and intracellular manipulation and sensing-where efforts are continuously being made to further understand cell function and provide new ways to control cell behaviour. A critical reflection of the current status and future challenges are discussed as a conclusion to the review. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hirschfield G.M.,University of Birmingham | Gershwin M.E.,University of California at Davis
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2013

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease characterized by clinical homogeneity among patients, an overwhelming female predominance, production of a multilineage immune response to mitochondrial autoantigens, inflammation of small bile ducts, and in some patients the development of fibrosis and cirrhosis. The targets in this disease are small bile ducts, and the prototypic serologic response includes antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). Several key observations have greatly advanced our understanding of PBC. First, the multilineage immune response, including AMAs, is directed at the E2 component of the 2-oxo-dehydrogenase pathway, particularly PDC-E2. Second, such autoantibodies may be identified years before the clinical diagnosis of disease. Third, the autoreactive T cell precursor frequency for both CD4 and CD8 cells is significantly higher in liver and regional lymph node than in blood, so the multilineage antimitochondrial response may be required for the development of this disease. Fourth, the apotope of biliary cells contains intact PDC-E2; this apotope, in a setting that includes granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated macrophages and AMAs, produces an intense proinflammatory response. Fifth, several mouse models of PBC highlight the importance of loss of tolerance to PDC-E2 as well as a critical role for the interleukin (IL)-12 signaling pathway. Finally, genome-wide association studies suggest an important role for the IL-12 pathway in disease susceptibility. Taken together, these findings have resulted in a better understanding of the mechanism for selective biliary cell destruction and have also suggested unique pathways for therapeutic intervention. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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