Bern, Switzerland
Bern, Switzerland

The University of Bern is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834. It is regulated and financed by the Canton of Bern. It is a comprehensive university offering a broad choice of courses and programmes in eight faculties and some 160 institutes. With around 15,000 students, the University of Bern is a medium-sized Swiss university. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Ortho Team AG and University of Bern | Date: 2016-09-08

An orthotic for pelvic stabilization has a belt unit, which is provided for surrounding the pelvis, and a pull device, which is provided for tightening the belt unit. The belt unit comprises an upper belt strap (1), which surrounds an upper pelvic region, and a lower belt strap (2), which surrounds a lower pelvic region. The pull device comprises a front pull unit with a fastening device, whereby the front pull unit is disposed on a front pelvic region of the belt unit and tightens the upper and the lower belt strap in a front pelvic region by pulling. The fastening device thereby connects together the opposite ends (3, 4, 5, 6) of the upper and of the lower belt strap in the front pelvic region and fastens them under tension. The pull device further comprises a rear pull unit (8, 9), which is disposed in a middle region (7) of the straps on the upper belt strap (1) and on the lower belt strap (2) and is provided for tightening of a rear pelvic region of the belt unit. The rear pull unit is fastened under tension by a fastening unit.


Patent
University of Bern | Date: 2015-03-27

The invention relates to a peptide dendrimer described by a general formula X(B^(2)[Y^(2)]_(S)-D^(1))_(2)-B^(1)Z, wherein X is (D^(2))4 or (D^(3))_(8)-(B^(3)[Y^(3)]_(r)-D^(2))_(4 )or a higher analogue, Y is a linkage moiety, Z is a central moiety; each B denotes a diaminoalkylcarboxylic acid moiety; each D is a hydrophobic or cationic amino acid, or a di- or tripeptide composed of hydrophobic and cationic amino acids, for use as a pharmaceutical.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

Understanding the human brain is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. Such an understanding can provide profound insights into our humanity, leading to fundamentally new computing technologies, and transforming the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. Modern ICT brings this prospect within reach. The HBP Flagship Initiative (HBP) thus proposes a unique strategy that uses ICT to integrate neuroscience data from around the world, to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and diseases, and ultimately to emulate its computational capabilities. The goal is to catalyze a global collaborative effort. During the HBPs first Specific Grant Agreement (SGA1), the HBP Core Project will outline the basis for building and operating a tightly integrated Research Infrastructure, providing HBP researchers and the scientific Community with unique resources and capabilities. Partnering Projects will enable independent research groups to expand the capabilities of the HBP Platforms, in order to use them to address otherwise intractable problems in neuroscience, computing and medicine in the future. In addition, collaborations with other national, European and international initiatives will create synergies, maximizing returns on research investment. SGA1 covers the detailed steps that will be taken to move the HBP closer to achieving its ambitious Flagship Objectives.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-29-2016 | Award Amount: 5.11M | Year: 2017

X-ray mammography is the mainstay of breast cancer screening programs. It is estimated that between 20 - 50% of abnormal screening mammograms will prove to be negative. The paradigm in diagnosis is to establish whether a lesion is benign or malignant. All the imaging techniques conventionally used today diagnostic x-ray, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging have many limitations, leading to multiple and/or repeat imaging and often unnecessary biopsy. This leads to physical, psychological and economic burdens felt at individual, familial and societal levels. With an aging population, high incidence of breast cancer and tightening health-care budgets, there is an urgent requirement for a non-invasive method for in-depth assessment of the screening-detected lesion. In PAMMOTH we will showcase such an imager, combining photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. With the use of quantitative image reconstruction of multi-wavelength photoacoustic data, information is gained of the vascular and oxygen status of the lesion relating to tumor physiology and function. From the ultrasound part, we derive ultrasound reflection from the lesion in a manner superior to conventional breast ultrasonography, relating to anatomic features and extent of a tumor. This information will enable the radiologist to come to a diagnosis accurately and rapidly without the use of contrast agents, without pain and discomfort to the patient, while being cost-effective and not requiring complex infrastructure. Four excellent academic groups, three dynamic SMEs, and a hospital come together with support from key stakeholders in an Advisory group, to push beyond the state-of-the-art in science and technology to achieve the PAMMOTH imager. For the SMEs, in addition to tremendous improvements in individual product lines, the new integrated diagnostic imaging instrument opens up completely new market opportunities. We expect PAMMOTH to have a strong economic and clinical impact.


Schneider A.,University of Bern
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011

The mitochondrial genomes of most eukaryotes lack a variable number of tRNA genes. This lack is compensated for by import of a small fraction of the corresponding cytosolic tRNAs. There are two broad mechanisms for the import of tRNAs into mitochondria. In the first one, the tRNA is coimported together with a mitochondrial precursor protein along the protein import pathway. It applies to the yeast tRNA Lys and has been elucidated in great detail. In the second more vaguely defined mechanism, which is mainly found in plants and protozoa, tRNAs are directly imported independent of cytosolic factors. However, results in plants indicate that direct import of tRNAs may nevertheless require some components of the protein import machinery. All imported tRNAs in all systems are of the eukaryotic type but need to be functionally integrated into the mitochondrial translation system of bacterial descent. For some tRNAs, this is not trivial and requires unique evolutionary adaptations. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Kucher N.,University of Bern
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

A 58-year-old woman presents with a 3-day history of pain, heaviness, and functional impairment in her left arm. She has received chemotherapy for ovarian cancer through an implanted port and catheter (Port-a-Cath) on the left side. Physical examination reveals a swollen and erythematous left arm and visible venous collaterals at the neck, shoulder, and chest. Compression ultrasonography reveals a patent left distal subclavian vein, but there is an abnormal Doppler-flow pattern suggestive of a more proximal thrombosis. How should this case be further evaluated and managed? Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Allosteric receptor modulation is an attractive concept in drug targeting because it offers important potential advantages over conventional orthosteric agonism or antagonism. Allosteric ligands modulate receptor function by binding to a site distinct from the recognition site for the endogenous agonist. They often have no effect on their own and therefore act only in conjunction with physiological receptor activation. This article reviews the current status of allosteric modulation at family C G-protein coupled receptors in the light of their specific structural features on the one hand and current concepts in receptor theory on the other hand. Family C G-protein-coupled receptors are characterized by a large extracellular domain containing the orthosteric agonist binding site known as the "venus flytrap module" because of its bilobal structure and the dynamics of its activation mechanism. Mutational analysis and chimeric constructs have revealed that allosteric modulators of the calcium-sensing, metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors bind to the seven transmembrane domain, through which they modify signal transduction after receptor activation. This is in contrast to taste-enhancing molecules, which bind to different parts of sweet andumamireceptors. The complexity of interactions between orthosteric and allosteric ligands is revealed by a number of adequate biochemical and electrophysiological assay systems. Many allosteric family C GPCR modulators show in vivo efficacy in behavioral models for a variety of clinical indications. The positive allosteric calcium sensing receptor modulator cinacalcet is the first drug of this type to enter the market and therefore provides proof of principle in humans. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Egger M.,University of Bern
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Objective: To describe the CD4 cell count at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in low-income (LIC), lower middle-income (LMIC), upper middle-income (UMIC), and high-income (HIC) countries. Methods: Patients aged 16 years or older starting cART in a clinic participating in a multicohort collaboration spanning 6 continents (International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS and ART Cohort Collaboration) were eligible. Multilevel linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, and calendar year; missing CD4 counts were imputed. Results: In total, 379,865 patients from 9 LIC, 4 LMIC, 4 UMIC, and 6 HIC were included. In LIC, the median CD4 cell count at cART initiation increased by 83% from 80 to 145 cells/mL between 2002 and 2009. Corresponding increases in LMIC, UMIC, and HIC were from 87 to 155 cells/mL (76% increase), 88 to 135 cells/mL (53%), and 209 to 274 cells/mL (31%). In 2009, compared with LIC, median counts were 13 cells/mL [95% confidence interval (CI): 256 to +30] lower in LMIC, 22 cells/mL (262 to +18) lower in UMIC, and 112 cells/mL (+75 to +149) higher in HIC. They were 23 cells/mL (95% CI: +18 to +28 cells/mL) higher in women than men. Median counts were 88 cells/mL (95% CI: +35 to +141 cells/mL) higher in countries with an estimated national cART coverage .80%, compared with countries with ,40% coverage. Conclusions: Median CD4 cell counts at the start of cART increased 2000-2009 but remained below 200 cells/mL in LIC and MIC and below 300 cells/mL in HIC. Earlier start of cART will require substantial efforts and resources globally. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Reymond J.-L.,University of Bern
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2015

One of the simplest questions that can be asked about molecular diversity is how many organic molecules are possible in total? To answer this question, my research group has computationally enumerated all possible organic molecules up to a certain size to gain an unbiased insight into the entire chemical space. Our latest database, GDB-17, contains 166.4 billion molecules of up to 17 atoms of C, N, O, S, and halogens, by far the largest small molecule database reported to date. Molecules allowed by valency rules but unstable or nonsynthesizable due to strained topologies or reactive functional groups were not considered, which reduced the enumeration by at least 10 orders of magnitude and was essential to arrive at a manageable database size. Despite these restrictions, GDB-17 is highly relevant with respect to known molecules.Beyond enumeration, understanding and exploiting GDBs (generated databases) led us to develop methods for virtual screening and visualization of very large databases in the form of a "periodic system of molecules" comprising six different fingerprint spaces, with web-browsers for nearest neighbor searches, and the MQN- and SMIfp-Mapplet application for exploring color-coded principal component maps of GDB and other large databases. Proof-of-concept applications of GDB for drug discovery were realized by combining virtual screening with chemical synthesis and activity testing for neurotransmitter receptor and transporter ligands. One surprising lesson from using GDB for drug analog searches is the incredible depth of chemical space, that is, the fact that millions of very close analogs of any molecule can be readily identified by nearest-neighbor searches in the MQN-space of the various GDBs. The chemical space project has opened an unprecedented door on chemical diversity. Ongoing and yet unmet challenges concern enumerating molecules beyond 17 atoms and synthesizing GDB molecules with innovative scaffolds and pharmacophores. (Figure Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Jung S.,University of Bern
Brain : a journal of neurology | Year: 2013

The goal of acute stroke treatment with intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular recanalization techniques is to rescue the penumbral tissue. Therefore, knowing the factors that influence the loss of penumbral tissue is of major interest. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the evolution of the penumbra in patients with proximal (M1 or M2) middle cerebral artery occlusion. Among these factors collaterals as seen on angiography were of special interest. Forty-four patients were included in this analysis. They had all received endovascular therapy and at least minimal reperfusion was achieved. Their penumbra was assessed with perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging. Perfusion-weighted imaging volumes were defined by circular singular value decomposition deconvolution maps (Tmax > 6 s) and results were compared with volumes obtained with non-deconvolved maps (time to peak > 4 s). Loss of penumbral volume was defined as difference of post- minus pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging volumes and calculated in per cent of pretreatment penumbral volume. Correlations between baseline characteristics, reperfusion, collaterals, time to reperfusion and penumbral volume loss were assessed using analysis of covariance. Collaterals (P = 0.021), reperfusion (P = 0.003) and their interaction (P = 0.031) independently influenced penumbral tissue loss, but not time from magnetic resonance (P = 0.254) or from symptom onset (P = 0.360) to reperfusion. Good collaterals markedly slowed down and reduced the penumbra loss: in patients with thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2 b-3 reperfusion and without any haemorrhage, 27% of the penumbra was lost with 8.9 ml/h with grade 0 collaterals, whereas 11% with 3.4 ml/h were lost with grade 1 collaterals. With grade 2 collaterals the penumbral volume change was -2% with -1.5 ml/h, indicating an overall diffusion-weighted imaging lesion reversal. We conclude that collaterals and reperfusion are the main factors determining loss of penumbral tissue in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusions. Collaterals markedly reduce and slow down penumbra loss. In patients with good collaterals, time to successful reperfusion accounts only for a minor fraction of penumbra loss. These results support the hypothesis that good collaterals extend the time window for acute stroke treatment.

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