The University of Bern is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834. It is regulated and financed by the Canton of Bern. It is a comprehensive university offering a broad choice of courses and programmes in eight faculties and some 160 institutes. With around 15,000 students, the University of Bern is a medium-sized Swiss university. Wikipedia.
University of Bern | Date: 2015-03-27
The invention relates to a peptide dendrimer described by a general formula X(B^(2)[Y^(2)]_(S)-D^(1))_(2)-B^(1)Z, wherein X is (D^(2))4 or (D^(3))_(8)-(B^(3)[Y^(3)]_(r)-D^(2))_(4 )or a higher analogue, Y is a linkage moiety, Z is a central moiety; each B denotes a diaminoalkylcarboxylic acid moiety; each D is a hydrophobic or cationic amino acid, or a di- or tripeptide composed of hydrophobic and cationic amino acids, for use as a pharmaceutical.
University of Bern | Date: 2015-05-28
The invention relates to a compound comprising the following general formula (1) and said compound for use as a medicament, in particular for use in the treatment psychiatric or neurological disorders and inflammation, in particular neuroinflammation: (formula 1) wherein each of R^(1), R^(2 )and R^(3 )are selected independently from each other from alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, heterocycle, or heteroaryl.
Ortho Team AG and University of Bern | Date: 2016-09-08
An orthotic for pelvic stabilization has a belt unit, which is provided for surrounding the pelvis, and a pull device, which is provided for tightening the belt unit. The belt unit comprises an upper belt strap (1), which surrounds an upper pelvic region, and a lower belt strap (2), which surrounds a lower pelvic region. The pull device comprises a front pull unit with a fastening device, whereby the front pull unit is disposed on a front pelvic region of the belt unit and tightens the upper and the lower belt strap in a front pelvic region by pulling. The fastening device thereby connects together the opposite ends (3, 4, 5, 6) of the upper and of the lower belt strap in the front pelvic region and fastens them under tension. The pull device further comprises a rear pull unit (8, 9), which is disposed in a middle region (7) of the straps on the upper belt strap (1) and on the lower belt strap (2) and is provided for tightening of a rear pelvic region of the belt unit. The rear pull unit is fastened under tension by a fastening unit.
Hasler G.,University of Bern
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2012
Neuroeconomics is a rapidly growing new research discipline aimed at describing the neural substrate of decision-making using incentivized decisions introduced in experimental economics. The novel combination of economic decision theory and neuroscience has the potential to better examine the interactions of social, psychological and neural factors with regard to motivational forces that may underlie psychiatric problems. Game theory will provide psychiatry with computationally principled measures of cognitive dysfunction. Given the relatively high heritability of these measures, they may contribute to improving phenotypic definitions of psychiatric conditions. The game-theoretical concepts of optimal behavior will allow description of psychopathology as deviation from optimal functioning. Neuroeconomists have successfully used normative or near-normative models to interpret the function of neurotransmitters; these models have the potential to significantly improve neurotransmitter theories of psychiatric disorders. This paper will review recent evidence from neuroeconomics and psychiatry in support of applying economic concepts such as risk/uncertainty preference, time preference and social preference to psychiatric research to improve diagnostic classification, prevention and therapy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Muri R.M.,University of Bern
Journal of Comparative Neurology | Year: 2016
The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Min R.,University of Bern |
Nevian T.,University of Bern
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2012
Endocannabinoid mediated spike timing-dependent depression (t-LTD) is crucially involved in the development of the sensory neocortex. t-LTD at excitatory synapses in the developing rat barrel cortex requires cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1R) activation, as well as activation of NMDA receptors located on the presynaptic terminal, but the exact signaling cascade leading to t-LTD remains unclear. We found that astrocytes are critically involved in t-LTD. Astrocytes gradually increased their Ca 2+ signaling specifically during the induction of t-LTD in a CB 1R-dependent manner. In this way, astrocytes might act as a memory buffer for previous coincident neuronal activity. Following activation, astrocytes released glutamate, which activated presynaptic NMDA receptors to induce t-LTD. Astrocyte stimulation coincident with afferent activity resulted in long-term depression, indicating that astrocyte activation is sufficient for the induction of synaptic depression. Taken together, our findings describe the retrograde signaling cascade underlying neocortical t-LTD. The critical involvement of astrocytes in this process highlights their importance for experience-dependent sensory remodeling. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Henke K.,University of Bern
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2010
Prominent models of human long-term memory distinguish between memory systems on the basis of whether learning and retrieval occur consciously or unconsciously. Episodic memory formation requires the rapid encoding of associations between different aspects of an event which, according to these models, depends on the hippocampus and on consciousness. However, recent evidence indicates that the hippocampus mediates rapid associative learning with and without consciousness in humans and animals, for long-term and short-term retention. Consciousness seems to be a poor criterion for differentiating between declarative (or explicit) and nondeclarative (or implicit) types of memory. A new model is therefore required in which memory systems are distinguished based on the processing operations involved rather than by consciousness. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Schneider A.,University of Bern
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011
The mitochondrial genomes of most eukaryotes lack a variable number of tRNA genes. This lack is compensated for by import of a small fraction of the corresponding cytosolic tRNAs. There are two broad mechanisms for the import of tRNAs into mitochondria. In the first one, the tRNA is coimported together with a mitochondrial precursor protein along the protein import pathway. It applies to the yeast tRNA Lys and has been elucidated in great detail. In the second more vaguely defined mechanism, which is mainly found in plants and protozoa, tRNAs are directly imported independent of cytosolic factors. However, results in plants indicate that direct import of tRNAs may nevertheless require some components of the protein import machinery. All imported tRNAs in all systems are of the eukaryotic type but need to be functionally integrated into the mitochondrial translation system of bacterial descent. For some tRNAs, this is not trivial and requires unique evolutionary adaptations. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Kucher N.,University of Bern
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011
A 58-year-old woman presents with a 3-day history of pain, heaviness, and functional impairment in her left arm. She has received chemotherapy for ovarian cancer through an implanted port and catheter (Port-a-Cath) on the left side. Physical examination reveals a swollen and erythematous left arm and visible venous collaterals at the neck, shoulder, and chest. Compression ultrasonography reveals a patent left distal subclavian vein, but there is an abnormal Doppler-flow pattern suggestive of a more proximal thrombosis. How should this case be further evaluated and managed? Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Urwyler S.,University of Bern
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2011
Allosteric receptor modulation is an attractive concept in drug targeting because it offers important potential advantages over conventional orthosteric agonism or antagonism. Allosteric ligands modulate receptor function by binding to a site distinct from the recognition site for the endogenous agonist. They often have no effect on their own and therefore act only in conjunction with physiological receptor activation. This article reviews the current status of allosteric modulation at family C G-protein coupled receptors in the light of their specific structural features on the one hand and current concepts in receptor theory on the other hand. Family C G-protein-coupled receptors are characterized by a large extracellular domain containing the orthosteric agonist binding site known as the "venus flytrap module" because of its bilobal structure and the dynamics of its activation mechanism. Mutational analysis and chimeric constructs have revealed that allosteric modulators of the calcium-sensing, metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors bind to the seven transmembrane domain, through which they modify signal transduction after receptor activation. This is in contrast to taste-enhancing molecules, which bind to different parts of sweet andumamireceptors. The complexity of interactions between orthosteric and allosteric ligands is revealed by a number of adequate biochemical and electrophysiological assay systems. Many allosteric family C GPCR modulators show in vivo efficacy in behavioral models for a variety of clinical indications. The positive allosteric calcium sensing receptor modulator cinacalcet is the first drug of this type to enter the market and therefore provides proof of principle in humans. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.