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Benin City, Nigeria

Ofovwe G.E.,University of Benin
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2010

Adverse birth outcomes remain significant contributors to perinatal mortality as well as developmental disabilities worldwide but limited evidence exists in sub- Saharan Africa based on a conceptual framework incorporating neighborhood context. This study therefore set out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for preterm births and low birthweight in an urban setting from this region. A cross-sectional study of all live births from May 2005 to December 2007 in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors predictive of preterm births and low birthweight were determined by unconditional multivariable logistic regression within a conceptual framework for adverse birth outcomes. Population attributable risk (PAR%) for each factor was also determined. Of the 4,314 newborns enrolled, 859 (19.9%) were preterm and 440 (10.2%) were low birthweight. One-third of mothers received no antenatal care while about 6% had HIV and another 6% had a history of hypertensive disorders. About 43% of the low birthweight infants were born full term. Maternal predictors of preterm delivery and/or low birthweight were marital status, occupation, residential accommodation with shared sanitation facilities, lack of antenatal care, absence of previous cesarean section, hypertensive disorders and antepartum hemorrhage. Gender and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were also predictive of low birthweight. IUGR (PAR = 48.74%) and lack of prior cesarean section (PAR = 41.99%) were the leading contributors to preterm birth and/or low birthweight. The burden of preterm and low birthweight deliveries in this setting is associated with modifiable individual and neighborhood-level risk factors that warrant community-oriented public health interventions. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. Source

Birabi B.N.,University of Benin
Global journal of health science | Year: 2012

Estimation of cost burden of a disease condition is a very important part of health care policy making worldwide. Till now, such documents are lacking especially on non-communicable diseases in the health policy making process in Nigeria. This article therefore attempts to report the results of a prospective cross-sectional study on the cost burden of a cerebrovascular accident condition (stroke) in Nigeria. It estimates the direct health care cost for a minimum period of 12 weeks and maximum of 36 weeks for post stroke hemiplegia. It was a collaborative cross-sectional study amongst centers situated in urban and sub-urban environments in Southern Nigeria. It involved a hospital of an Oil and Gas Company in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, two Government tertiary hospitals in Port Harcourt and Benin-City, all in South-South Nigeria, the industrial hub of the country. A Private Specialist hospital in Lagos, South-West Nigeria, the corporate hub of the country was also included. Patients diagnosed and admitted for management for cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in the above named health facilities formed the subjects of this study. Medical records (case files) of two hundred and forty (240) stroke patients managed within the last six years (2005- 2011) were randomly selected from the medical record departments of the study centers. Files of the patients who were admitted during acute care period (without discharge against medical advice) and were followed on out-patient basis without default within the study period were purposively utilized. The files were then assessed for the various investigations and treatment interventions of acute and long term care and the costs thereof. Ethical approval to access patients' case files was sought and granted by the Research Ethics Committee of the different study centers. The results revealed that it requires an average of N95,100: 00 ($600 ) and N767,900: 00 ($4860)in a government and a private hospital, respectively to access care within the first 36 weeks of post stroke affectation in Nigeria. The outcome of this study suggests that managing stroke constitutes a huge direct cost burden unaffordable by an average Nigerian stroke sufferer. The implication is that lack of means for rehabilitative care may result in disability adjusted life years which further compounds burdens in terms of indirect cost on the sufferers' and care givers' productivity. It is therefore recommended that awareness of this disorder is created by policy makers and implementers where it does not exist and increased where it does with health promotion and preventive measures. Source

Osifo O.D.,University of Benin
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology | Year: 2010

Objective: To report overall occurrence, and the mode of presentation and management of girls with post genital mutilation giant clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst in an African subregion. Methods: This is a prospective experience with female patients who presented at two centers in Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2005 and December 2009 with clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst following underground traditional female genital mutilation performed on neonates. Results: In total, 37 patients were seen with clitoral epidermoid inclusion cyst, 15 (40.5%) were post pubertal girls who could no longer cope with giant cyst that measured more than 3.5 × 6.5 cm in size at an average age of 17 (range 14-21) years. Ignorance, financial constraints, and the fear of possible prosecution by anti-female genital mutilation agencies were reasons for late presentation. Consequently, rapid increase in size of all cysts (100%), mass effect producing dragging discomfort in the vulva of 14 (93.3%) girls, social stigmatization of 12 (80%) girls by peers and spouses, sexual difficulty experienced by 10 (66.7%), and irritating bulge in the perineum of 10 (66.7%) girls, were the most common indications for surgical consultation. Outcomes of cystectomy that included total clitoridectomy performed on on an outpatient basis mainly with local anesthesia were encouraging with no incidence of recurrence recorded on 1-4 years postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Late presentation of girls with giant post genital mutilation clitoral epidermoid inclusion cysts was common. More campaigns against female genital mutilation and government policy aimed at encouraging patients with complications to seek early medical attention, and free treatment for those who present early are advocated. © 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Source

Odior A.O.,University of Benin
Evolving Systems | Year: 2013

Grinding is a machining process for removing material from a workpiece by using an expendable grinding wheel. The paper presents, a control system for grinding process using neural network and fuzzy technique. It was discovered that the maximum grinding temperature was very important since too high temperature would lead to surface burns and thermal damage to the grinding wheel as well as the workpiece material. A neuro-fuzzy model was used to analyze the grinding wheel performance index as it affects the general grinding operations of the grinding process. The research work can be applied to any other grinding process, whether wet or dry grinding process. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Iduoriyekemwen N.J.,University of Benin
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013

Access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis of Nigerian children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); thus, more children are surviving. Long-term exposure to HAART is potentially nephrotoxic. We therefore aimed at assessing the prevalence of renal disease in Nigerian children infected with HIV, who are on HAART. In this cross-sectional study, we studied children, aged ten months to 17 years, infected with HIV, attending the pediatric HIV clinics of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Demographic and clinical data were obtained by parental interview as well as from the medical records. Each child's urine was tested for albumin and microalbuminuria using multi test strips and mitral test strips, respectively. The serum creatinine level of each child was also estimated and used in calculating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Renal disease was defined as the presence of significant proteinuria of 1+ and above on dipstick or the presence of microalbuminuria of ≥20 mg and/or GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Of the 99 children recruited, 60 were males and 39 were females. The mean age of the children was 6.6 ± 3.5 years. All the children were on HAART and 85% had acquired the HIV infection by vertical transmission. The overall prevalence of renal disease was 16.2%. Microalbuminuria was seen in 11 children with renal disease (11.1%); 3 of them had significant proteinuria. GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 was seen in five children (5.1%) with renal disease, but none had end-stage renal disease (GFR less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Renal disease was found to be significantly associated with advanced stage of HIV infection (P < 0.049). Our study showed that t he prevalence of renal disease in HAART-treated Nigerian children is high and majority of them are asymptomatic of renal disease, but in the advanced stages of HIV infection. Source

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