Idu M.,University of Benin
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance: Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium and the adverse side effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs have necessitated the search for novel, well tolerated and more efficient antimalarial drugs. This ethnomedicinal study surveyed the different types of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria with the intent of identifying plants that are traditionally employed in the treatment of malaria across geopolitical boundaries. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 79 respondents composed of 50 traditional herbsellers and 29 herbal practitioners using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using frequency and percentages. Results: Of the 79 respondents interviewed, 24% were males while 76% were females. A total of 156 species belonging to 60 families were reported being used to treat malaria in the study area. Fabaceae was the most represented family having fourteen (14) plant species. Of the plants identified during the survey, Azadirachta indica was the species of highest relative frequency of citation (RFC - 1.0). The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves (50.50%) and Decoction was the main method of preparation. Analysis of regional plant occurrence revealed that South-Western Nigeria represented the region with the highest plant occurrence (60.7%) followed by South-South (24%) and South-East (15.3%). Regional occurrence of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria is reported here for the first time. Conclusion: This study has documented a great diversity of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria. Extracts prepared strictly according to the practitioners' recipes should therefore be screened for antiplasmodial activity and toxicity by in vitro and in vivo standard tests to justify their local usage. These studies might lead to the isolation and possible identification of potentially active compounds, which may be regarded as future promising phytomedicines in the treatment of malaria. Conservation of these plant species is also recommended to ensure their continuous availability for future use. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2008
This project aims to assess specific P. falciparum genetic markers for resistance to artemisinin-based combinations (ACT), and to develop innovative, rapid and simple diagnostics for malaria and these markers. Specific objectives are: To develop and evaluate in disease endemic countries accurate low-tech molecular diagnostic tests. To identify alleles of candidate resistance genes associated with increased transmission success of P. falciparum after ACT treatment in completed clinical trials (endpoints at gametocyte or infected mosquito level). To conduct ACT treatment trials with transmission endpoints, and measure impact of resistance-associated alleles on gametocyte emergence, and on the infectiousness of gametocyte-positive or randomly-selected treated individuals to Anopheles mosquitoes. To measure ACT efficacy using in vivo treatment trials, and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of natural parasite isolates. The impact of candidate resistance markers will be measured in patients with treatment failure, and in parasites with reduced in vitro sensitivity. To develop new low-tech diagnostic tools able to demonstrate the presence of mutations conferring drug resistance in the Plasmodium population, particularly those markers validated by the project. To investigate commercial value aspects of developed tests. The project will move our knowledge of ACT resistance forward in 2 complementary ways: 1) In order to identify and validate genetic markers for ACT resistance, we will use our unprecedented access to parasites isolated both from ACT-treated individuals and from mosquitoes fed on blood from ACT-treated individuals. 2) we will develop and validate simple tests in new formats for detection of these and other markers of relevance, and for rapid detection of persisting parasites in treated patients. The work is a balanced mix of clinical field work, laboratory research and (commercial) test development and linked to EU initiative EDCTP.
Gbolade A.,University of Benin
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2012
A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6 coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ofovwe G.E.,University of Benin
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2010
Adverse birth outcomes remain significant contributors to perinatal mortality as well as developmental disabilities worldwide but limited evidence exists in sub- Saharan Africa based on a conceptual framework incorporating neighborhood context. This study therefore set out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for preterm births and low birthweight in an urban setting from this region. A cross-sectional study of all live births from May 2005 to December 2007 in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors predictive of preterm births and low birthweight were determined by unconditional multivariable logistic regression within a conceptual framework for adverse birth outcomes. Population attributable risk (PAR%) for each factor was also determined. Of the 4,314 newborns enrolled, 859 (19.9%) were preterm and 440 (10.2%) were low birthweight. One-third of mothers received no antenatal care while about 6% had HIV and another 6% had a history of hypertensive disorders. About 43% of the low birthweight infants were born full term. Maternal predictors of preterm delivery and/or low birthweight were marital status, occupation, residential accommodation with shared sanitation facilities, lack of antenatal care, absence of previous cesarean section, hypertensive disorders and antepartum hemorrhage. Gender and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were also predictive of low birthweight. IUGR (PAR = 48.74%) and lack of prior cesarean section (PAR = 41.99%) were the leading contributors to preterm birth and/or low birthweight. The burden of preterm and low birthweight deliveries in this setting is associated with modifiable individual and neighborhood-level risk factors that warrant community-oriented public health interventions. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.
Arthur E.,University of Benin
Health Economics Review | Year: 2012
The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers. © 2012 Arthur; licensee Springer.
Odior A.O.,University of Benin
Evolving Systems | Year: 2013
Grinding is a machining process for removing material from a workpiece by using an expendable grinding wheel. The paper presents, a control system for grinding process using neural network and fuzzy technique. It was discovered that the maximum grinding temperature was very important since too high temperature would lead to surface burns and thermal damage to the grinding wheel as well as the workpiece material. A neuro-fuzzy model was used to analyze the grinding wheel performance index as it affects the general grinding operations of the grinding process. The research work can be applied to any other grinding process, whether wet or dry grinding process. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Iduoriyekemwen N.J.,University of Benin
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013
Access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis of Nigerian children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); thus, more children are surviving. Long-term exposure to HAART is potentially nephrotoxic. We therefore aimed at assessing the prevalence of renal disease in Nigerian children infected with HIV, who are on HAART. In this cross-sectional study, we studied children, aged ten months to 17 years, infected with HIV, attending the pediatric HIV clinics of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Demographic and clinical data were obtained by parental interview as well as from the medical records. Each child's urine was tested for albumin and microalbuminuria using multi test strips and mitral test strips, respectively. The serum creatinine level of each child was also estimated and used in calculating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Renal disease was defined as the presence of significant proteinuria of 1+ and above on dipstick or the presence of microalbuminuria of ≥20 mg and/or GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Of the 99 children recruited, 60 were males and 39 were females. The mean age of the children was 6.6 ± 3.5 years. All the children were on HAART and 85% had acquired the HIV infection by vertical transmission. The overall prevalence of renal disease was 16.2%. Microalbuminuria was seen in 11 children with renal disease (11.1%); 3 of them had significant proteinuria. GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 was seen in five children (5.1%) with renal disease, but none had end-stage renal disease (GFR less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Renal disease was found to be significantly associated with advanced stage of HIV infection (P < 0.049). Our study showed that t he prevalence of renal disease in HAART-treated Nigerian children is high and majority of them are asymptomatic of renal disease, but in the advanced stages of HIV infection.
Omonzejele P.F.,University of Benin
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry | Year: 2014
This paper examines how people in West Africa are reacting to the Ebola virus disease, an epidemic presently prevalent in the region. Certain lifestyle changes are suggested. Additionally, the heart of the paper focuses on the request by governments to be allowed access to experimental drugs, such as Zmapp and TKM-Ebola, for their infected populations. The author argues that granting such a request would circumvent research ethics procedures, which could potentially constitute significant risk to users of the drugs. The Pfizer Kano meningitis trial of 1996 is cited as an example to buttress how unapproved drugs could prove fatal. © 2014, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Pty Ltd.
Chris O.,University of Benin
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013
Knowledge of the fauna of tropical lowland rainforest is urgently necessary because of the high rate of biodiversity loss and global extinction of species as a result of deforestation. We studied land molluscs species richness and diversity in four heavily degraded secondary forest reserves and one old-growth forest reserve in Edo State, Nigeria using a combination of direct fixed-time search and litter-sieving techniques in twelve plots of 400 m2 each per reserve. A total of 43 species and 2570 individuals were collected from all the reserves. Local species richness ranged from 19 to 39 species while number of specimens from 203 to 971. Molluscan species richness and diversity is significantly higher in the old-growth forest than in the disturbed forest reserves. Land molluscs family composition was similar in all the forests with respect to the common and wide-ranging species while rare and narrow-range species are restricted to the old-growth forest in Okomu. The carnivorous streptaxids and detritivorous subulinids dominate species richness and abundance respectively in all the sites. Species turnover is moderately high within and between the forest reserves indicating the uniqueness of the faunal composition of each forest and the need for adequate protection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
News Article | February 16, 2017
Researchers have discovered a molecular mechanism that could explain why allergies are less common in developing countries. Writing in the journal, Immunology, they report that this finding could be the first step to developing new immunotherapies to prevent allergies. For a long time, we've been aware that allergies occur much more frequently in Western countries, but we don't know why this is. One idea that has grown in popularity is the hygiene hypothesis, which suggests that our immune systems need to come into contact with a range of micro-organisms when we are young to be able to produce appropriate immune responses later in life. "Allergies are a type of inappropriate immune response, where our bodies misidentify a harmless substance as a threat," said lead author Dr Joseph Igetei, formally of the University of Nottingham, UK, now at the University of Benin, Nigeria. "We know that worm infections occur more frequently in less developed countries, i.e. in places where allergies are rare. Although it's been suggested that worm infections could prevent against different allergies, there has been little concrete evidence of the potential molecular mechanisms that might mediate any such relationship." In this study, the research team led by Professor Mike Doenhoff from the University of Nottingham, and including Dr Joseph Igetei, Dr Marwa El-Faham from Alexandria University and Dr Susan Liddell, set out to discover if the antigens produced by a common species of parasitic worm that infects humans (called Schistosoma mansoni) were cross-reactive to antigens from peanuts, i.e. do the proteins from the worm and from the peanuts trigger the same immune response? To investigate this, they used antibodies from rabbits that had been exposed to various life stages of the worm -- antibodies are a type of immune protein made by the body to provide a tailored response to any substance deemed to be a threat. The researchers tested if these antibodies (which had been produced specifically against the parasitic worm) also reacted to various proteins found in peanuts. They found that the antibodies responded to several proteins in the peanut, in particular one called Ara h 1, which is known to be a key player in inducing the negative response in people who are allergic to peanuts. "It may sound strange that peanuts and worms have anything in common that could cause the immune system to generate the same response," said Professor Mike Doenhoff. "However, our work indicates that proteins from these two seemingly very different organisms actually have identical markers on them, meaning the immune system views them in the same way and targets them with similar antibodies." These findings are important in two ways. Firstly, this work goes some way to explaining the molecular mechanisms behind the observation that countries with a high incidence of worm infections have a low incidence of allergy. Although more work is needed to confirm the exact relationship, the team think that antibodies produced in response to a worm infection could stop the immune system from producing an allergic reaction when faced with a novel substance such as peanut protein. Secondly, this work may lead to new ideas to treat allergies. The team's next step is, however, to see if antibodies produced by humans in response to a worm infection also cross-react with peanut proteins.