Benghazi, Libya
Benghazi, Libya

University of Benghazi , formerly known as the Garyounis University, is a public university in Benghazi, Libya.and it is one of the most important institutes of higher education in Libya.It is located in Benghazi the second largest city in the country. It was founded on 1955 as the University of Libya. Wikipedia.

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Ahmida M.H.S.,University of Benghazi
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2012

Vancomycin (VAN) is a glycopeptide antibiotic which is active against gram positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococci. Free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of curcumin (CUR) against the nephrotoxicity of vancomycin in male rats. Animals used in this study were divided into four groups; the first group was used as control, the second, third and fourth groups were treated orally with curcumin (200. mg/kg. BW/day), vancomycin (200. mg/kg. BW/day, i.p.), vancomycin plus curcumin, respectively. Curcumin was administered 2 weeks before and 1 week simultaneously with vancomycin. Results showed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma and kidney tissue were significantly increased after vancomycin administration. While, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in plasma and kidney tissue and the content of glutathione (GSH) in kidney tissue were decreased compared to control. Vancomycin significantly increased the levels of urea and creatinine. The presence of curcumin with vancomycin caused reduction in induction levels of TBARS in plasma and kidney, urea and creatinine. It ameliorated vancomycin-induced decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. The presence of curcumin with vancomycin alleviated its nephrotoxic effects. It can be concluded that curcumin has beneficial influences and could be able to antagonize vancomycin nephrotoxicity. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

Abboud J.H.,University of Benghazi
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The surface of nodular cast iron has been melted and rapidly solidified by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process to produce a chilled structure of high hardness and better erosion resistance. Welding currents of magnitude 100, 150, and 200. A at a constant voltage of 72 have been used to melt the surface of nodular cast iron. Microstructural characterization, hardness measurements, and erosion wear tests have been performed on these modified surfaces as well as on the untreated material. Microstructural characterization has shown that surface melting resulted in complete or partial dissolution of the graphite nodules and resolidification of primary austenite dendrites, which undergo further decomposition into ferrite and cementite, and interdendritic of acicular eutectic; their microhardness measured across the melted depth ranged between 600 and 800. Hv. The scale of the dendrites and the interdendritic eutectic became coarser when a higher current is used. The results also indicated that remelting process by TIG improved erosion resistance by three to four times. Eroded surface observations of the as-received and TIG melted samples showed a ductile behavior with a maximum erosion rate at 30°. The fine microstructures obtained by the rapid cooling and the formation of a large amount of eutectic cementite instead of the graphite have contributed greatly to the plastic flow and consequently to the better erosion resistance of the TIG surface melted samples. © 2011.

Abboud J.H.,University of Benghazi
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2013

Experimental investigations based on Response Surface Method (RSM) were carried out to study the influence of laser power, nitrogen flow rate, and scanning speed on the microstructure, depth, hardness, and cracking of a set of titanium nitrided surface layers produced by laser gas nitriding. Laser powers ranged between 1 and 5kW, scanning speeds 5 to 20mm/min, and nitrogen gas flow rate ranged from 500 to 4000l/min. The aim was to use RSM in the design of experiment to find suitable processing parameters which produce deep and crack free nitrided layers with a high surface hardness. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the microstructure and composition of the nitrided layers. Microhardness at a distance of 0.15mm from the surface for all tracks was measured. The results showed that laser melting of titanium surface in a nitrogen containing atmosphere has led to the formation of a nitrided layer characterized with a strong convective flow and of a dense structure of TiN dendrites heterogeneously distributed. The TiN dendrites, which formed either directly from the melt or as a result of the peritectic reaction L+αTi→TiN, were of various sizes and shapes and distributed non uniformly. The volume fraction of TiN dendrites in the melted zone is a function of processing speed and power being higher at slower speed and high power. The convectional flow not only affects the surface quality but also leads to effective nitrogen transport to a deeper region. The formation of TiN significantly increases the microhardness of the surface but it makes the surface rough. The optimum process parameter settings which were determined statistically in terms of power, scanning speed and nitrogen gas flow rate were found to be 2.8kW laser power, 5mm/s scanning speed and 2000l/h nitrogen flow rate which would result in a maximum microhardness of approximately 1900HV0.15. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Elhaffar A.,University of Benghazi
Proceedings of the Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference - MELECON | Year: 2012

Traveling Waves Recorders (TWR) are used to accurately detect the arrival times of the traveling waves (TWs) initiated due to faults in the power system. A concept of fault-location observability and a multi-end fault-location scheme for transmission networks based on TWRs are presented. The fault location is calculated at a computer center using the minimum number of TWRs. Few TWRs are installed in the existing power transmission networks so that the fault can be located correctly and economically in the network. A minimum TWR placement is proposed to the existing transmission network. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to find the high frequency contents of the TWR signals. The double-end method is utilized using the shortest path from nearest TWRs to the faulted line. Validation of fault location is examined by ATP/EMTP simulations for a typical 400 kV power system. © 2012 IEEE.

Singh R.,University of Benghazi | De S.,University of Benghazi | Belkheir A.,University of Benghazi
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Altaboli A.,University of Benghazi
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of the two font styles (serif and sans-serif) on the users' perception of visual aesthetics of website interface design. Two font types were tests in this study, namely: "Time News Roman" representing the "serif" style and "Calibri" representing the "sans-serif" style. They were chosen because they are two of the widely used font types on the web and because they are the default font types of many of the most popular word processing and web developing software. Analysis of results showed that font type has a statistically significant effect on perceived visual aesthetics. The designs with the Time New Roman font was perceived as having better visual aesthetics. However, this effect was only significant on the overall perception of visual aesthetics; it wasn't significant in each of the four facets of visual aesthetics tested in this study. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

Kassem H.H.,University of Benghazi
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology | Year: 2013

The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

Shakeel F.,University of Benghazi | Ramadan W.,University of Benghazi
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2010

Recently caffeine has been investigated for the treatment of various types of cancers upon oral administration. There is also some evidence that dermally applied caffeine can protect the skin from skin cancer caused by sun exposure. Therefore nanoemulsion formulation of caffeine for transdermal drug delivery was developed and evaluated in the present investigation. Different w/o nanoemulsion formulations of caffeine were prepared by oil phase titration method. Thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions were characterized for morphology, droplet size, viscosity and refractive index. The in vitro skin permeation studies were performed on Franz diffusion cell using rat skin as permeation membrane. The in vitro skin permeation profile of optimized formulation was compared with aqueous solution of caffeine. Significant increase in permeability parameters was observed in nanoemulsion formulations (P < 0.05) as compared to aqueous solution of caffeine. The steady-state flux (Jss) and permeability coefficient (Kp) for optimized nanoemulsion formulation (C12) were found to be 147.55 ± 8.21 μg/cm2/h and 1.475 × 10-2 ± 0.031 × 10-2 cm/h, respectively. Enhancement ratio (Er) was found to be 17.37 in optimized formulation C12 compared with other formulations. Overall these results suggested that w/o nanoemulsions are good carriers for transdermal delivery of caffeine. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shakeel F.,University of Benghazi
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology | Year: 2010

The present study was undertaken for screening of different excipients in the development of nanoemulsion formulations of three anti-inflammatory drugs namely ketoprofen, celecoxib (CXB) and meloxicam. Based on solubility profiles of each drug in oil, Triacetin (ketoprofen and CXB) and Labrafil (meloxicam) were selected as the oil phase. Based on maximum solubilization potential of oil in different surfactants, Cremophor-EL (ketoprofen and CXB) and Tween-80 (meloxicam) were selected as surfactants. Based on maximum nanoemulsion region in the pseudoternary phase diagrams, Transcutol-HP was selected as cosurfactant for all three drugs. 1: 1 (ketoprofen and CXB) and 2: 1 (meloxicam) mass ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant was selected for selection of different nanoemulsions on the basis of maximum nanoemulsion region in the phase diagrams. All selected nanoemulsion formulations were found thermodynamically stable. Results of these studies showed that all excipients were properly optimized for the development of nanoemulsion formulation of ketoprofen, CXB and meloxicam. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Thomas P.A.,Keele University | Mukassabi T.A.,University of Benghazi
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Summary: This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Ruscus aculeatus L. (Butcher's broom) that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history and conservation. Ruscus aculeatus is a multistemmed monocotyledonous shrub with leaves functionally replaced by cladodes and photosynthetic stems. It is native to southern England primarily in dry shaded woodland and hedgerows (but widely planted elsewhere) often, but not exclusively, on base-rich soil. It is rarely abundant in any habitat, usually forming widely spread discrete clumps. Ruscus aculeatus is remarkably shade tolerant and drought resistant with low water conductance and transpiration, and water storage in the cladodes. Yet unusually for a drought-tolerant stem-photosynthetic plant, it prefers shady environments. The flowers have few if any pollinating mechanisms, low seed production and fruit/seed dispersal are largely ineffective, which may be a relict of its evolution in a tropical Tertiary climate. Population survival primarily depends upon vegetative spread from stout rhizomes, aided by the plant's general unpalatability. Over-collecting for medicinal steroidal saponins has caused some population declines, particularly in eastern Europe, but it is otherwise facing few conservation problems. © 2014 British Ecological Society.

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