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Belmopan, Belize

The University of Belize is an English-speaking multi-locational institute for higher education, and the national university of the Central American country of Belize. The institution offers certificates, diplomas, associate degrees, bachelor begrees, and a graduate degree. The university's goals are to meet national needs, encourage sustainable development, increase self sustainability, prepare Belize to meet global challenges and to encourage an international student population. UB's Central Campus is found in Belmopan City where student enrollment is constantly increasing. Currently the Central Campus is the site of a clean solar energy project which will help make the university self sustainable and off the grid.The university's colors are purple and gold; its mascot is the "Black Jaguar" and its motto is "Education Empowers a Nation". Wikipedia.

Harmsen B.J.,Belize Jaguar Program | Harmsen B.J.,University of Southampton | Harmsen B.J.,University of Belize | Foster R.J.,Belize Jaguar Program | And 2 more authors.
Population Ecology | Year: 2011

Closed population capture-recapture analysis of camera-trap data has become the conventional method for estimating the abundance of individually recognisable cryptic species living at low densities, such as large felids. Often these estimates are the only information available to guide wildlife managers and conservation policy. Capture probability of the target species using camera traps is commonly heterogeneous and low. Published studies often report overall capture probabilities as low as 0.03 and fail to report on the level of heterogeneity in capture probability. We used simulations to study the effects of low and heterogeneous capture probability on the reliability of abundance estimates using the Mh jack-knife estimator within a closed-population capture-recapture framework. High heterogeneity in capture probability was associated with under- and over-estimates of true abundance. The use of biased abundance estimates could have serious conservation management consequences. We recommend that studies present capture frequencies of all sampled individuals so that policy makers can assess the reliability of the abundance estimates. © 2010 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

Harmsen B.J.,Panthera | Harmsen B.J.,University of Belize | Harmsen B.J.,University of Southampton | Foster R.J.,Panthera | And 4 more authors.
Mammalian Biology | Year: 2011

Activity patterns of top predators are adapted for efficient predation, whereas their prey must contend with the conflicting demands of acquiring resources and avoiding predators. Here we analyse the activity of jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) in relation to their most important prey species, armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and pacas (Agouti paca) respectively, in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize using large-scale camera-trap data. Jaguars and pumas have similar 24. h activity patterns as armadillos and pacas, both burrow-dwelling species, and negligible overlap with less frequently consumed prey species such as red brocket deer (Mazama americana) and peccaries. Activity of armadillos and pacas varied with moon phase, with reduced activity during periods of brighter illumination, perhaps as a predator-avoidance strategy. Across the study area, moon phase had no overall influence on jaguar and puma activity; however at locations associated with armadillos, jaguar activity declined with brighter illumination, perhaps indicating a shift to alternative prey during full moon when armadillos avoided foraging above ground. No such relationship was found for pumas and moon phase at locations associated with pacas. © 2010 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde.

Chicas S.D.,Nagasaki University | Chicas S.D.,University of Belize | Omine K.,Nagasaki University | Ford J.B.,Wildlife Institute
Applied Geography | Year: 2016

Erosion in the Rio Grande watershed of Belize, Central America results in widespread ecological impacts and significant economic costs. In this study, quantitative soil loss analysis and qualitative social surveys were integrated to identify erosion vulnerable areas or hotspots, and to analyze varying perspectives between communities near and far from erosion hotspots regarding the causes of erosion. The results of the quantitative analysis suggest that erosion hotspots are located in the upper-mid reaches of the watershed near the communities of Crique Jute, Naluum Ca, San Pedro Columbia and San Miguel. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant difference in the ranking of erosion drivers (cattle ranching, logging, and clearing of slopes) between communities. Communities far from erosion hotspots (FEH) ranked cattle ranching and logging higher than communities near erosion hotspots as the main drivers of soil erosion (NEH and FEH, mean = 79.02, 105.92, (U) = 3055, p < 0.001 and mean = 84.9, 100.90, (U) = 3560.5 p < 0.05) respectively. On the other hand, communities near erosion hotspots (NEH) ranked clearing and planting on slopes higher than communities far from erosion hotspots as the main driver of soil erosion (NEH and FEH, mean = 107.03, 81.86, (U) = 3136.5, p < 0.001). The logistic regression model depicted that ethnicity, distance, gender, and employment were significant in explaining the data variability on the perceived implementation of erosion prevention techniques in the watershed (2LL = 208.585, X2 = 49, df = 8, p < .001). This research provides significant information on the drivers, underlying causes and erosion vulnerable areas that will aid stakeholders to garner community support, develop and implement sustainable soil management practices. Moreover, the study highlights the need to implement cost-effective soil erosion prevention programs and to assess the loss of soil nutrients and agriculture productivity in the study site. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lee B.Y.,New York Medical College | Lee B.Y.,Life Support Technology Group | Al-Waili N.,Life Support Technology Group | Stubbs D.,BodiHealth Technology | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The low levels of antioxidants accompanied by raised levels of markers of free radical damage play a major role in delaying wound healing. Ultra-low microcurrent presumably has an antioxidant effect, and it was shown to accelerate wound healing. The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of ultra-low microcurrent delivered by the Electro Pressure Regeneration Therapy (EPRT) device (EPRT Technologies-USA, Simi Valley, CA) in the management of diabetes, hypertension and chronic wounds. The EPRT device is an electrical device that sends a pulsating stream of electrons in a relatively low concentration throughout the body. The device is noninvasive and delivers electrical currents that mimic the endogenous electric energy of the human body. It is a rechargeable battery-operated device that delivers a direct current (maximum of 3 milliAmperes) of one polarity for 11.5 minutes, which then switched to the opposite polarity for another 11.5 minutes. The resulting cycle time is approximately 23min or 0.000732 Hz and delivers a square wave bipolar current with a voltage ranging from 5V up to a maximum of 40 V. The device produces a current range of 3 mA down to 100 nA. Twelve patients with long standing diabetes, hypertension and unhealed wounds were treated with EPRT. The patients were treated approximately for 3.5 h/day/5 days a week. Assessment of ulcer was based on scale used by National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Consensus Development Conference. Patients were followed-up with daily measurement of blood pressure and blood glucose level, and their requirement for medications was recorded. Treatment continued from 2-4 months according to their response. Results showed that diabetes mellitus and hypertension were well controlled after using this device, and their wounds were markedly healed (30-100%). The patients either reduced their medication or completely stopped after the course of treatment. No side effects were reported. The mechanism of action was discussed. © Ivyspring International Publisher. All rights reserved.

Ju R.-S.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Ju R.-S.,University of Belize | Lee H.-J.,National Yunlin University of Science and Technology | Chen C.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Tao C.-C.,Architecture and Building Research Institute
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2012

In a multistory building frame, stiff reinforced concrete (RC) infill walls may be terminated above the first story for architectural purposes, which may create a soft-first-story structure. To eliminate this detrimental situation, this paper proposes to separate the RC infill wall from the steel moment frame by slits. An experimental program of four one-bay-by-one-story steel moment frame specimens along with pushover analyses of multistory frame models were presented to validate the proposed idea. This study conducted cyclic loading tests on a total of four moment-resisting-frame specimens, which included one bare frame; one with ordinary RC infill wall; and two with side slits between RC wall and frame members. Furthermore, pushover analyses of multistory frame models with soft first story configurations were also conducted to illustrate the effect of RC infill walls with or without slit separation. Both experimental and analytical results showed that the stiff RC infill wall dominated the lateral resistance and drift capacity of the test specimens, and that by adding slit-separated features at the edges of infill walls improved the drift capacity. It is concluded that the slit-separated features can be a viable option to eliminate the soft-story problem caused by vertically irregular configuration of RC infill walls. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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