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Al-Banna N.,Dalhousie University | Pavlovic D.,Dalhousie University | Pavlovic D.,Ernst Moritz Arndt UniversitatGreifswald | Sharawi N.,Dalhousie University | And 9 more authors.
Microvascular Research | Year: 2014

Background: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was shown to improve the immune function and survival in experimental sepsis. This study examined the effect of DHEA on intestinal leukocyte recruitment during experimental sepsis, considering factors of gender (male, female and ovariectomized female animals) and combined treatment using orthovanadate (OV) in two models of sepsis. Methodology/findings: Male rats underwent colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) or endotoxemia. DHEA was administered after induction of experimental sepsis. Changes in leukocyte adherence and capillary perfusion (measured as intestinal functional capillary density - FCD) were assessed using intravital microscopy. While DHEA increased baseline leukocyte adherence in control animals, DHEA reduced leukocyte adherence and increased FCD in male animals with CASP. These effects were also observed in DHEA-treated ovariectomized female rats with CASP. Similarly, the administration of DHEA reduced the number of adherent leukocytes to intestinal venules by 30% in the endotoxemia model. The combined treatment of DHEA and OV significantly reduced adherence of leukocytes to intestinal venules and improved FCD. Conclusions: Our results indicate that DHEA is able to reduce intestinal leukocyte recruitment induced by experimental sepsis. Combination of DHEA with OV inhibits leukocyte adherence to intestinal endothelium, similar to what is achieved by the single administration of DHEA but with significantly improved FCD. These findings suggest a potential role for DHEA and OV in clinical sepsis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Wilmshurst J.M.,University of Cape Town | Gaillard W.D.,George Washington University | Vinayan K.P.,Amrita Institute of Medical science | Tsuchida T.N.,Childrens National Medical Center | And 12 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2015

Summary Evidence-based guidelines, or recommendations, for the management of infants with seizures are lacking. A Task Force of the Commission of Pediatrics developed a consensus document addressing diagnostic markers, management interventions, and outcome measures for infants with seizures. Levels of evidence to support recommendations and statements were assessed using the American Academy of Neurology Guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The report contains recommendations for different levels of care, noting which would be regarded as standard care, compared to optimal care, or "state of the art" interventions. The incidence of epilepsy in the infantile period is the highest of all age groups (strong evidence), with epileptic spasms the largest single subgroup and, in the first 2 years of life, febrile seizures are the most commonly occurring seizures. Acute intervention at the time of a febrile seizure does not alter the risk for subsequent epilepsy (class 1 evidence). The use of antipyretic agents does not alter the recurrence rate (class 1 evidence), and there is no evidence to support initiation of regular antiepileptic drugs for simple febrile seizures (class 1 evidence). Infants with abnormal movements whose routine electroencephalography (EEG) study is not diagnostic, would benefit from video-EEG analysis, or home video to capture events (expert opinion, level U recommendation). Neuroimaging is recommended at all levels of care for infants presenting with epilepsy, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) recommended as the standard investigation at tertiary level (level A recommendation). Genetic screening should not be undertaken at primary or secondary level care (expert opinion). Standard care should permit genetic counseling by trained personal at all levels of care (expert opinion). Genetic evaluation for Dravet syndrome, and other infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathies, should be available in tertiary care (weak evidence, level C recommendation). Patients should be referred from primary or secondary to tertiary level care after failure of one antiepileptic drug (standard care) and optimal care equates to referral of all infants after presentation with a seizure (expert opinion, level U evidence). Infants with recurrent seizures warrant urgent assessment for initiation of antiepileptic drugs (expert opinion, level U recommendation). Infantile encephalopathies should have rapid introduction and increment of antiepileptic drug dosage (expert opinion, level U recommendation). There is no high level evidence to support any particular current agents for use in infants with seizures. For focal seizures, levetiracetam is effective (strong evidence); for generalized seizures, weak evidence supports levetiracetam, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate, and clobazam; for Dravet syndrome, strong evidence supports that stiripentol is effective (in combination with valproate and clobazam), whereas weak evidence supports that topiramate, zonisamide, valproate, bromide, and the ketogenic diet are possibly effective; and for Ohtahara syndrome, there is weak evidence that most antiepileptic drugs are poorly effective. For epileptic spasms, clinical suspicion remains central to the diagnosis and is supported by EEG, which ideally is prolonged (level C recommendation). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is preferred for short-term control of epileptic spasms (level B recommendation), oral steroids are probably effective in short-term control of spasms (level C recommendation), and a shorter interval from the onset of spasms to treatment initiation may improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcome (level C recommendation). The ketogenic diet is the treatment of choice for epilepsy related to glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (expert opinion, level U recommendation). The identification of patients as potential candidates for epilepsy surgery should be part of standard practice at primary and secondary level care. Tertiary care facilities with experience in epilepsy surgery should undertake the screening for epilepsy surgical candidates (level U recommendation). There is insufficient evidence to conclude if there is benefit from vagus nerve stimulation (level U recommendation). The key recommendations are summarized into an executive summary. The full report is available as Supporting Information. This report provides a comprehensive foundation of an approach to infants with seizures, while identifying where there are inadequate data to support recommended practice, and where further data collection is needed to address these deficits. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Antoniadis A.P.,Harvard University | Antoniadis A.P.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Mortier P.,FEops Inc | Mortier P.,Ghent University | And 25 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2015

Treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions remains an ongoing challenge for interventional cardiologists. Stenting of coronary bifurcations carries higher risk for in-stent restenosis, stent thrombosis, and recurrent clinical events. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding application and use of biomechanical modeling in the study of stent properties, local flow dynamics, and outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions in bifurcation lesions. Biomechanical modeling of bifurcation stenting involves computational simulations and in vitro bench testing using subject-specific arterial geometries obtained from in vivo imaging. Biomechanical modeling has the potential to optimize stenting strategies and stent design, thereby reducing adverse outcomes. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish the translation of pre-clinical findings to the clinical arena. © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Terzic-Supic Z.,University of BelgradeBelgrade | Santric-Milicevic M.,University of BelgradeBelgrade | Mirkovic M.,University of Pristina Kosovska Mitrovica | Karic S.,Preschool Teacher Training College | Soldatovic I.,University of BelgradeBelgrade
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2015

Background: HIV/AIDS continues to be a serious challenge to public health and human rights in the new millennium. The objective of this survey was to identify the correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers with preschool children, and their attitude towards whether a HIV-positive female teacher should be allowed to continue teaching in school. Method: This survey was additional study analysis of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) in the Republic of Serbia conducted in the period November-December 2010 following the UNICEF methodology. Women deemed eligible for the survey were those who had children under five, had never lost a child, were not pregnant at the time of inquiry and who had a clear attitude ("yes" or "no") towards whether a HIV-positive female teacher should be allowed to continue teaching in school. The criteria were met by 2309 out of 2992 interviewed women. Pearson chi-square and t-test were used to analyse the differences in respondents' attitude towards whether a HIV-positive female teacher should be allowed to continue teaching in school. Variables that were significantly associated with the dependent variable (p < 0.05) were entered into a multiple logistic regression model. Results: The respondents who were more likely to think that a HIV positive teacher should not be allowed to teach in school were those: who did not know that a healthy-looking person can be HIV-positive (OR = 1.84; 95 % CI = 1.19-2.83), who would not buy (OR = 29.90; 95 % CI = 22.52-39.71) or did not know/were not sure (OR = 2.21; 95 % CI = 1.46-3.33) whether they would buy vegetables from a HIV-positive vendor and women who did not know/were not sure (OR = 2.97; 95 % CI = 1.64-5.39) whether they would take care of a family member sick with AIDS in their own home. Conclusion: Misconceptions about HIV transmission represent a major barrier to combating HIV/AIDS epidemic and HIV/AIDS-related stigma. It is, therefore, necessary to continue education and raising awareness of human rights both among the population living with HIV and the general population. © 2015 Terzic-Supic et al. Source


Stankovic M.,University of Belgrade | Kojic S.,University of Belgrade | Djordjevic V.,University of Belgrade | Tomovic A.,Novartis | And 5 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2016

The aetiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complex. While cigarette smoking is a well-established cause of COPD, a myriad of assessed genetic factors has given conflicting data. Since gene-environment interactions are thought to be implicated in aetiopathogenesis of COPD, we aimed to examine the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 C–1562T (rs3918242) functional variant and cigarette smoke in the pathogenesis of this disease. The distribution of the MMP9 C–1562T variant was analyzed in COPD patients and controls with normal pulmonary function from Serbia. Interaction between the C–1562T genetic variant and cigarette smoking was assessed using a case-control model. The response of the C–1562T promoter variant to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) exposure was examined using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The frequency of T allele carriers was higher in the COPD group than in smoker controls (38.4% vs. 20%; OR = 2.7, P = 0.027). Interaction between the T allele and cigarette smoking was identified in COPD occurrence (OR = 4.38, P = 0.005) and severity (P = 0.001). A functional analysis of the C–1562T variant demonstrated a dose-dependent and allele-specific response (P < 0.01) to CSC. Significantly higher MMP9 promoter activity following CSC exposure was found for the promoter harboring the T allele compared to the promoter harboring the C allele (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to reveal an interaction between the MMP9–1562T allele and cigarette smoke in COPD, emphasising gene-environment interactions as a possible cause of lung damage in the pathogenesis of COPD. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:447–454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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