The University of Basrah is situated in the city of Basra, Iraq. For historic reasons the final -h is retained on Basrah in the name of the university.Founded in 1964 to meet the needs of southern Iraq, the University of Basrah was at first affiliated with the University of Baghdad, but in 1964 it became an independent body. Today the University consists of fourteen colleges located on three campuses around the city of Basra, with research facilities and student halls of residence .The University awards the degrees of BA, BSc, Higher Diploma, MA, MSc and PhD. Wikipedia.
News Article | March 27, 2016
As our species finds itself staring down the barrel at widespread environmental collapse due to climate change, some of us have more to worry about than others. In particular, the Middle East and surrounding regions have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to climate change effects, especially those having to do with water: Within the last seven years the region has lost enough water to fill the Dead Sea and by 2040, 14 of the 33 most water stressed countries on Earth will be in the Middle East. Although Middle Eastern countries will be some of the hardest hit by climate change, there is a marginalized community within their borders which will be affected by climate change still more than others: Women. There has been extensive research conducted which examines the intersection of gender and climate change, and the bulk of this research has found that women are being disproportionately affected by climate change, particularly in those countries where they have fewer rights. These observations were most recently bolstered in a new study led by Nadia Al-Mudaffar Fawzi, a marine ecologist at Iraq’s University of Basrah, who found that a 5,000 year old Iraqi culture was disappearing as a direct result of climate change and that this culture’s women were bearing the brunt of this climate-induced fallout. As detailed in the study published last week in Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, the ancient Arab Marsh (Ma’dan) culture, which has thrived in the Mesopotamian Marshes of Southern Iraq for thousands of years, is disappearing as the marshes are drying up. Located at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, these marshes are undergoing a process of desertification as a result of climate change, with the natural resources the Ma’dan people depend on—such as the reeds used to make their iconic mudhif houses—vanishing along with the water. “The Marsh Arabs used to live in the middle of the water, surrounded by everything green,” said Fawzi in a press release. “The fields, the reeds, and the water buffalo were around them. Now they have to walk five, ten kilometers to reach resources. The land is dry and brown.” After studying in New Zealand, Fawzi moved back to Iraq in 2009 to teach at the University of Basrah. According to her, even then it was clear that the Mesopotamian marshes were drying up. Although she is a marine ecologist by training, Fawzi found herself becoming increasingly interested in the social instability that this desertification of the marshes had engendered. In particular, she found that Ma’dan women were particularly affected by the changes in their environment, as the disappearance of resources severely limited their ability to engage in their traditional roles. “The whole situation in the marshes is completely different from what I saw before, in the '70s and early '80s," Fawzi said. "Women used to play a role in the ecological system. They used to work with men in gathering reeds and in fishing, and we would see them in the market when they come and sell their produce, like the fish, and the milk from the buffalo, the cheese and the yogurt that they make." By designing a formal survey with her colleagues, Fawzi found that the disappearance of the marshes meant Ma’dan women were spending more time at home, engaged in domestic tasks when before they would have been working outside. Although men and women have different roles within Ma’dan society, traditional female work involved everything from caring for water buffalo and gathering reeds to cultivating rice and bringing handicrafts to sell in city markets. The disappearance of fresh water, reeds, and other natural resources not only severely limits the role of women with the Ma’dan society, but Fawzi found that the Ma’dan women were not passing traditional knowledge on to younger generations within the culture. In short, Ma’dan cultural knowledge was drying up in tandem with the marshes. Fawzi’s results are based on a series of 34 interviews she and her colleagues conducted with Ma’dan women who ranged in age from teenagers to well over 70 years old. This gave the team a unique, cross generational perspective on the changing landscape. Over half of the survey respondents were over 50 and as such could remember the days before droughts and wars began to wreak havoc on the Iraqi marshes. The first shock to the region came during the Iran-Iraq war during the 1980s. The Ma’dan people found themselves on the front lines of this conflict and many fled the region during this time. Those who remained saw Saddam Hussein intentionally drain the marshes in the 1990s, partly to facilitate oil discovery and partly in retaliation against those who had led uprisings against his governments (the marshes have long been a refuge for Iraqi dissidents). A Ma’dan village at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates. Image: Wikimedia Commons Hussein’s policies in the area nearly drained the marshes completely, but after he was deposed during the second Iraq war, the marshes saw a brief recovery period which ended with the severe drought of 2007. Despite the apparent resiliency of the region’s ecosystem, Fawzi and her colleagues fear that the marshes may be approaching a point of no return, a problem which will only be exacerbated because the younger Ma’dan generations lack the skills that allowed the older generations to thrive in this singular ecosystem. According to Fawzi, any hope for the region likely lies in diplomatic solutions. So far, however, these have been slow in coming—in a country devastated by decades of war, environmental policy ranks pretty low on the list of pressing national priorities (indeed, Iraq did not have environmental policy prior to 2003). In the first place, there will need to be programs that guarantee the region gets sufficient water—the Tigris and Euphrates water levels have dropped to 20 percent of the pre-war volume, and much of the water that still flows in the rivers is too salty to drink. Fawzi cites restoration practices being used in Iraq’s first national park—Mesopotamia Marshlands—as a potential template for other regions in the marshes. The problem remains figuring out a way to supply the water needed for these restoration practices. On the social side of things, Fawzi and her colleagues advocate for programs which foster the traditional skills of the Ma’dan people as well as a market for their handicrafts. "Much of the land near Basrah city is desertified [and] it was extremely sobering sometimes to see the circumstances some people are living in," said study co-author Kelly Goodwin, who works with Millennium Relief and Development Services. "I really consider it was a privilege to sit with these women, drink tea, and hear their stories. I would have loved to have tangible solutions to take back to them that could encourage the retention of cultural traditions and secure ecological restoration. I think they feel they are forgotten and overlooked. I wish I could tell them that they are not forgotten."
Harfash A.J.,Durham University |
Harfash A.J.,University of Basrah
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2014
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of a heat source on the solution to the equations for an incompressible heat conducting viscous fluid. The validity of both the linear instability and global nonlinear energy stability thresholds are tested using three dimensional simulation. Our results show that the linear threshold accurately predicts on the onset of instability in the basic steady state. However, the required time to arrive at the steady state increases significantly as the Rayleigh number tends to the linear threshold. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chamkha A.J.,Public Authority for Applied Education and Training |
Ismael M.A.,University of Basrah
Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications | Year: 2013
The conjugate natural convection-conduction heat transfer in a square domain composed of a cavity heated by a triangular solid wall is studied under steady state condition. The vertical and horizontal walls of the triangular solid are kept isothermal and at the same hot temperature Th. The other boundaries surrounding the porous cavity are kept adiabatic except the right vertical wall, where it is kept isothermally at the lower temperature Tc. Equations governing the heat transfer in the triangular wall and heat and fluid flow, based on the Darcy model, in the fluid-saturated porous medium together with the derived relation of the interface temperature are solved numerically using the second order central differences finite difference scheme with the successive over relaxation (SOR) method. The investigated parameters are the Rayleigh number Ra (100-1000), solid to fluid saturated porous medium thermal conductivity ratio Kr (0.1-10), and the triangular wall thickness D (0.05-1). The results are presented in the conventional form; contours of streamlines and isotherms and the local and average Nusselt numbers. An uncommon behavior of the heat transfer in the porous medium with the triangular wall thickness D is observed and accounted. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Chamkha A.J.,Public Authority for Applied Education and Training |
Ismael M.A.,University of Basrah
Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications | Year: 2014
Natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated and vertically partially layered porous cavity filled with a nanofluid is studied numerically based on double-domain formulation. The left wall, which is adjacent to the porous layer, is isothermally heated, while the right wall is isothermally cooled. The top and bottom walls of the cavity are thermally insulated. Impermeable cavity walls are considered except the interface between the porous layer and the nanofluid layer. The Darcy-Brinkman model is invoked for the porous layer which is saturated with the same nanofluid. Equations govern the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy with the entity of nanoparticles in the fluid filling the cavity and that are saturated in the porous layer are modeled and solved numerically using under successive relaxation upwind finite difference scheme. The contribution of five parameters are studied, these are; nanoparticle volume fraction φ (0-0.1), porous layer thickness Xp(0-0.9), Darcy number Da (10-7-1), aspect ratio A (1, 2, 4), and Rayleigh number Ra (103-106). The nanofluid is considered to be composed of copper nanoparticles and water as a base fluid. The results have shown that with the aid of a nanofluid, the convective heat transfer can be enhanced even at a low permeable porous medium. It is found that when Ra ≤ 105, there is a critical porous layer thickness Xp at which the Nusselt number is maximum. Otherwise, the Nusselt number Nu decreases rapidly with Xp. Correlations of Nu with the other parameters are established and tested for A = 2. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Homod R.Z.,University of Basrah |
Sahari K.S.M.,University of Tenaga Nasional
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2013
This paper focuses on the efficiency of controlling building internal temperature and relative humidity by ventilation and infiltration flow rate. Building model is inevitable to study the feasibility of building ventilation, and how it affects the indoor air quality. A hybrid model is built using physical and empirical functions of subsystems model, where the empirical function being the residential load factor (RLF) used to calculate the cooling/heating load depending on the indoor/outdoor temperature. Furthermore, by using the RLF method, the parameters of the model can be calculated room by room, which is appropriate for variable air volume (VAV). The subsystem modeling approach chosen divides the building into four components, which are closely related to the indoor thermal comfort. Indoor thermal comfort represented by predicted mean vote (PMV) can be represented by temperature, indoor air velocity and relative humidity which are controlled by the HVAC system. Response sensitivity analysis is carried out on the main parameters of the model by applying real climate conditions data for a passive climate. Simulations with varied flow rate mechanical ventilation are conducted within 24 h. Results indicate that there is a great opportunity to take advantage of mechanical ventilation to help achieve thermal comfort while reducing the dependency on powered cooling. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Badran H.A.,University of Basrah
Results in Physics | Year: 2014
In this work thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) is applied to investigate the thermo-optical properties of new organometallic compound containing azomethine group, Dichloro bis [2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-5-methylphenyl] telluride platinum(II), doped polyacrylamide gel using transistor-transistor logic (TTL) modulated cw 532. nm laser beam as an excitation beam modulated at 10. Hz frequency and probe beam wavelength 635. nm at 14. mW. The technique is applied to determine the thermal diffusivities, ds/. dT and the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the sample. All-optical switching effects with low background and high stability are demonstrated. © 2014 The Author.
Harfash A.J.,University of Basrah
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2014
The problem of convection in a variable gravity field with magnetic field effect is studied using methods of linear instability theory and non-linear energy theory. Then, the accuracies of both the linear instability and global non-linear energy stability thresholds are tested using a three-dimensional simulation. The strong stabilizing effect of gravity field and magnetic field is shown. Moreover, the results support the assertion that the linear theory is very accurate in predicting the onset of convective motion, and thus regions of stability. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Badran H.A.,University of Basrah
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2015
A new dye compound containing azomethine groups has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 13C NMR, and an UV–visible spectrometer. Measurements of the thermally induced optical nonlinearity of dichloro bis[2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-5-methylphenyl] telluride platinum(II) in a chloroform solvent were studied using a cw diode laser at 487 nm as the source of excitation, both in solution and as a poly methyl methacrylate solid film, respectively. The optical response was characterized by measuring the intensity-dependent refractive index n2 of the medium using the Z-scan technique. The sample showed negative and large nonlinear refractive index values of the order of 10−7 cm2/W and reverse saturable absorption with high values of the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the order of 10−3 cm/W. The nonlinear refractive index was found to vary with the concentration. These results indicate that the dye is a promising candidate for applications in the nonlinear optic field. Thermal lens spectrometry was applied to investigate the thermo-optical properties and the nonlinear refractive index. In this technique, a pump and a probe beam were aligned collinearly. A localized change in the refractive index of the sample due to the thermal heating produced a thermal lens, which was then detected by studying the focusing and defocusing of the pump and probe beam. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Homod R.Z.,University of Basrah
Energy | Year: 2014
In a hot and humid climate, HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) systems go through rigorous coupling procedures as a result of indoor conditions, which are significantly affected by the outdoor environment. Hence, a traditional method for addressing a coupling setback in HVAC systems is to add a reheating coil. However, this technique consumes a significant amount of energy. Three different strategies are designed in a hot and humid climate region, such as Basra, for AHUs (air handling unit), and their evaluations of decoupling are compared. The first and second strategies use the same feedback control references (temperature and relative humidity), except the second one also uses a reheating coil and a wet main cooling coil. The AHU (air handling unit) of the third (proposed) strategy is equipped with a dry main cooling coil and a wet pre-cooling coil to dehumidify fresh air, which allows the controller to handle the coupling problem. Furthermore, the proposed strategy utilises the PMV (predicted mean vote) index as a feedback control reference to increase optimisation parameters that provide more flexibility in meeting the thermal comfort sensation. The adaptive control algorithm of nonlinear multivariable systems is adopted to coordinate these three policies of optimisation. The results of the three strategies show that the proposed scheme achieved the desired thermal comfort, superior performance, adaptation, robustness and implementation without using a reheating coil. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Jasim I.F.,University of Basrah
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering | Year: 2013
This article presents an improved observer-based robust adaptive control strategy for a class of nonlinear systems that have two features: (1) the coupling of unmeasured states and unknown parameters exist at the measured states dynamics and (2) unknown deadzone exists at the system actuation. At first, the bounds of the deadzone parameters are assumed to be known and a suitable control strategy is derived. This strategy involves the derivation of a control action, observer of the unmeasured states, and estimators of the unknown parameters such that global stable system performance is guaranteed. Then, another control strategy is proposed when the bounds of the deadzone parameters are unavailable. The second control algorithm comprises the derivation of suitable control action, observer of the unmeasured states, and estimators of the unknown parameters such that global stable system performance is assured and the anonymity of the bounds of the deadzone parameters is accommodated. Simulations are performed when using both control strategies for a nonlinear system that falls in the category of systems addressed in this article. The system is a single-link mechanical joint that suffers from friction torque, modeled by LuGre friction model, with unknown deadzone exists at its actuation. The simulation results show the high performance of the suggested control approaches. © 2012 IMechE.