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Basel, Switzerland

The University of Basel is located in Basel, Switzerland, and is considered to be one of the leading universities in the country. In 2012, QS World University Rankings ranked the university 121st overall in the world, while two years before it was ranked 96–98th worldwide according to the Russian based Global University Ranking. In 2012, the ARWU ranked the university as the 85th best worldwide. Wikipedia.

Zimmerli W.,University of Basel
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

A 57-year-old man presents with fever, chills, and new lumbar back pain 2 weeks after undergoing a prostate biopsy because of an increased prostate-specific antigen level. His temperature is 39.7°C; he has an enlarged, tender prostate and lumbar spine tenderness. His white-cell count is 9100 per cubic millimeter, and the C-reactive protein level is 343 mg per liter. Urine and blood cultures reveal multidrug-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli susceptible to imipenem. How should he be evaluated and treated? Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Constable E.C.,University of Basel
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Chirality is a concept that lies at the heart of organic chemistry but is often ignored in discussions of inorganic systems. This omission is all the more surprising, given the seminal role played by the study of chiral systems in the development of coordination chemistry. This tutorial review gives a brief introduction to the concept of chirality in coordination and supramolecular compounds for the non-specialist. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

The development of chemical sensors is a subject that continues to fascinate chemists in academic research. Aside from the purely academic interest, there is of course the important issue of finding suitable sensors for harmful chemical substances that might be present in the environment or at the workplaces. In addition, there is the phenomenon of luminescence vapochromism, often called vapoluminescence, which refers to changes in photoluminescence properties in the course of vapor exposure. The class of compounds in which these two closely related phenomena occur most frequently is undoubtedly the area of organometallic and coordination complexes. This review therefore focuses on transition-metal compounds that change color and/or their emission properties when exposed to VOCs. Hydrogen bond donation from methanol to the aminophosphine ligands may render the overall complex less flexible, making multiphonon relaxation less efficient. Source

Ward T.R.,University of Basel
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011

Artificial metalloenzymes are created by incorporating an organometallic catalyst within a host protein. The resulting hybrid can thus provide access to the best features of two distinct, and often complementary, systems: homogeneous and enzymatic catalysts. The coenzyme may be positioned with covalent, dative, or supramolecular anchoring strategies. Although initial reports date to the late 1970s, artificial metalloenzymes for enantioselective catalysis have gained significant momentum only in the past decade, with the aim of complementing homogeneous, enzymatic, heterogeneous, and organic catalysts. Inspired by a visionary report by Wilson and Whitesides in 1978, we have exploited the potential of biotin - avidin technology in creating artificial metalloenzymes. Owing to the remarkable affinity of biotin for either avidin or streptavidin, covalent linking of a biotin anchor to a catalyst precursor ensures that, upon stoichiometric addition of (strept)avidin, the metal moiety is quantitatively incorporated within the host protein. In this Account, we review our progress in preparing and optimizing these artificial metalloenzymes, beginning with catalytic hydrogenation as a model and expanding from there. These artificial metalloenzymes can be optimized by both chemical (variation of the biotin - spacer - ligand moiety) and genetic (mutation of avidin or streptavidin) means. Such chemogenetic optimization schemes were applied to various enantioselective transformations. The reactions implemented thus far include the following: (i) The rhodium-diphosphine catalyzed hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroaminoacids (ee up to 95%); (ii) the palladium-diphosphine catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallylacetate (ee up to 95%); (iii) the ruthenium pianostool-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of prochiral ketones (ee up to 97% for aryl-alkyl ketones and ee up to 90% for dialkyl ketones); (iv) the vanadyl-catalyzed oxidation of prochiral sulfides (ee up to 93%). A number of noteworthy features are reminiscent of homogeneous catalysis, including straightforward access to both enantiomers of the product, the broad substrate scope, organic solvent tolerance, and an accessible range of reactions that are typical of homogeneous catalysts. Enzyme-like features include access to genetic optimization, an aqueous medium as the preferred solvent, Michaelis - Menten behavior, and single-substrate derivatization. The X-ray characterization of artificial metalloenzymes provides fascinating insight into possible enantioselection mechanisms involving a well-defined second coordination sphere environment. Thus, such artificial metalloenzymes combine attractive features of both homogeneous and enzymatic kingdoms. In the spirit of surface borrowing, that is, modulating ligand affinity by harnessing existing protein surfaces, this strategy can be extended to selectively binding streptavidin-incorporated biotinylated ruthenium pianostool complexes to telomeric DNA. This application paves the way for chemical biology applications of artificial metalloenzymes. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Warburton R.J.,University of Basel
Nature Materials | Year: 2013

Self-assembled quantum dots have excellent photonic properties. For instance, a single quantum dot is a high-brightness, narrow-linewidth source of single photons. Furthermore, the environment of a single quantum dot can be tailored relatively easily using semiconductor heterostructure and post-growth processing techniques, enabling electrical control of the quantum dot charge and control over the photonic modes with which the quantum dot interacts. A single electron or hole trapped inside a quantum dot has spintronics applications. Although the spin dephasing is rather rapid, a single spin can be manipulated using optical techniques on subnanosecond timescales. Optical experiments are also providing new insights into old issues, such as the central spin problem. This Review provides a snapshot of this active field, with some indications for the future. It covers the basic materials and optical properties of single quantum dots, techniques for initializing, manipulating and reading out single spin qubits, and the mechanisms that limit the electron-spin and hole-spin coherence. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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