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Bamenda, Cameroon

Akei M.L.,University of Bamenda
Journal of Sustainable Development | Year: 2015

Regional institutions remain a spring board for the development of the rural council areas in the North West Region of Cameroon. An example is the Grassfield Participatory and Decentralized Rural Development Project, GP-DERUDEP operating in the North West region of Cameroon. These institutions carry out innovations in the council area development process. Today, with specific or common development policies they make significant contributions to the council area development process. They use the council areas as the unit for development activities and international institutions, the local councils, village organizations and the council area population as their partners in development. This study brings to focus the policies and actions as well as the performance of GP-DERUDEP, a regional development institution analyzing its contributions in the development process. The methodology consisted of a study of published and unpublished scientific documents and project institutional reports on development activities in the various council areas. This was completed with field survey in project areas. The result is revealing as evidence in the council areas show a significant innovation of the development process through capacity building of beneficiaries and the construction of socio economic infrastructure. But there is need for a close monitoring of the realizations especially the physical infrastructure if sustainable quality service provision is to be assured. © 2015 by the authors.

Nfah E.M.,University of Dschang | Nfah E.M.,University of Bamenda | Ngundam J.M.,University of Yaounde I
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper examined the initiation, funding, realisation and the current state of some renewable energy applications in the West Region of Cameroon. The findings from the study conducted showed that all of the renewable energy applications were initiated by indigenes living outside the beneficiary communities. The lack of fee-for-service tariffs was partly responsible for the failure of a wind electric installation for potable water pumping. Conflicts in a local management committee resulted in the inoperative state of a pico-hydro installation, while the lack of finances accounted for the failure of a PV system of rural Health Centre. Although, some successful results were noted in the activities of African Center for Renewable and Sustainable Technologies (ACREST) involving foreign technical expertise in small scale renewable energy applications, ACREST had difficulties with the implementation of 100 kW micro hydro project. The stakeholders identified for successful renewable energy applications in Cameroon included local management committees, microfinance institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Renewable Energy Enterprises (REEs) and universities. Local management committees must be in charge of the supervision, operation and maintenance of installed systems as well as revenue collection based on fee-for-service tariffs. Microfinance institutions should grant loans for the acquisition of financially and economically viable off-grid renewable energy systems to communities with monthly installments based on established monthly energy expenditures. NGOs are expected to provide technical assistance for the conception of community projects, the procurement of funding from cooperation partners and for the realisation of projects. REEs should have competence for sizing, installation and post-installation maintenance of renewable energy equipment. Universities must train the technicians and engineers that will be used by NGOs and REEs. This important role has been recognised by the government of Cameroon through the creation of the first Department of Renewable Energy at the University of Maroua in 2008. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pefura-Yone E.W.,University of Yaounde I | Kengne A.P.,University of Cape Town | Kuaban C.,University of Yaounde I | Kuaban C.,University of Bamenda
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: We investigated the determinants of sputum culture non-conversion following intensive phase of treatment, and assessed the effects on the outcome among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive tuberculosis (TB).Methods: This was a prospective cohort study spanning October 2009 to May 2012, among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chest service of the Yaounde Jamot Hospital, Cameroon. Logistic regressions models were used to relate baseline characteristics with non-conversion of sputum cultures after the intensive phase of treatment.Results: A total of 953 patients were admitted to the service during the study period, including 97 (10.2%) who had a positive sputum smear at the end of the intensive phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Eighty-six patients with persistent of smear positive sputa at the end of intensive phase of TB treatment were included, among whom 46 (53%) had positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (C+). The absence of haemoptysis [adjusted odd ratio 4.65 (95% confidence intervals: 1.14-18.95)] and current smoking [7.26 (1.59-33.23)] were the main determinants of sputum culture non-conversion. Of the 46C + patients, 7 (15%) were resistant to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug. Treatment failure rate was 28% among C + patients and 8% among C- patients (p = 0.023). The sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 55.4% for culture non-conversion after intensive treatment, in predicting anti-TB treatment failure.Conclusions: Failure rate is high among patients with positive sputum culture after intensive treatment, even in the absence of multi-drug resistant bacilli. Treatment should be closely monitored in these patients and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs tested in the presence of persistent positive smears following the intensive phase of treatment. © 2014 Pefura-Yone et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Fomukong S.E.A.,University of Bamenda
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016

Exchanging messages is a human activity that involves an addresser and an addressee. The addresser encodes their thoughts, most often, in codes and sends them to be decoded by the addressee. For the addressee to decode the message, both of them must use codes in the appropriate social contexts. In decoding the message therefore, the addressee makes use of the contextual information and develops a cognitive framework of codes which will recall both the denotative and connotative meanings needed for interpretation. The study aims at showing some insights into the role of cognitive analysis and pragmatic views in language use. Proverbs are a very effective means of passing across messages. The study concludes that there is a correlation between proverbs, the micro situational, the macro situational, eco-cultural elements which influence the interaction among interlocutors. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.

Kuaban C.,University of Yaounde I | Kuaban C.,University of Bamenda | Rieder H.L.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Rieder H.L.,University of Zurich | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

SETTING: Two specialised multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment units in Cameroon. OBJECTIVE: To assess outcome and adverse drug events with a standardised 12-month regimen for MDR-TB among second-line drug naïve patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of MDR-TB patients treated with a standardised 12-month regimen including gatifloxacin, clofazimine, prothionamide, ethambutol and pyrazinamide throughout, supplemented by kanamycin and isoniazid during an intensive phase of a minimum of 4 months. Progress was monitored monthly until treatment completion and twice over one year after treatment cessation. RESULTS: Eighty-seven potentially eligible patients were lost and never treated due to delayed availability of test results. Among the 150/236 eligible and treated patients, 134 (89%) successfully completed treatment, 10 died, 5 were lost, 1 failed and none relapsed. The patients' mean age was 33.7 years (range 17-68), 73 (49%) were females, 120 (80%) had failed on previous treatment, 30 (20%) were human immunodeficiency virus seropositive, 62 (43%) had a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 and 41 (27%) had radiographic involvement of five or six of the six lung zones. The most important adverse drug event was hearing impairment, which occurred in 46 of 106 (43%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results add further evidence for the usefulness of shorter, standardised regimens among patients without second-line drug resistance. © 2015 The Union.

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