Nfah E.M.,University of Dschang |
Nfah E.M.,University of Bamenda |
Ngundam J.M.,University of Yaounde I
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012
This paper examined the initiation, funding, realisation and the current state of some renewable energy applications in the West Region of Cameroon. The findings from the study conducted showed that all of the renewable energy applications were initiated by indigenes living outside the beneficiary communities. The lack of fee-for-service tariffs was partly responsible for the failure of a wind electric installation for potable water pumping. Conflicts in a local management committee resulted in the inoperative state of a pico-hydro installation, while the lack of finances accounted for the failure of a PV system of rural Health Centre. Although, some successful results were noted in the activities of African Center for Renewable and Sustainable Technologies (ACREST) involving foreign technical expertise in small scale renewable energy applications, ACREST had difficulties with the implementation of 100 kW micro hydro project. The stakeholders identified for successful renewable energy applications in Cameroon included local management committees, microfinance institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Renewable Energy Enterprises (REEs) and universities. Local management committees must be in charge of the supervision, operation and maintenance of installed systems as well as revenue collection based on fee-for-service tariffs. Microfinance institutions should grant loans for the acquisition of financially and economically viable off-grid renewable energy systems to communities with monthly installments based on established monthly energy expenditures. NGOs are expected to provide technical assistance for the conception of community projects, the procurement of funding from cooperation partners and for the realisation of projects. REEs should have competence for sizing, installation and post-installation maintenance of renewable energy equipment. Universities must train the technicians and engineers that will be used by NGOs and REEs. This important role has been recognised by the government of Cameroon through the creation of the first Department of Renewable Energy at the University of Maroua in 2008. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nfah E.M.,University of Dschang |
Nfah E.M.,University of Bamenda |
Ngundam J.M.,University of Yaounde I
Solar Energy | Year: 2012
Photovoltaic hybrid systems (PVHS) with 2. days of energy autonomy are shown to be optimal options for the supply of the daily energy demands of 33 base transceiver stations of MTN Cameroon. PVHS were computed for all sites using the technical data for a 150. Wp mono-crystalline module, the site specific hourly load data, the average monthly solar radiation and temperature. Hourly solar radiation data for all sites were downloaded using the solar resource module of HOMER and geographical coordinates of the selected sites. The 3-hourly temperature data available on a website maintained NASA was used to generate average monthly hourly temperatures needed in the calculation of the output of solar modules. The energy costs and breakeven grid distances for possible power options were computed using the Net Present Value Technique and financial data for selected power system components. The results with a PV module cost of 7.5. €/Wp, a remote diesel price of 1.12. €/l, a general inflation rate of 5% and a fuel escalation of 10% showed that the annual operational times of the diesel generator were in the range 3-356. h/year with renewable energy fractions in the range 0.89-1.00. However, only 22 PVHS had two parallel battery strings as stipulated in the request for proposal launched by MTN Cameroon in 2008. The PV array sizes evaluated for the 22 PVHS were found to be the range 2.4-10.8. kWp corresponding to daily energy demands in the range 7.31-31.79. kW. h/d. The energy costs and breakeven grid distances determined were in the ranges 0.81-1.32. €/kW. h and 10.75-32.00. km respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Teke G.N.,University of Bamenda |
Elisee K.N.,University of Dschang |
Roger K.J.,University of Dschang
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013
Background: The leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. are used in the western highlands of Cameroon for their medicinal property.Methods: The leaves of this species were collected in the West Region of Cameroon in August 2010 and subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain the essential oil. The oil was fractionated using adsorption column chromatography. The chemical composition of this oil and its fractions was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial species and six species of Candida by the agar diffusion method. Macrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal and/or fungicidal concentrations (MBCs and MFCs). The toxicity profile of the oil was studied using Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats.Results: Forty-nine compounds were identified in the essential oil. The main components were germacrene D (18.5%), epi-zonarene (8.2%), cis-calamenene (8.2%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%), linalool (6.0%) and umbellulone (6.0%). Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans were most susceptible to the oil (MICs of 1.25 and 0.16% for bacteria and fungi respectively). The estimated oral LD50 was 6.33 g/kg. There was an increase in sera ALT and AST activities while the blood cells and protein levels decreased in treated animals.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of C. lusitanica leaf oil in the treatment of whooping cough and skin infections though it should be used with care. This plant oil could be useful in the standardisation of phytomedicine. © 2013 Teke et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Nfah E.M.,University of Dschang |
Nfah E.M.,University of Bamenda
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013
Optimal photovoltaic hybrid systems (PVHS) have been evaluated for remote villages in Far North Cameroon using a recent iterative optimisation method based on desired annual number of generator hours and the Net Present Value technique. PVHS configurations with the same PV array size were computed for varying energy demand (D1) and constant daily energy demand (D2) when the minimum desired renewable energy fraction was set to 20%. However, the annual diesel generator operating times in PVHS configurations were found to be higher for D1 at renewable energy fractions greater than 71.9%. The results of economic analysis using a PV module cost of a remote fuel price of 1.12 €/l, inflation rate of 5%, discount rate of 6%, 2 days autonomy, PV module costs in the range 7.5 €/Wp-0.75 €/Wp, and fuel escalation rate in the range 5%-20%, showed that PVHS were the optimal options for D2 for all combinations of sensitivity variables. PVHS were also found to be the optimal option for D1 at a fuel escalation rate of at most 10%. SPVS were found to be optimal option for D1 at a fuel escalation is at least 15% and PV module costs are in the range 2.25 €/Wp -0.75 €/Wp. The renewable energy fractions evaluated for optimal PVHS options were found to be in the ranges 88.7%-97.0% and 89.4%-99.9 % for D1 and D2 respectively. Consequently, PVHS are the optimal power option for the electrification of villages in Far North Cameroon, with annual solar insolation of at least 5.5 kWh/m2/d and annual energy demand of 72.6 kWh/d if the fuel escalation rate is at most 10%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Mbuagbaw L.,McMaster University |
Ndongmanji E.,University of Bamenda
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2012
Objective: This cross-sectional study investigates the factors associated with patient comprehension of frequently used prescription patterns and explores patients' preferences for the various methods. Methods: We interviewed two hundred and four consenting patients selected consecutively from the waiting rooms of the St. Elizabeth Catholic Hospital-Shisong in the North West Region of Cameroon. We recorded socio-demographic data and their understanding and preference for four prescription modalities: pictograms, written out, symbols and Latin abbreviations. We studied the relationship between these variables in a logistic multivariate analysis. Results: Understanding was best with symbols (89.7%) and worst when Latin abbreviations (26.9%) were used. Higher levels of education were associated with better understanding of Latin abbreviations (OR 18.87; 95% CI 2.44-142.86), written out prescriptions (OR 58.82; 95% CI 23.25-333.33), symbols (OR 1.47; 95% CI 4.25-50.00) and pictograms (OR 52.63; 92% CI 1.85-142.86) after controlling for confounding. Participants mostly preferred pictograms (40.7%) and written-out prescriptions (30.9%). Conclusion: Latin abbreviations were the most difficult to understand and should no longer be used. Symbols are more easily understood. Practice implications: Latin abbreviations should be discouraged. Symbols are better, especially for patients with low levels of education. Prescribing using pictograms and plain text may facilitate understanding in this setting. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ntonifor N.H.,University of Bamenda |
Veyufambom S.,University of Bamenda
Malaria Journal | Year: 2016
Background: In Cameroon, malaria continues to be endemic and the first major cause of morbidity and mortality among the most vulnerable groups - children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, people living with HIV/AIDS and the poor. The use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) is one of the recommended measures to prevent malaria. The present study was aimed at accessing the acceptability and effective use of LLINs on the prevalence of malaria in PMI Nkwen, Bambui and its environs. Methods: Hospital-based diagnosis consisted of 476 blood samples that were screened using the rapid diagnostic kits to determine the prevalence of malaria among users and non-users of LLINs. A structured questionnaire was also administered to pregnant women and children less than 5 years of age (476 hospital-based and 350 from the community) which consisted of demographic information, availability, accessibility affordability, acceptability, effective use and problems encountered with the use of LLINs. Results: Result obtained showed that out of the 476 hospital-based patients, 29 tested positive for malaria giving an overall prevalence of 6.09 %. Equally, results of the questionnaire showed that 743 (89.9 %) of the respondents owned LLINs with up to 649 (87.3 %) having been given to them free-of-charge, and that 578 (77.8 %) were using their LLINs to sleep, even though 18.2 % of the respondents used their LLINs for other purposes, such as fishing, nursing seeds and footfall nets. Malaria was minimal among users of LLINs than non-users and the results were significant at P ≤ 0.05. Also 71.9 % of the respondents said that their nets were in good condition while 52.2 % of them said the major problem with the usage of LLINs was heat and the feeling of suffocation. Conclusion: These results indicate that LLINs have significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria among the studied population, and so the government should not relent its efforts in the distribution of these nets especially to the vulnerable groups in order eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. Utilization of LLINs needs to be encouraged to match ownership, while free distribution of ITNs to vulnerable groups needs to be continuous and consistent. © 2016 The Author(s).
Akei M.L.,University of Bamenda
Journal of Sustainable Development | Year: 2015
Regional institutions remain a spring board for the development of the rural council areas in the North West Region of Cameroon. An example is the Grassfield Participatory and Decentralized Rural Development Project, GP-DERUDEP operating in the North West region of Cameroon. These institutions carry out innovations in the council area development process. Today, with specific or common development policies they make significant contributions to the council area development process. They use the council areas as the unit for development activities and international institutions, the local councils, village organizations and the council area population as their partners in development. This study brings to focus the policies and actions as well as the performance of GP-DERUDEP, a regional development institution analyzing its contributions in the development process. The methodology consisted of a study of published and unpublished scientific documents and project institutional reports on development activities in the various council areas. This was completed with field survey in project areas. The result is revealing as evidence in the council areas show a significant innovation of the development process through capacity building of beneficiaries and the construction of socio economic infrastructure. But there is need for a close monitoring of the realizations especially the physical infrastructure if sustainable quality service provision is to be assured. © 2015 by the authors.
Fomukong S.E.A.,University of Bamenda
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016
Exchanging messages is a human activity that involves an addresser and an addressee. The addresser encodes their thoughts, most often, in codes and sends them to be decoded by the addressee. For the addressee to decode the message, both of them must use codes in the appropriate social contexts. In decoding the message therefore, the addressee makes use of the contextual information and develops a cognitive framework of codes which will recall both the denotative and connotative meanings needed for interpretation. The study aims at showing some insights into the role of cognitive analysis and pragmatic views in language use. Proverbs are a very effective means of passing across messages. The study concludes that there is a correlation between proverbs, the micro situational, the macro situational, eco-cultural elements which influence the interaction among interlocutors. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.
Yamgoue S.B.,University of Bamenda
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2012
This paper deals with analytical approximation of non-linear oscillations of conservative asymmetric single degree of freedom systems, using the method of harmonic balance with linearization. This technique which consists of linearizing the governing equations prior to harmonic balance permits us to avoid solving complicated non-linear algebraic equations. But it could be applied only to symmetric oscillations for which it proves to be very simple and effective. This restriction is due to the fact that the method requires an appropriate initial approximate solution as input. Such a solution could not be readily identified for nonsymmetric oscillations, contrary the symmetric case where the fundamental harmonic works well. For these nonsymmetric oscillations, we propose in this paper to consider an initial approximation which consists of a small bias plus the fundamental harmonic. By expanding the corresponding harmonic balance equations respectively to first and second order in the bias, we are able to easily determine the bias and thus the required initial approximate solution that yields consistent solution at higher order.We use three examples to illustrate the proposed approach and reveal its simplicity and its very good convergence. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Nsamenang A.B.,University of Bamenda
Contributions to Human Development | Year: 2012
Over centuries, both scientific and popular literature on Africa's children has been generated mainly by the eclectic writings of Western travelers, merchants, missionaries, colonists, and lately by tourist researchers. Europeans engaged in Slave Trade in central and southern Africa between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries noted that some children orphaned by famine sold their infant siblings for grain. Eurocentric literature on Africa is suffused with Darwinian insinuations and ethnocentrism, even racist ridicule. However, some also revealed that Africans understood children differently from Westerners, whose directive theories and narratives subvert Africa's ways of thinking about children and their development. This brief historical piece exposes three crucial lacunas, namely, the racism in child development science, the paucity of programmatic child development research, especially by African-born scholars, and the inattention to children's agency inherent in Africa's worldview and social capital. This chapter has sketched one framework for considering how to research some of the ways Africans, exemplified by Cameroonian parents, think about children and their development. It has overviewed the extent to which parental values permit and promote the agency by which children engage in self-learning and identity development within local peer cultures and global opportunities they co-construct. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.