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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

Schweitzer E.J.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association | Year: 2012

Cloud computing refers to subscription-based, fee-for service utilization of computer hardware and software over the Internet. The model is gaining acceptance for business information technology (IT) applications because it allows capacity and functionality to increase on the fly without major investment in infrastructure, personnel or licensing fees. Large IT investments can be converted to a series of smaller operating expenses. Cloud architectures could potentially be superior to traditional electronic health record (EHR) designs in terms of economy, efficiency and utility. A central issue for EHR developers in the US is that these systems are constrained by federal regulatory legislation and oversight. These laws focus on security and privacy, which are well-recognized challenges for cloud computing systems in general. EHRs built with the cloud computing model can achieve acceptable privacy and security through business associate contracts with cloud providers that specify compliance requirements, performance metrics and liability sharing. Source

Pozharski E.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2012

Experimental errors as determined by data-processing algorithms in macromolecular crystallography are compared with the direct error estimates obtained by a multiple crystal data-collection protocol. It is found that several-fold error inflation is necessary to account for crystal-to-crystal variation. It is shown that similar error inflation is observed for data collected from multiple sections of the same crystal, indicating non-uniform crystal growth as one of the likely sources of additional data variation. Other potential sources of error inflation include differential X-ray absorption for different reflections and variation of unit-cell parameters. The underestimation of the experimental errors is more severe in lower resolution shells and for reflections characterized by a higher signal-to-noise ratio. These observations partially account for the gap between the expected and the observed R values in macromolecular crystallography. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved. Source

Flajnik M.F.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Kasahara M.,Hokkaido University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2010

The adaptive immune system (AIS) in mammals, which is centred on lymphocytes bearing antigen receptors that are generated by somatic recombination, arose approximately 500 million years ago in jawed fish. This intricate defence system consists of many molecules, mechanisms and tissues that are not present in jawless vertebrates. Two macroevolutionary events are believed to have contributed to the genesis of the AIS: the emergence of the recombination-activating gene (RAG) transposon, and two rounds of whole-genome duplication. It has recently been discovered that a non-RAG-based AIS with similarities to the jawed vertebrate AIS including two lymphoid cell lineages arose in jawless fish by convergent evolution. We offer insights into the latest advances in this field and speculate on the selective pressures that led to the emergence and maintenance of the AIS. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Kane M.A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2012

Metabolic conversion of vitamin A (retinol) into retinoic acid (RA) controls numerous physiological processes. 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, is a high affinity ligand for retinoid X receptor (RXR) and also activates retinoic acid receptor (RAR). Despite the identification of candidate enzymes that produce 9cRA and the importance of RXRs as established by knockout experiments, in vivo detection of 9cRA in tissue was elusive until recently when 9cRA was identified as an endogenous pancreas retinoid by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology. This review will discuss the current status of the analysis, occurrence, and function of 9cRA. Understanding both the nuclear receptor-mediated and non-genomic mechanisms of 9cRA will aid in the elucidation of disease physiology and possibly lead to the development of new retinoid-based therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Baschat A.A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2011

Placental dysfunction leading to fetal growth restriction (FGR) is an important risk factor for neurodevelopmental delay. Recent observations clarify that FGR evolves prenatally from a preclinical phase of abnormal nutrient and endocrine milieu to a clinical phase that differs in characteristics in preterm and term pregnancies. Relating childhood neurodevelopment to these prenatal characteristics offers potential advantages in identifying mechanisms and timing of critical insults. Based on available studies, lagging head circumference, overall degree of FGR, gestational age, and umbilical artery (UA), aortic and cerebral Doppler parameters are the independent prenatal determinants of infant and childhood neurodevelopment. While head circumference is important independent of gestational age, overall growth delay has the greatest impact in early onset FGR. Gestational age has an overriding negative effect on neurodevelopment until 32-34 weeks' gestation. Accordingly, the importance of Doppler status is demonstrated from 27 weeks onward and is greatest when there is reversed end-diastolic velocity in the UA or aorta. While these findings predominate in early-onset FGR, cerebral vascular impedance changes become important in late onset FGR. Abnormal motor and neurological delay occur in preterm FGR, while cognitive effects and abnormalities that can be related to specific brain areas increase in frequency as gestation advances, suggesting different pathophysiology and evolving vulnerability of the fetal brain. Observational and management studies do not suggest that fetal deterioration has an independent impact on neurodevelopment in early-onset FGR. In late-onset FGR further research needs to establish benefits of perinatal intervention, as the pattern of vulnerability and effects of fetal deterioration appear to differ in the third trimester. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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