Saint Charles, MD, United States
Saint Charles, MD, United States

The University of Baltimore , located in downtown Baltimore, Maryland in the Mt. Vernon neighborhood at 1420 N. Charles Street, is part of the University System of Maryland. The university is a public undergraduate, graduate, and professional university located in the heart of the state's largest city. UB's schools and colleges provide education in business, law, public affairs, and the applied arts and science. Wikipedia.

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Ellis R.K.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | Kunszt Z.,ETH Zurich | Melnikov K.,University of Baltimore | Zanderighi G.,University of Oxford
Physics Reports | Year: 2012

The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently, new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Brennand K.J.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Landek-Salgado M.A.,University of Baltimore | Sawa A.,University of Baltimore
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating complex genetic mental condition that is heterogeneous in terms of clinical etiologies, symptoms, and outcomes. Despite decades of postmortem, neuroimaging, pharmacological, and genetic studies of patients, in addition to animal models, much of the biological mechanisms that underlie the pathology of SZ remain unknown. The ability to reprogram adult somatic cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides a new tool that supplies live human neurons for modeling complex genetic conditions such as SZ. The purpose of this review is to discuss the technical and clinical constraints currently limiting hiPSC-based studies. We posit that reducing the clinical heterogeneity of hiPSC-based studies, by selecting subjects with common clinical manifestations or rare genetic variants, will help our ability to draw meaningful insights from the necessarily small patient cohorts that can be studied at this time. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Castellani R.J.,University of Baltimore | Perry G.,University of Texas at San Antonio
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Current pathogenic theories for Alzheimer disease (AD) and aging favor the notion that lesions and their constituent proteins are the initiators of disease due to toxicity. Whether this is because structural pathology is traditionally viewed as deleterious, and whether this, in turn, is a fundamental misinterpretation of the relationship between pathology and pathogenesis across the spectrum of chronic diseases, remains to be determined. As more and more detailed information about the biochemical constituents of AD lesions becomes available, it may also be argued that just as much knowledge of cellular physiology as pathophysiology has been gained. Indeed, essentially all major proteins in AD lesions are derived from molecular cascades, which are in turn highly conserved across cells, tissues, and species. Moreover, the lesions themselves are observed in the cognitively intact, and sometimes in large numbers, while major consensus criteria indicate that an extent of pathology is normal with advanced age. As the medical science community continues to pursue lesion targeting for therapeutic purposes, the notion that AD pathology is indicative of an active host response or environmental adaptation, and therefore a poor target, is becoming clearer. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Vollenweider D.J.,University of Baltimore
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Many patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics remains uncertain as systematic reviews and clinical trials have shown conflicting results. To assess the effects of antibiotics in the management of acute COPD exacerbations on treatment failure as observed between seven days and one month after treatment initiation (primary outcome) and on other patient-important outcomes (mortality, adverse events, length of hospital stay). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and other electronically available databases up to September 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in people with acute COPD exacerbations comparing antibiotic therapy and placebo with a follow-up of at least seven days. Two review authors independently screened references and extracted data from trial reports. We kept the three groups of outpatients, inpatients and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) separate for benefit outcomes and mortality because we considered them to be clinically too different to be summarised in one group. We considered outpatients to have a mild to moderate exacerbation, inpatients to have a severe exacerbation and ICU patients to have a very severe exacerbation. Where outcomes or study details were not reported we requested missing data from the authors of the primary studies. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) for treatment failure, Peto odds ratios (OR) for rare events (mortality and adverse events) and weighted mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes using fixed-effect models. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. Sixteen trials with 2068 participants were included. In outpatients (mild to moderate exacerbations), there was evidence of low quality that antibiotics did statistically significantly reduce the risk for treatment failure between seven days and one month after treatment initiation (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.94; I(2) = 35%) but they did not significantly reduce the risk when the meta-analysis was restricted to currently available drugs (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.01; I(2) = 33%). Evidence of high quality showed that antibiotics statistically significantly reduced the risk of treatment failure in inpatients with severe exacerbations (ICU not included) (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; I(2) = 47%) regardless of whether restricted to current drugs. The only trial with 93 patients admitted to the ICU showed a large and statistically significant effect on treatment failure (RR 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45; high-quality evidence).Evidence of low-quality from four trials in inpatients showed no effect of antibiotics on mortality (Peto OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.37 to 2.79). High-quality evidence from one trial showed a statistically significant effect on mortality in ICU patients (Peto OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.72). Length of hospital stay (in days) was similar in the antibiotics and placebo groups except for the ICU study where antibiotics statistically significantly reduced length of hospital stay (mean difference -9.60 days; 95% CI -12.84 to -6.36 days). One trial showed no effect of antibiotics on re-exacerbations between two and six weeks after treatment initiation. Only one trial (N = 35) reported health-related quality of life but did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control group.Evidence of moderate quality showed that the overall incidence of adverse events was higher in the antibiotics groups (Peto OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.27). Patients treated with antibiotics experienced statistically significantly more diarrhoea based on three trials (Peto OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.11 to 6.17; high-quality evidence). Antibiotics for COPD exacerbations showed large and consistent beneficial effects across outcomes of patients admitted to an ICU. However, for outpatients and inpatients the results were inconsistent. The risk for treatment failure was significantly reduced in both inpatients and outpatients when all trials (1957 to 2012) were included but not when the analysis for outpatients was restricted to currently used antibiotics. Also, antibiotics had no statistically significant effect on mortality and length of hospital stay in inpatients and almost no data on patient-reported outcomes exist. These inconsistent effects call for research into clinical signs and biomarkers that help identify patients who benefit from antibiotics and patients who experience no effect, and in whom downsides of antibiotics (side effects, costs and multi-resistance) could be avoided.

Ferraris D.,University of Baltimore
Future medicinal chemistry | Year: 2013

Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is a member of the mixed lineage kinase subfamily. Mixed lineage kinases are upstream MAP3Ks that activate the JNK pathway. DLK is primarily responsible for activating JNK and mediating the apoptotic stress response in various cell types, specifically neurons. Inhibition and knockdown of DLK has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease, glaucoma, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Several series of ATP-binding site inhibitors have been identified through profiling efforts providing launch points for future medicinal chemistry programs.

Von Geldern G.,University of Baltimore | Mowry E.M.,University of Baltimore
Nature Reviews Neurology | Year: 2012

The effect of nutrition and dietary supplements on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a topic of great interest to both patients and clinicians. In particular, vitamin D status has been shown to influence both the incidence and the course of MS. High vitamin D levels are probably protective against the development of MS, although the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in slowing progression of MS remains to be established. The influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the development and course of MS has also long been under investigation. Small clinical trials suggest a modest reduction in the severity and duration of relapses in patients with MS receiving PUFA supplements. Other nutritional factors have been evaluated for their effect on MS disease progression, including milk proteins, gluten, probiotics, antioxidants (uric acid, vitamins A, C and E, lipoic acid), polyphenols, Ginkgo biloba extracts and curcumin. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of these dietary components on the relapse rate and progression of MS. This Review gives an overview of the literature on the nutritional factors most commonly implicated as having an effect on MS and discusses the biological rationale that is thought to underlie their influence. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Singhal K.,University of Baltimore | Singhal J.,University of Baltimore
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

Although knowledge in operations and SUPPL.y-chain management (O&SCM) has advanced substantially during the last six decades, our community has not fully utilized the potential for radical innovations. We identify two sets of opportunities for pursuing radical innovations. First, there is an opportunity to pursue all phases of science, including exploratory and qualitative research, developing theories, causation and internal validity, and testing models and theories for external validity (the ability to generalize knowledge to other situations). This would broaden the domain covered by each research effort, minimize the bias resulting from the choice of research paradigm and research domain, to enhance external validity, and to minimize the gap between our research efforts and the real world our community seeks to reshape. Second, there is an opportunity to pursue multiple perspectives because a scientific conclusion valid for a narrow domain may prove to be partially true or even false if one obtains multiple perspectives. Multiple perspectives can be obtained by investigating different parts of the system, by employing different methods of analysis, by using different sources of data, or by using different subsets of the same data. Developing scientific knowledge requires pursuit of all phases of science and of multiple perspectives. In a separate paper, we propose and analyze ways to accomplish it. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Singhal K.,University of Baltimore | Singhal J.,University of Baltimore
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

In a separate paper (Singhal and Singhal, 2011b), we identified two sets of opportunities for radical innovations in operations and SUPPL.y-chain management (O&SCM): pursuing all phases of science and pursuing multiple perspectives. In this paper, we propose and analyze ways to accomplish this task. A network of research teams can be effective in obtaining multiple perspectives and discovering radical innovation if it conducts intensive research over an extended period. Outliers are a source of multiple perspectives and innovative ideas and can help in identifying and addressing risks. Similarly, meta-analyses and syntheses of published works can provide multiple perspectives and lead to radical innovations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sulkowski M.S.,University of Baltimore
Liver International | Year: 2013

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is common among HIV-infected patients. Over the past 15 years, effective HIV treatment has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of AIDS-related death; over the same time period, HCV-related liver disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment with peginterferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) has been recommended for the treatment of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients at the greatest risk of developing liver disease. However, the effectiveness of this HCV treatment has been low because of limited efficacy in patients infected with HCV genotype 1. More recently, HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors, telaprevir and boceprevir, in combination with PEG-IFN/RBV have led to significantly higher sustained viral response rates in HIV-uninfected patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The potential use of these agents in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection is complicated by the potential for drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and the HCV protease inhibitors and uncertainty regarding the safety and effectiveness of the combination therapy in this population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2011

Enterprise Sciences, Inc., and the University of Maryland School of Medicine have completed a Navy Phase I STTR feasibility and assessment study validating a new technology for portable devices that detect and monitor coagulopathy in traumatic injury and critically ill patients. This proposal is for a Phase II continuation of this work which will:Complete the validation of the technology with integrated breadboard blood sample testing from coagulopathic animal models; and produce an integrated One-of-Kind Alpha prototype demonstrating the ability to fabricate a rugged portable coagulopathy instrument

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