Saint Charles, MD, United States

University of Baltimore

www.ubalt.edu
Saint Charles, MD, United States

The University of Baltimore , located in downtown Baltimore, Maryland in the Mt. Vernon neighborhood at 1420 N. Charles Street, is part of the University System of Maryland. The university is a public undergraduate, graduate, and professional university located in the heart of the state's largest city. UB's schools and colleges provide education in business, law, public affairs, and the applied arts and science. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

NORRISTOWN, PA, May 04, 2017 /24-7PressRelease/ -- Pennsylvania family law attorney Melissa Boyd, a partner at High Swartz LLP, recently acted as faculty for the Pennsylvania Bar Institute's Family Law Institute, held April 19 and 20 at the CLE Conference Center at the Wanamaker Building in Philadelphia. The Family Law Institute has become an annual tradition for family law practitioners in the Philadelphia area. The conference, which also was simulcast to numerous locations across the state, provided the latest practical information and domestic relations practice hints. Boyd spoke on "Ethics and Civility in Family Law." Mary Cushing Doherty, also a partner at High Swartz and the chair of the firm's family law practice, acted as a course planner for the Family Law Institute. A frequent presenter on family law topics for the Pennsylvania Bar Institute, the Family Law Section of the Pennsylvania Bar Association and the Montgomery Bar Association, Boyd concentrates her practice on domestic relations. She is a fierce advocate for her clients in various areas including, but not limited to, divorce, pre-nuptial and post-divorce agreements, child custody and support, equitable distribution, alimony, adoption, protection from abuse, and juvenile law. She has dedicated her professional career to preserving the rights of children and their families. Boyd is a fellow of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers and a member of the family law sections of the American Bar Association, Pennsylvania Bar Association and the Montgomery Bar Association. She serves as the chair of the Family Law Section of the Montgomery Bar Association. A graduate of Washington College and the University of Baltimore School of Law, Boyd has received the highest possible rating from Martindale-Hubbell and has been named one of the Ten Leaders of Matrimonial Law in Philadelphia. Doherty has more than 35 years of legal experience in the area of family law and concentrates her practice on all aspects of marital dissolution and family law issues including divorce, child support, visitation, custody, spousal support and alimony, premarital agreement asset protection, complex property division and more. She is a graduate of the University of Delaware and the Villanova University School of Law. High Swartz LLP is a general practice law firm serving clients in the Delaware Valley and throughout Pennsylvania from offices in Norristown and Doylestown. Established in 1914, High Swartz serves the needs of businesses, municipalities, government entities, nonprofits and individuals. With offices in Bucks County and Montgomery County, the full-service law firm provides comprehensive counsel and legal support to individuals and business entities of all sizes across a broad spectrum of industries throughout Pennsylvania and New Jersey. For more information, go to http://www.highswartz.com.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The Mayor’s Office of Employment Development, in partnership with theCONNECT facilitated by The Ingoma Foundation, is co-hosting the Youth Rise Workforce Summit, a two-day event to disrupt historically divisive boundaries that threaten Baltimore’s economic environment. The Summit will bring together more than 100 individuals representing young adults, business leaders, City and State agencies, post-secondary and philanthropic institutions, and training and wrap-around service providers. The convening will create a space for inner and cross-sector collaboration and solution building for viable and sustainable employment pathways for disconnected youth. There are approximately 42,000 young adults between the ages of 26-24 residing in the Baltimore Region, who are neither working nor enrolled in school. The Summit will examine the network of challenges faced by employers and young people that can be overcome through bringing the community together to apply creative and collaborative problem-solving strategies. The Ingoma Foundation’s Executive Director, Paulo Gregory Harris, says, “This first Youth Rise Workforce Summit is bringing the brightest and most committed stakeholders in the young-adult workforce development field together for this pioneering two-day Summit. The Summit is not about talking heads, it is about putting our heads together, across the lines that have separated us in Baltimore to stage a quantum leap in understanding and strategic visioning to heal the divides that, in part, led to the Youth Uprising in Baltimore, April 27th, two years ago. Mike Binko, Founder and CEO of Startup Maryland says, “Startup Maryland wants to encourage and nurture the ‘hustle’ side of entrepreneurship. In entrepreneurship, the hustle is what really separates the cream from the crop. When it comes to workforce development, we believe that the best pathway to a job is to become and entrepreneur, and be your own boss, and own your own venture and the equity that is associated with that” SUMMIT GOAL Provide an innovative and collaborative environment for critical workforce stakeholders to bridge their perspectives to develop sustainable strategies that support young adult access to employment and entrepreneurship opportunities. PRESS OPPORTUNITIES The Summit will begin with a visit of Startup Maryland’s Start 1 Up Road Show tour bus, supporting emerging entrepreneurs to “pitch” out the first ball. Young-adult entrepreneurs from the Youth Rise Enterprise Initiative, will pitch their ideas in the bus’ video booth. The Start 1 Up bus will be onsite from 9:00am to 11:00am on Thursday April 27, 2017. Participants will be available for interviews from 9:00am – 10:00am. Press should check in at the registration desk in the lobby of the University of Baltimore William H. Thumel Business Center by 9:30am. theCONNECT is a Network of 100+ organizations, businesses, city and state agencies, foundations, training and wrap-around services collaborating to create employment and entrepreneurship opportunities for young adults in Baltimore City, ages 18-29, facilitated by the Ingoma Foundation. theCONNECT is Funded By: Aspen Forum for Community Solutions, Opportunity Youth Incentive Fund, Annie E. Casey Foundation, T. Rowe Price Foundation Contact: Kirsten Allen at (443) 453-7012 for more information.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

National Life’s Board of Directors has elected Chief Executive Officer Mehran Assadi chairman of the board, effective immediately. Assadi has served as president and CEO of the company since 2009. He will retain those titles as he also assumes the chairmanship. He succeeds Thomas H. MacLeay, a former president and CEO who has served as chairman since 2002. MacLeay will remain on the nine-member Board as the lead director. The unanimous election of Assadi by the Board of Directors followed the annual meeting on May 12, 2017. “Mehran has transformed our company,” said MacLeay. “We are now on the launching pad for a really remarkable future.” “It has been my great privilege to lead National Life,” said Assadi. “I am honored and humbled to be asked to now lead the board as well.” Assadi joined National Life in September 2003. Two years later he was appointed the company’s president of Life and Annuity. In 2009 he succeeded MacLeay as president and chief executive officer. Assadi has led major growth in sales of National Life’s life and annuity products and worked to build a culture of collaboration, engagement and empowerment among employees. Before joining National Life Group Assadi served as chief marketing officer and chief information officer at Provident Mutual in Newark, Delaware. Before that he served as executive vice president, chief marketing officer and chief information officer at Provident Mutual in Newark, Delaware. Previously he served for 16 years in various senior positions with United States Fidelity and Guaranty of Baltimore. A graduate of Towson University, Assadi has a Master's in Management Information Systems from the University of Baltimore. Assadi and his wife Janet have three sons, Anthony, Jordan, and Ryan MacLeay joined National Life in 1976 as a security analyst, rapidly advancing through the management ranks and serving in pivotal positions at critical times in the company’s growth and expansion. He became president and chief operating officer in 1996; in 2002 he was named chief executive officer and chairman of the Board. He stepped down as president and CEO in 2008. National Life’s sales growth has made it the fastest growing life insurance company in America during the past 10 years among all life insurance companies with individual life sales of at least $50 million in 2006.* In industry rankings maintained by LIMRA, the company has climbed from being the 32nd largest life insurance company in 2011 to the 18th largest company in 2016 for individual life insurance sales. National Life Group has been based in Montpelier, Vermont, since the chartering of National Life Insurance Company in 1848. It has more than 1,000 employees divided between campuses in Montpelier and Dallas, Texas. At National Life, our story is simple: For more than 168 years we’ve worked hard to deliver on our promises to millions of people with our vision of providing peace of mind in times of need. It’s our cause, stemming from a deep passion to live our values to do good, be good and make good, every day. Learn more at NationalLife.com. National Life Group® is a trade name of National Life Insurance Company, founded in Montpelier, Vt., in 1848, Life Insurance Company of the Southwest, Addison, Texas, chartered in 1955, and their affiliates. Each company of National Life Group is solely responsible for its own financial condition and contractual obligations. Life Insurance Company of the Southwest is not an authorized insurer in New York and does not conduct insurance business in New York.


News Article | May 19, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

The region's top financial event provides the Latino community with practical skills - in Spanish - that help shape critical personal finance decisions. Attendees will learn about budgeting and financial goal-setting, attaining homeownership, paying for college, entrepreneurship: making start-ups thrive and more! "Education and access to financial resources are critical tools needed to help eradicate poverty, said Cónsul Rafael Laveaga, Consular Section of the Mexican Embassy. "We've been delighted to partner with the Featherstone Foundation for three consecutive years." Catalina Rodriguez-Lima, director of the Mayor's Office of Immigrant and Multicultural Affairs (MIMA), will discuss the creation of a special immigrant education and defense fund called Safe City Baltimore in collaboration with the Open Society Institute-Baltimore. During a special awards ceremony, six talented Latino students will receive the inaugural Featherstone Latino College Scholarships, $2,000 merit-based awards as an incentive to increase Latino enrollment in higher education. "I created these scholarships to help eliminate financial barriers to higher education," said Lanaea C. Featherstone, president, William & Lanaea C. Featherstone Foundation and OSI-Baltimore Fellow Alumna. "I'm thrilled to recognize Baltimore's young Latino talent." "The University of Baltimore was so pleased by the quality of scholarship applicants for this year's awards and is excited to assist the recipients on their way to a college degree," said Victoria Reid, vice president of enrollment management and marketing at the University of Baltimore. The family-friendly event offers financial workshops organized by State Farm™. "State Farm is honored to support such a vital event that helps Baltimore's Hispanic families thrive," said State Farm Agent David Rosario. "Financial education is a critical component to a robust workforce and a vibrant economy; we are pleased to sponsor the event again this year." "BGE is proud to work in partnership with the Featherstone Foundation to help develop and advance the skills and knowledge of adult learners. An educated workforce not only benefits the individual but also contributes to preparing them to compete in and contribute to the local and global economy," said Chimaobi Chijioke, manager of external affairs, BGE. The conference is expected to attract 100 families; Girl Scouts of Central Maryland will also provide activities for children. Sponsors include: State Farm, BGE, the Consular Section of the Mexican Embassy, University of Baltimore and Howard Bank. The conference kicks off 10am on May 20 at the University of Baltimore's H. Mebane Turner Learning Commons:1415 Maryland Ave. Baltimore, MD 21201. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/charm-citys-top-latino-financial-conference-announces-all-star-line-up-300460558.html


News Article | May 16, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

"Kia has stellar academic credentials and deep professional experience, and we are thrilled she is joining us.  Kia will be invaluable in helping to advance our mission of promoting a creative, respectful, and inclusive culture that values the diversity of all people, and harnesses their experiences, perspectives, talents, and capabilities," said Peter Devlin, President of Fish & Richardson.  "As a firm that serves the world's greatest visionaries, we know that creativity and innovation almost inevitably are the result of seeing the world from multiple different perspectives.  We believe in the power of diversity to spark innovation." The firm also recently completed a Diversity & Inclusion strategic plan, which sets goals for the firm to increase the number of individuals from diverse backgrounds in the firm, increase the percentage of diverse individuals in positions of leadership, and increase the number of diverse individuals with key responsibility with firm clients.  In addition to helping to execute the Diversity & Inclusion strategic plan, Scipio will be responsible for planning, developing, and directing strategies to help Fish effectively recruit, develop, and retain its diverse workforce, and for supporting an environment where all people feel included. Scipio received her J.D. from George Washington University Law School in 2001 and her B.A., cum laude, from Spelman College in 1998.  She was a law clerk for the Honorable Zinora Mitchell-Rankin and the Honorable Robert R. Rigsby following law school.  She has served as an adjunct professor on issues of diversity and inclusion at Georgetown University Law Center, Trinity Washington University, and the University of Baltimore School of Law.  She is an active member of NALP, where she has held several leadership roles. Fish & Richardson is a global patent prosecution, intellectual property litigation, and commercial litigation law firm with more than 400 attorneys and technology specialists in the U.S. and Europe.  Our success is rooted in our creative and inclusive culture, which values the diversity of people, experiences, and perspectives.  Fish is the #1 U.S. patent litigation firm, handling nearly three times as many cases as its nearest competitor; a powerhouse patent prosecution firm; a top-tier trademark and copyright firm; and the #1 firm at the Patent Trial and Appeal Board, with more cases than any other firm.  Since 1878, Fish attorneys have been winning cases worth billions in controversy – often by making new law – for the world's most innovative and influential technology leaders.  For more information, visit https://www.fr.com or follow us at @FishRichardson. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/fish--richardson-hires-kia-scipio-as-new-diversity--inclusion-manager-300458516.html


News Article | May 30, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Two custom-designed interior curtains of metal mesh fabric woven by Cambridge Architectural border the Central Gallery at the Moody Center for the Arts at Rice University. The new home for creativity on Rice’s Houston campus opened in February 2017 and is dedicated to interdisciplinary collaboration through the arts. Working with Michael Maltzan Architecture in Los Angeles, Cambridge wove two curtains of flexible metal fabric to provide an open yet protective partition for the Central Gallery. The space hosts experimental artwork exhibitions and has a sprung wood floor for dance and social events. The mesh in Cambridge’s Mid Balance metal fabric pattern has 50 percent open area to meet the design intent of the architect and affirm the Moody Center’s mission to foster connections between artistic disciplines. According to Michael Maltzan, design principal, the Moody Center’s interior space creates a sense of openness and possibility. Sightlines transact through spaces creating layered views of the myriad activities playing across the Central Gallery, other exhibition areas and the building’s production and instructional spaces. “So much of what I was trying to do in this building was to not design a specific stand-alone space,” Maltzan said, “but to make spaces that would feel very connected to each other where you would get a view of something you wouldn’t normally get a view of.” Because the curtains must also serve as a protective barrier for rotating art exhibitions, engineers at Cambridge Architectural designed a system that attaches the flexible metal fabric to hooks at the top and bottom so they can roll smoothly along a track. The mesh is hung sideways so it can pivot at the rods, which allows the curtains to collapse and fold at the push of a button. When fully extended, they can be locked to enclose the artwork on display. "The project team recognized the additional security and durability that Cambridge's Mid Balance weave provides over other metal curtain options, which is something we stress for this type of application,” said David Zeitlin, Cambridge Architectural Sales Director. The Moody Center fabric is the latest interior curtain created by Cambridge for an academic institution. Other curtain projects have been completed for Old Dominion University, Pingree School, Regis College and the University of Baltimore, “Our architectural curtains create a high degree of visibility within interior landscapes and are an attractive design alternative to enclosing spaces with walls and solid partitions,” Zeitlin said. “We are thrilled to have our craftsmanship on display at a prestigious university like Rice and in this state-of-the art facility that promotes collaboration between the arts, sciences and humanities.” The $30 million, 50,000 square-foot Moody Center fills the following roles on the Rice campus: an experimental platform for creating and presenting works in all disciplines; a flexible teaching space to encourage new models of learning; and a forum for creative partnerships with visiting national and international artists. “Moody is where art exhibition and education intersects and fosters collaborations across multiple disciplines and across Houston, the state and the nation,” said Ross Moody, Moody Foundation Chairman, at the building’s dedication. Building: Moody Center for the Arts, Central Gallery Location: Rice University, Houston Completion: February 2017 Architect: Michael Maltzan Architectural, Los Angeles General Contractor: Linbeck Construction, Houston Cambridge Metal Mesh Pattern: Mid Balance Cambridge Attachment System: Custom Curtain Hardware Measurements: Two curtains: 45.8 x 11.5 feet; 25.4 x 11.5 About Cambridge Architectural Cambridge Architectural, a Rexnord brand, is the most experienced full-service provider of sustainable architectural mesh systems for interior and exterior building applications. As the world leader in tensioned mesh systems, Cambridge metal fabric solutions lend unique aesthetic appeal, functionality, affordability and sustainable benefits to a variety of structures interior and exterior. Cambridge Architectural offers full system design, engineering and collaboration from concept through installation. Cambridge’s metal fabric systems are categorized by the primary applications they serve, including parking structures, exterior shades, facades, canopies, curtains and others. As a member of the United States Green Building Council, Cambridge is committed to promoting methods, technology and products resulting in environmentally responsible and healthy buildings. Visit http://www.CambridgeArchitectural.com for more information.


News Article | June 15, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

Mark Stoeckle, CEO of Adams Funds, said, "I would like to thank Nancy for her outstanding service to the Company and our shareholders over the past 35 years. Nancy has made numerous contributions to this organization and has been instrumental in building Adams Funds into what it is today. She will be greatly missed. We wish her all the best in retirement." Ms. Prue graduated summa cum laude from Villanova University.  She earned an MBA and JD from the University of Baltimore.  Ms. Prue is also a graduate of Wharton Business School's Advanced Management Program.  She is a Chartered Financial Analyst, a member of the Baltimore CFA Society, of which she is a past president, and a member of the Maryland State Bar Association.  She is also a member and past president of the National Association of Petroleum Investment Analysts. Since 1929, Adams Funds has consistently helped generations of investors reach their investment goals. Adams Funds is comprised of two closed-end funds, Adams Diversified Equity Fund, Inc. (NYSE: ADX) and Adams Natural Resources Fund, Inc. (NYSE: PEO).The Funds are actively managed by an experienced team with a disciplined approach and have paid dividends for more than 80 years across many market cycles. The Funds are committed to paying an annual distribution rate of 6% or more, providing reliable income to long-term investors. Shares can be purchased through our transfer agent or through a broker. For more information about Adams Funds, please visit: www.adamsfunds.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/adams-diversified-equity-fund-announces-retirement-of-nancy-j-floyd-prue-300474876.html


New Route for the 2017 Charles Street 12 Will End at Under Armour's South Baltimore Headquarters Charm City Run is excited to announce that the 2017 Under Armour Charles Street 12 presented by KELLY, a 12-mile road race down Charles Street in Baltimore, MD, will end at Under Armour’s headquarters in Baltimore, MD. Historically, the Under Armour Charles Street 12 presented by KELLY had ended at Power Plant Live! Now in its fourth year, the Labor Day weekend race draws nearly 3,000 entrants. Baltimore, MD, May 13, 2017 --( Now in its fourth year, the Labor Day weekend race draws nearly 3,000 entrants and has become a favorite of local runners. Participants enjoy running through Charm City’s beautiful neighborhoods and passing esteemed religious, historical and educational institutions, as well as conquering a few slight hills at miles one and three for good measure. “Our vision for this race was always to end at Under Armour’s iconic waterfront headquarters in Locust Point," says Josh Levinson, owner of Charm City Run. “At its heart, The Charles Street 12 is a celebration of our city’s history, and Under Armour plays an important part in that story. We’re excited to see our master plan come together and share it with the running community.” Runners will start at the Shops at Kenilworth at 7:30 a.m. and head down historic Charles Street, a National Scenic Byway. The course passes some of Baltimore’s most recognizable cultural, historical and religious institutions including Loyola University, the Cathedral of Mary our Queen, University of Baltimore, the Washington Monument, and the Walters Art Gallery. The race will conclude at Under Armour, complete with a post-race party. Runners will enjoy complimentary lunch from Baltimore’s favorite food trucks, beer from Diamondback Brewery and a live band. They will also receive an Under Armour Charles Street 12 race shirt and finisher’s medal. “Under Armour is thrilled to be hosting the thousands of runners participating in this year’s Charles Street 12 at our headquarters,” said Dave Larson, Senior Vice President and General Manager, RUN, at Under Armour. “The last stretch of any race is the one that requires the most fight and will. We’re not only proud to be a part of that moment, but look forward to sponsoring a race that celebrates the great city of Baltimore.” More than just a physical challenge, the Under Armour Charm City 12 presented by KELLY gives back to the local community with a portion of each runner’s entry fees benefitting the Children’s Heart Program at the University of Maryland Children’s Hospital. The race brings runners together from throughout Maryland and beyond, offering a challenging but fun race day experience. For more information about the race, please visit charlesst12.com. Charm City Run is a running and walking specialty company that consists of eight retail locations: Annapolis, Bel Air, Belvedere Square (a dual-concept running and lifestyle boutique), Columbia, Fells Point (Opening Summer 2017), Frederick, Locust Point and Timonium. The store was named the 2016 Running Store of the Year by Competitor Magazine. Charm City Run Events manages, directs and times more than 90 sports endurance events each year. www.charmcityrun.com. Live. Give. Run. Baltimore, MD, May 13, 2017 --( PR.com )-- Charm City Run is excited to announce that the 2017 Under Armour Charles Street 12 presented by KELLY, a 12-mile road race down Charles Street in Baltimore, MD, will end at Under Armour’s headquarters in Baltimore, MD. Under Armour is the Title Sponsor of this race, as well as Charm City Run’s entire B3 Distance Race. Historically, the Under Armour Charles Street 12 presented by KELLY had ended at Power Plant Live!.Now in its fourth year, the Labor Day weekend race draws nearly 3,000 entrants and has become a favorite of local runners. Participants enjoy running through Charm City’s beautiful neighborhoods and passing esteemed religious, historical and educational institutions, as well as conquering a few slight hills at miles one and three for good measure.“Our vision for this race was always to end at Under Armour’s iconic waterfront headquarters in Locust Point," says Josh Levinson, owner of Charm City Run. “At its heart, The Charles Street 12 is a celebration of our city’s history, and Under Armour plays an important part in that story. We’re excited to see our master plan come together and share it with the running community.”Runners will start at the Shops at Kenilworth at 7:30 a.m. and head down historic Charles Street, a National Scenic Byway. The course passes some of Baltimore’s most recognizable cultural, historical and religious institutions including Loyola University, the Cathedral of Mary our Queen, University of Baltimore, the Washington Monument, and the Walters Art Gallery.The race will conclude at Under Armour, complete with a post-race party. Runners will enjoy complimentary lunch from Baltimore’s favorite food trucks, beer from Diamondback Brewery and a live band. They will also receive an Under Armour Charles Street 12 race shirt and finisher’s medal.“Under Armour is thrilled to be hosting the thousands of runners participating in this year’s Charles Street 12 at our headquarters,” said Dave Larson, Senior Vice President and General Manager, RUN, at Under Armour. “The last stretch of any race is the one that requires the most fight and will. We’re not only proud to be a part of that moment, but look forward to sponsoring a race that celebrates the great city of Baltimore.”More than just a physical challenge, the Under Armour Charm City 12 presented by KELLY gives back to the local community with a portion of each runner’s entry fees benefitting the Children’s Heart Program at the University of Maryland Children’s Hospital. The race brings runners together from throughout Maryland and beyond, offering a challenging but fun race day experience.For more information about the race, please visit charlesst12.com.Charm City Run is a running and walking specialty company that consists of eight retail locations: Annapolis, Bel Air, Belvedere Square (a dual-concept running and lifestyle boutique), Columbia, Fells Point (Opening Summer 2017), Frederick, Locust Point and Timonium. The store was named the 2016 Running Store of the Year by Competitor Magazine. Charm City Run Events manages, directs and times more than 90 sports endurance events each year. www.charmcityrun.com. Live. Give. Run.


Vollenweider D.J.,University of Baltimore
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Many patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics remains uncertain as systematic reviews and clinical trials have shown conflicting results. To assess the effects of antibiotics in the management of acute COPD exacerbations on treatment failure as observed between seven days and one month after treatment initiation (primary outcome) and on other patient-important outcomes (mortality, adverse events, length of hospital stay). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and other electronically available databases up to September 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in people with acute COPD exacerbations comparing antibiotic therapy and placebo with a follow-up of at least seven days. Two review authors independently screened references and extracted data from trial reports. We kept the three groups of outpatients, inpatients and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) separate for benefit outcomes and mortality because we considered them to be clinically too different to be summarised in one group. We considered outpatients to have a mild to moderate exacerbation, inpatients to have a severe exacerbation and ICU patients to have a very severe exacerbation. Where outcomes or study details were not reported we requested missing data from the authors of the primary studies. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) for treatment failure, Peto odds ratios (OR) for rare events (mortality and adverse events) and weighted mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes using fixed-effect models. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. Sixteen trials with 2068 participants were included. In outpatients (mild to moderate exacerbations), there was evidence of low quality that antibiotics did statistically significantly reduce the risk for treatment failure between seven days and one month after treatment initiation (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.94; I(2) = 35%) but they did not significantly reduce the risk when the meta-analysis was restricted to currently available drugs (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.01; I(2) = 33%). Evidence of high quality showed that antibiotics statistically significantly reduced the risk of treatment failure in inpatients with severe exacerbations (ICU not included) (RR 0.77; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; I(2) = 47%) regardless of whether restricted to current drugs. The only trial with 93 patients admitted to the ICU showed a large and statistically significant effect on treatment failure (RR 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45; high-quality evidence).Evidence of low-quality from four trials in inpatients showed no effect of antibiotics on mortality (Peto OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.37 to 2.79). High-quality evidence from one trial showed a statistically significant effect on mortality in ICU patients (Peto OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.72). Length of hospital stay (in days) was similar in the antibiotics and placebo groups except for the ICU study where antibiotics statistically significantly reduced length of hospital stay (mean difference -9.60 days; 95% CI -12.84 to -6.36 days). One trial showed no effect of antibiotics on re-exacerbations between two and six weeks after treatment initiation. Only one trial (N = 35) reported health-related quality of life but did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control group.Evidence of moderate quality showed that the overall incidence of adverse events was higher in the antibiotics groups (Peto OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.27). Patients treated with antibiotics experienced statistically significantly more diarrhoea based on three trials (Peto OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.11 to 6.17; high-quality evidence). Antibiotics for COPD exacerbations showed large and consistent beneficial effects across outcomes of patients admitted to an ICU. However, for outpatients and inpatients the results were inconsistent. The risk for treatment failure was significantly reduced in both inpatients and outpatients when all trials (1957 to 2012) were included but not when the analysis for outpatients was restricted to currently used antibiotics. Also, antibiotics had no statistically significant effect on mortality and length of hospital stay in inpatients and almost no data on patient-reported outcomes exist. These inconsistent effects call for research into clinical signs and biomarkers that help identify patients who benefit from antibiotics and patients who experience no effect, and in whom downsides of antibiotics (side effects, costs and multi-resistance) could be avoided.


Sulkowski M.S.,University of Baltimore
Liver International | Year: 2013

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is common among HIV-infected patients. Over the past 15 years, effective HIV treatment has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of AIDS-related death; over the same time period, HCV-related liver disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment with peginterferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) has been recommended for the treatment of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients at the greatest risk of developing liver disease. However, the effectiveness of this HCV treatment has been low because of limited efficacy in patients infected with HCV genotype 1. More recently, HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors, telaprevir and boceprevir, in combination with PEG-IFN/RBV have led to significantly higher sustained viral response rates in HIV-uninfected patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. The potential use of these agents in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection is complicated by the potential for drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and the HCV protease inhibitors and uncertainty regarding the safety and effectiveness of the combination therapy in this population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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