Sita Road, Pakistan

University of Balochistan

www.uob.edu.pk
Sita Road, Pakistan

The University of Balochistan , is a public university located in the downtown area of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.After the dissolution of One Unit, the University of Balochistan was established inJune1970 through an Ordinance issued by the then National Awami Party'sGovernor of newly made province Balochistan. In June 1996, the Balochistan Assembly passed an ACT called the University of Balochistan ACT 1996. Thus the University of Balochistan became the sole general University of the Province imparting Higher Education to the entire population of the province in Science, Arts and Humanities.After dissolution of One Unit, the land along with the teaching, Academic and Residential structures built to house the College for Mineral Technology were handed over to the University of Balochistan.The University initially started with three departments i.e. Physics, Chemistry and Geology. With the passage of time, the University has now 33 departments, Two Institutes and five specialized centers of higher studies and research, one constituent Law College and 88 affiliated colleges including an Agriculture College, Bolan Medical College and the Command and Staff College, Quetta.Vision: To be a model public University providing affordable, quality, higher education opportunities to develop the potentially rich human resource in Balochistan through knowledge centered teaching and research while maintaining and fostering high levels of ethical and professional standards and promoting national identity. Brigadier Sikandar Khan, former DIGFC Balochistan, holds a Masters of Arts Degree in International Relations from University of Balochistan, Quetta. Wikipedia.


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Ibrahim M.,Jacobs University Bremen | Ibrahim M.,University of Balochistan | Lan Y.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Bassil B.S.,Jacobs University Bremen | And 4 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

POMs, magnets, and Co: The tetrameric 36-tungsto-8-phosphate [{Co 4(OH)3PO4}4(PW9O 34)4]28- containing 16 cobalt(II) centers was prepared by a simple, one-pot synthetic procedure. The {Co16(OH) 12(PO4)4}8+ core (see picture) exhibits single-molecule magnetic behavior. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Akbar A.,Asian Institute of Technology | Akbar A.,University of Balochistan | Anal A.K.,Asian Institute of Technology
Food Control | Year: 2014

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared using hydrothermal synthesis approach. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and X-ray diffractometer. The particles size (≤100nm) and structure of nanoparticles were studied under scanning and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were used against two prominent foodborne pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus and were found highly effective against both of them. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was determined in solid and liquid media using nutrient agar and broth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded active film of calcium alginate was prepared for active packaging against the same foodborne pathogens (S. typhimurium and S. aureus). Presence and distribution of nanoparticles in active film were confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded active films showed antibacterial activity against the target bacteria in Petri dish. The film was also used as an active packaging (a challenge study) in ready-to-eat poultry meat against the same pathogens, and reduced the number of inoculated target bacteria from log seven to zero within 10 days of its incubation at 8±1°C. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Akbar A.,Asian Institute of Technology | Akbar A.,University of Balochistan | Anal A.K.,Asian Institute of Technology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus (. S. aureus) in retail poultry meat products. Methods: Foodborne pathogens (. Salmonella and S. aureus) were isolated from poultry meat and confirmed with the help of biochemical and immunological test. Antibiogram of the isolates were examined by following CLSI methods. Results: A total number of 209 poultry meat samples were collected and studied in this study. Out of which, 5.26% were found contaminated with Salmonella while 18.18% were found contaminated with S. aureus. All the Salmonella and S. aureus isolates were found resistant to at least one antibiotic. About 72.72% of the Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, while S. aureus isolates were also found highly resistant to tetracycline equal to 44.73%. One of the Salmonella isolates showed multi-drug resistance to almost six antibiotics out of nine antibiotics used in the study. Multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates were also found in the study. Conclusions: The study confirmed the presence of Salmonella and S. aureus in retail poultry meat. It is a potential threat to consumer health. To reduce the risk of contamination, good hygiene practices are necessary from processing to storage. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Mushtaq F.,University of Technology Malaysia | Mushtaq F.,University of Balochistan | Mat R.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ani F.N.,University of Technology Malaysia
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The energy insecurity from oil and natural gas and increased CO2 emission from fossil fuels is driving societies to look for sustainable and renewable energy supply. The huge coal resources can serve as a potential source for fuels. Bio-energy from biomass has been recognized as renewable energy to reduce CO2 emission. Although fast pyrolysis has emerged as the most promising technology to convert organic materials to liquid fuels at shorter duration but it still faces some technical challenges in improving product yield, its quality and process energy efficiency. Microwave assisted pyrolysis of coal and biomass in the presence of microwave absorber provides distinctive environment to resolve these challenges. The microwave absorber can indirectly heat coal and biomass particles which are relatively microwave transparent and influence product yield and its quality by contributing as a catalytic precursor. The microwave heating of coal or biomass particles with microwave absorber shows efficient heating and sufficient contact of volatile or gas phase species with specific microwave absorber can improve fuel quality. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Barozai M.Y.K.,University of Balochistan
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding and regulatory RNAs about&22 nucleotides in length. The comparative genomics approach due to their conserved nature is a good source for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this study, total 172 novel miRNAs from 140 precursor sequences belonging to 114 families were identified in sheep (Ovis aries), the most important livestock animal. All the miRNA families (oar-mir-95, 129, 130, 186, 214, 219, 223, 324, 339, 423, 450, 499, 544, 562, 568, 584, 669, 671, 763, 935, 1281, 1282, 1306, 1552, 1584, 1587, 1603, 1607, 1706, 1711, 1718, 1732, 1738, 1761, 1771, 1777, 1778, 1780, 1807, 1843, 1895, 1930, 2127, 2139, 2182, 2284, 2287, 2295, 2296, 2310, 2311, 2314, 2315, 2316, 2320, 2359, 2378, 2381, 2382, 2395, 2400, 2404, 2410, 2412, 2423, 2426, 2435, 2470, 2477, 2482, 2487, 2881, 2883, 2885, 2888, 2889, 2896, 2901, 2904, 2917, 2964, 3063, 3064, 3074, 3080, 3432, 3529, 3533, 3613, 3649, 3654, 3658, 3661, 3662, 3940, 3960, 4273, 4426, 4447, 4459, 4468, 4493, 4507, 4647, 4680, 4785, 4788, 4800, 5102, 5105, 5109, 5115, 5125 and 5132) are found for the first time in Sheep. All 140 miRNA precursors form stable minimum free energy stem loop and the mature miRNAs reside in the stem portion of the stem loop structure. Their putative targets are involved in transcription factors (26%), signaling (19%), metabolism (18%), transportation (10%), immunity (9%), cancer and tumor related (5%), growth and development (5%), stress related (4%), and structural proteins (3%). © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Kakar Z.K.,University of Balochistan
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy | Year: 2016

Even though a number of studies have attempted to determine the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, not much empirical evidence is available to indicate the direction of the relationship. This article provides dynamic interactions between energy consumption, financial development and economic growth in Pakistan and Malaysia for the period 1980-2010 by employing cointegration and error correction techniques. Granger causality within an error correction framework is used to determine the direction of causality between financial development and energy consumption. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Barozai M.Y.K.,University of Balochistan
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding and negative regulatory RNAs about 22 nucleotides. They are mostly conserved among the organisms and this conservation makes them a good source for the identification of novel miRNAs by computational genomic homology. The miRNA repertoire of the major aquaculture species, channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), is unknown. This study is focused on computational search for novel miRNA homologs and their targets along with their characterization in channel catfish. Total 60 novel precursor miRNAs having 73 mature sequences belong to 45 families in channel catfish were identified and characterized. They belong to the miRNA families; ipu-let-7, miR-7, 10, 16, 24, 29, 32, 93, 99, 101, 105, 126, 127, 133, 135, 141, 142, 143, 144 145, 148, 150, 152, 153, 203, 210, 214, 221, 223, 293, 429, 430, 466, 682, 731, 737, 1388, 1594, 1642, 1701, 1782, 1814, 2145, 2182 and 3074 are reported for the first time in channel catfish. All the 73 mature miRNAs are observed in the stem portion of the stable minimum free energy stem-loop structures. Total 341 proteins targeted by the novel channel catfish miRNAs were also identified. They are involved in immune-related (32 %), signaling (15 %), transcription factors (15 %), metabolism (12 %), transportation (8 %), growth & development (5 %), structural (5 %) and others (8 %) proteins. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Din M.,University of Balochistan | Barozai M.Y.K.,University of Balochistan
Gene | Year: 2014

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important and the most useful plant based diet. It is widely used for its antioxidant property. Presently, only two digits, tomato microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported in miRBase: a miRNA database. This study is aimed to profile and characterize more miRNAs and their targets in tomato. A comprehensive comparative genomic approach is applied and a total of 109 new miRNAs belonging to 106 families are identified and characterized from the tomato expressed sequence tags (ESTs). All these potential miRNAs are profiled for the first time in tomato. The profiled miRNAs are also observed with stable stem-loop structures (Precursor-miRNAs), whose length ranges from 45to 329 nucleotides (nt) with an average of 125 nt. The mature miRNAs are found in the stem of pre-miRNAs and their length ranges from 19 to 24 nt with an average of 21 nt. Furthermore, twelve miRNAs are randomly selected and experimentally validated through RT-PCR. A total of 406 putative targets are also predicted for the newly 109 tomato miRNAs. These targets are involved in structural protein, metabolism, transcription factor, growth & development, stress related, signaling pathways, storage proteins and other vital processes. Some important proteins like; 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), transcription factor MYB, ATP-binding cassette transporters, terpen synthase, 14-3-3 and TIR-NBS proteins are also predicted as putative targets for tomato miRNAs. These findings improve a baseline data of miRNAs and their targets in tomato. This baseline data can be utilized to fine tune this important fleshy fruit for nutritional & antioxidant properties and also under biotic & abiotic stresses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Din M.,University of Balochistan | Barozai M.Y.K.,University of Balochistan
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein coding and functional RNAs. They play negative regulatory role in gene regulation. They are endogenous in nature and are ∼21 nucleotides in length. They are reported in many plant species, but still missing and need to be identified in other important plants like; eggplant. The comparative genomic methodology due to their conserved nature is a reasonable approach for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this research, total 76 novel miRNAs from 67 families were identified in the important vegetable eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.). All precursor miRNAs form stable minimum free energy secondary structures and the mature miRNAs reside in the stem regions. Furthermore, eight miRNAs were randomly selected and experimentally validated through RT-PCR. A total of 345 putative targets were also identified for the novel 76 eggplant miRNAs. Their targets are involved in regulation, metabolism, transcription factors, growth and development and other physiological processes. These findings provide a baseline to unravel the miRNAs role in eggplant and utilize them for the improvement of the plant biology. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.


Achakzai A.K.K.,University of Balochistan
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

A field experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive growing years on few growth characteristics of four pea cultivars viz., Arkel, Climax, Green Feast and Olympia in response to different levels of N fertilizer under the climatic conditions of district Mastung, Balochistan. Six N fertilizer levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 kg N ha-1) plus a constant dose of 60+40 kg P2O5 & K2O ha-1 were prepared, and designated as T1 to T7, respectively. These N levels were applied to each sub-plot (except T1 & T2) in two split doses first at the time of flowering and second at the time of pod formation to quantify how much N fertilizer's required by different pea cultivars to realize the highest growth and yield. Results exhibited that in response to various levels of added N fertilizer, all mentioned growth attributes were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). However, cultivars response was found significant only for secondary branches plant-1, plant height and shoot moisture contents. A maximum number of primary branches plant-1 (6.94), secondary branches plant-1 (10.72), plant height (69.77 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (19.75), leaf length (11.81 cm) and shoot moisture contents (571.0 g kg-1) was recorded with application of 100 kg N ha-1. The interaction between fertilizer and pea cultivars was found non-significant for all mentioned attributes in the trial. Results further revealed that all growth parameters were slightly to highly significant and positively correlated among themselves as well as with their fresh pod yields. These attributes could be used a suitable selection criteria for predicting the fresh pod yield and also for breeding purposes in peas.

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