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The University of Balochistan , is a public university located in the downtown area of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.After the dissolution of One Unit, the University of Balochistan was established inJune1970 through an Ordinance issued by the then National Awami Party'sGovernor of newly made province Balochistan. In June 1996, the Balochistan Assembly passed an ACT called the University of Balochistan ACT 1996. Thus the University of Balochistan became the sole general University of the Province imparting Higher Education to the entire population of the province in Science, Arts and Humanities.After dissolution of One Unit, the land along with the teaching, Academic and Residential structures built to house the College for Mineral Technology were handed over to the University of Balochistan.The University initially started with three departments i.e. Physics, Chemistry and Geology. With the passage of time, the University has now 33 departments, Two Institutes and five specialized centers of higher studies and research, one constituent Law College and 88 affiliated colleges including an Agriculture College, Bolan Medical College and the Command and Staff College, Quetta.Vision: To be a model public University providing affordable, quality, higher education opportunities to develop the potentially rich human resource in Balochistan through knowledge centered teaching and research while maintaining and fostering high levels of ethical and professional standards and promoting national identity. Brigadier Sikandar Khan, former DIGFC Balochistan, holds a Masters of Arts Degree in International Relations from University of Balochistan, Quetta. Wikipedia.

Gul S.,McGill University | Gul S.,University of Balochistan | Whalen J.,McGill University
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Vascular plants have lignified tissues that transport water, minerals, and photosynthetic products throughout the plant. They are the dominant primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems and capture significant quantities of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis. Some of the fixed CO2 is respired by the plant directly, with additional CO2 lost from rhizodeposits metabolized by root-associated soil microorganisms. Microbially-mediated mineralization of organic nitrogen (N) from plant byproducts (rhizodeposits, dead plant residues) followed by nitrification generates another greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). In anaerobic soils, reduction of nitrate by microbial denitrifiers also produces N2O. The plant-microbial interactions that result in CO2 and N2O emissions from soil could be affected by genetic modification. Down-regulation of genes controlling lignin biosynthesis to achieve lower lignin concentration or a lower guaiacyl:syringyl (G:S) ratio in above-ground biomass is anticipated to produce forage crops with greater digestibility, improve short rotation woody crops for the wood-pulping industry and create second generation biofuel crops with low ligno-cellulosic content, but unharvested residues from such crops are expected to decompose quickly, potentially increasing CO2 and N2O emissions from soil. The objective of this review are the following: 1) to describe how plants influence CO2 and N2O emissions from soil during their life cycle; 2) to explain how plant residue chemistry affects its mineralization, contributing to CO2 and N2O emissions from soil; and 3) to show how modification of plant lignin biosynthesis could influence CO2 and N2O emissions from soil, based on experimental data from genetically modified cell wall mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Conceptual models of plants with modified lignin biosynthesis show how changes in phenology, morphology and biomass production alter the allocation of photosynthetic products and carbon (C) losses through rhizodeposition and respiration during their life cycle, and the chemical composition of plant residues. Feedbacks on the soil environment (mineral N concentration, soil moisture, microbial communities, aggregation) affecting CO2 and N2O emissions are described. Down-regulation of the Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase 1 (CCR1) gene is an excellent target for highly digestable forages and biofuel crops, but A. thaliana with this mutation has lower plant biomass and fertility, prolonged vegetative growth and plant residues that are more susceptible to biodegradation, leading to greater CO2 and N2O emissions from soil in the short term. The challenge in future crop breeding efforts will be to select tissue-specific genes for lignin biosynthesis that meet commercial demands without compromising soil CO2 and N2O emission goals. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Mushtaq F.,University of Technology Malaysia | Mushtaq F.,University of Balochistan | Mat R.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ani F.N.,University of Technology Malaysia
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The energy insecurity from oil and natural gas and increased CO2 emission from fossil fuels is driving societies to look for sustainable and renewable energy supply. The huge coal resources can serve as a potential source for fuels. Bio-energy from biomass has been recognized as renewable energy to reduce CO2 emission. Although fast pyrolysis has emerged as the most promising technology to convert organic materials to liquid fuels at shorter duration but it still faces some technical challenges in improving product yield, its quality and process energy efficiency. Microwave assisted pyrolysis of coal and biomass in the presence of microwave absorber provides distinctive environment to resolve these challenges. The microwave absorber can indirectly heat coal and biomass particles which are relatively microwave transparent and influence product yield and its quality by contributing as a catalytic precursor. The microwave heating of coal or biomass particles with microwave absorber shows efficient heating and sufficient contact of volatile or gas phase species with specific microwave absorber can improve fuel quality. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Barozai M.Y.K.,University of Balochistan
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding and regulatory RNAs about&22 nucleotides in length. The comparative genomics approach due to their conserved nature is a good source for the novel miRNAs discovery. In this study, total 172 novel miRNAs from 140 precursor sequences belonging to 114 families were identified in sheep (Ovis aries), the most important livestock animal. All the miRNA families (oar-mir-95, 129, 130, 186, 214, 219, 223, 324, 339, 423, 450, 499, 544, 562, 568, 584, 669, 671, 763, 935, 1281, 1282, 1306, 1552, 1584, 1587, 1603, 1607, 1706, 1711, 1718, 1732, 1738, 1761, 1771, 1777, 1778, 1780, 1807, 1843, 1895, 1930, 2127, 2139, 2182, 2284, 2287, 2295, 2296, 2310, 2311, 2314, 2315, 2316, 2320, 2359, 2378, 2381, 2382, 2395, 2400, 2404, 2410, 2412, 2423, 2426, 2435, 2470, 2477, 2482, 2487, 2881, 2883, 2885, 2888, 2889, 2896, 2901, 2904, 2917, 2964, 3063, 3064, 3074, 3080, 3432, 3529, 3533, 3613, 3649, 3654, 3658, 3661, 3662, 3940, 3960, 4273, 4426, 4447, 4459, 4468, 4493, 4507, 4647, 4680, 4785, 4788, 4800, 5102, 5105, 5109, 5115, 5125 and 5132) are found for the first time in Sheep. All 140 miRNA precursors form stable minimum free energy stem loop and the mature miRNAs reside in the stem portion of the stem loop structure. Their putative targets are involved in transcription factors (26%), signaling (19%), metabolism (18%), transportation (10%), immunity (9%), cancer and tumor related (5%), growth and development (5%), stress related (4%), and structural proteins (3%). © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source

Akbar A.,Asian Institute of Technology | Akbar A.,University of Balochistan | Anal A.K.,Asian Institute of Technology
Food Control | Year: 2014

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared using hydrothermal synthesis approach. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and X-ray diffractometer. The particles size (≤100nm) and structure of nanoparticles were studied under scanning and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were used against two prominent foodborne pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus and were found highly effective against both of them. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was determined in solid and liquid media using nutrient agar and broth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded active film of calcium alginate was prepared for active packaging against the same foodborne pathogens (S. typhimurium and S. aureus). Presence and distribution of nanoparticles in active film were confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded active films showed antibacterial activity against the target bacteria in Petri dish. The film was also used as an active packaging (a challenge study) in ready-to-eat poultry meat against the same pathogens, and reduced the number of inoculated target bacteria from log seven to zero within 10 days of its incubation at 8±1°C. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Akbar A.,Asian Institute of Technology | Akbar A.,University of Balochistan | Anal A.K.,Asian Institute of Technology
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus (. S. aureus) in retail poultry meat products. Methods: Foodborne pathogens (. Salmonella and S. aureus) were isolated from poultry meat and confirmed with the help of biochemical and immunological test. Antibiogram of the isolates were examined by following CLSI methods. Results: A total number of 209 poultry meat samples were collected and studied in this study. Out of which, 5.26% were found contaminated with Salmonella while 18.18% were found contaminated with S. aureus. All the Salmonella and S. aureus isolates were found resistant to at least one antibiotic. About 72.72% of the Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, while S. aureus isolates were also found highly resistant to tetracycline equal to 44.73%. One of the Salmonella isolates showed multi-drug resistance to almost six antibiotics out of nine antibiotics used in the study. Multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates were also found in the study. Conclusions: The study confirmed the presence of Salmonella and S. aureus in retail poultry meat. It is a potential threat to consumer health. To reduce the risk of contamination, good hygiene practices are necessary from processing to storage. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source

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