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Ballarat, Australia

Federation University Australia is a dual-sector university with multiple campuses in Victoria, Australia. The university is centred in Ballarat, but there are also campuses in Ararat, Horsham, Stawell, Churchill and online offering technical and further education and Horsham's Higher Education Nursing program. The Ballarat and Mount Helen campuses offer traditional university programmes, a few of which are Business, Engineering, Education, Nursing, and Art.In 2013 the Federation University Australia came into being, after the University of Ballarat merged with Monash University, Gippsland campus. Wikipedia.

Casanova M.T.,University of Ballarat
Freshwater Biology

1.Analysis of the distribution and abundance of water plants can be a useful tool for determining the ecological water requirements of sites in a catchment. 2.Seed-bank and vegetation surveys of wetland and riparian sites were undertaken in the Angas River catchment in South Australia to determine the distribution and abundance of plants associated with riparian habitats. Plant species were allocated to water plant functional groups (WPFGs sensu Brock and Casanova, Frontiers in Ecology; Building the Links, 1997, Elsevier Science). In addition to the seven functional groups already recognised, three new groups containing submerged and woody growth forms were included in this study. 3.Cluster analysis of sites on the basis of species presence/absence was compared with site clustering obtained from analysis of representation of WPFGs. Functional group analysis provided a similar segregation of species-poor sites to that resulting from analysis of species presence/absence, but provided better resolution of clusters for species-rich sites. Three clusters of species-rich sites were delineated: riparian sites that require year-round permanent water but have fluctuating water levels, spatially and temporally variable riparian sites with shrubs and trees and temporary wetlands that dry annually. 4.Segregation of sites on the basis of functional group representation can provide information to managers about the water requirements of suites of species in different parts of the catchment. Knowledge of the environmental water requirements of sites within a catchment can help managers to prioritise water management options and delivery within that catchment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Coupling of small turbocharged high efficiency diesel engines with flywheel based kinetic energy recovery systems is the best option now available to reduce fuel energy usage and reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. The paper describes engine and vehicle models to generate engine brake specific fuel consumption maps and compute vehicle fuel economies over driving cycles, and applies these models to evaluate the benefits of a H2ICEs developed with the direct injection jet ignition engine concept to further reduce the fuel energy usage of a compact car equipped with a with a flywheel based kinetic energy recovery systems. The car equipped with a 1.2 L TDI Diesel engine and KERS consumes 25 g/km of fuel producing 79.2 g/km of CO2 using 1.09 MJ/km of fuel energy. These CO2 and fuel energy values are more than 10% better than those of today's best hybrid electric vehicle. The car equipped with a 1.6 L DI-JI H2ICE engine consumes 8.3 g/km of fuel, corresponding to only 0.99 MJ/km of fuel energy. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Boretti A.A.,University of Ballarat
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Spark-less jet ignition pre-chambers are enablers of high efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected when coupled with direct injection of main chamber fuel, thus permitting always lean burn bulk stratified combustion. Towards the end of the compression stroke, a small quantity of hydrogen is injected within the pre-chamber, where it mixes with the air entering from the main chamber. Combustion of the air and fuel mixture then starts within the pre-chamber because of the high temperature of the hot glow plug, and then jets of partially combusted hot gases enter the main chamber igniting there in the bulk, over multiple ignition points, lean stratified mixtures of air and fuel. The paper describes the operation of the spark-less jet ignition pre-chamber coupling CFD and CAE engine simulations to allow component selection and engine performance evaluation. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Source

The majority of countries that support the use of donor insemination (DI) in artificial reproductive technology (ART) limit the number of children born from one donor. The setting of these donor limits, though intended to control for the risk of inadvertent half-sibling unions between the offspring of anonymous donors, actually have no evidence base. Controlling for the risk of inadvertent half-sibling unions may soon become unnecessary due to the increasing world-wide use of open-identity sperm donors and the revocation of donor anonymity in many countries. With the shift from anonymous to open-identity donation, the central issue is not the risk of genetic abnormality from inadvertent half-sibling consanguinity; it is the psycho-social impact of the multiple use of open-identity sperm donors. Despite this, the jurisdictions that allow or mandate the use of open-identity donors continue to observe existing limits that do not consider nor specifically control for the psycho-social impact of the multiple use of open-identity sperm donors. It is proposed that: (i) conservative interim donor limits be placed on the multiple use of open-identity donors, while research into the psycho-social impact of disclosure is undertaken to inform the establishment of evidence-based limits; and (ii) the existing limits in jurisdictions where anonymity is still commonly practiced or protected could be raised, if an updated mathematical model was used for calculating evidence-based anonymous donor limits. © 2010 The Author. Source

The paper presents the sea level rises (SLR) computed for the United States tide gauges with more than 100 years of recording. It is shown that the monthly sea levels oscillate about an almost linear longer-term trend with important multidecadal periodicities. The SLR time history is computed by linear fitting of 20, 30 and 60 years of data up to a given time (SLR20, SLR30 and SLR60) and is compared to the value obtained by considering all the data. It is shown that SLR60 has smaller oscillations, while SLR20 and SLR30 have much larger and frequent fluctuations. While SLR60 may oscillate ±10-30 % about the latest longer-term value, SLR30 may fluctuate ±50-100 % and SLR20 ± 100-200 %. The values obtained by considering all the data with a minimum of 60 years (SLRA) also fluctuate ±5-15 % about the latest longer-term value. This indicates the need to use the time history of SLR60 or SLRA when the record is longer than 60 years to assess the accelerating trend. For all the stations, the sea levels regularly oscillate about the linear longer-term trend, and if acceleration has to be computed, this is eventually negative, that is, the SLR is reducing. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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