Ballarat, Australia
Ballarat, Australia

Federation University Australia is a dual-sector university with multiple campuses in Victoria, Australia. The university is centred in Ballarat, but there are also campuses in Ararat, Horsham, Stawell, Churchill and online offering technical and further education and Horsham's Higher Education Nursing program. The Ballarat and Mount Helen campuses offer traditional university programmes, a few of which are Business, Engineering, Education, Nursing, and Art.In 2013 the Federation University Australia came into being, after the University of Ballarat merged with Monash University, Gippsland campus. Wikipedia.


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Boretti A.A.,University of Ballarat
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Spark-less jet ignition pre-chambers are enablers of high efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected when coupled with direct injection of main chamber fuel, thus permitting always lean burn bulk stratified combustion. Towards the end of the compression stroke, a small quantity of hydrogen is injected within the pre-chamber, where it mixes with the air entering from the main chamber. Combustion of the air and fuel mixture then starts within the pre-chamber because of the high temperature of the hot glow plug, and then jets of partially combusted hot gases enter the main chamber igniting there in the bulk, over multiple ignition points, lean stratified mixtures of air and fuel. The paper describes the operation of the spark-less jet ignition pre-chamber coupling CFD and CAE engine simulations to allow component selection and engine performance evaluation. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.


Coupling of small turbocharged high efficiency diesel engines with flywheel based kinetic energy recovery systems is the best option now available to reduce fuel energy usage and reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. The paper describes engine and vehicle models to generate engine brake specific fuel consumption maps and compute vehicle fuel economies over driving cycles, and applies these models to evaluate the benefits of a H2ICEs developed with the direct injection jet ignition engine concept to further reduce the fuel energy usage of a compact car equipped with a with a flywheel based kinetic energy recovery systems. The car equipped with a 1.2 L TDI Diesel engine and KERS consumes 25 g/km of fuel producing 79.2 g/km of CO2 using 1.09 MJ/km of fuel energy. These CO2 and fuel energy values are more than 10% better than those of today's best hybrid electric vehicle. The car equipped with a 1.6 L DI-JI H2ICE engine consumes 8.3 g/km of fuel, corresponding to only 0.99 MJ/km of fuel energy. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Casanova M.T.,University of Ballarat
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2011

1.Analysis of the distribution and abundance of water plants can be a useful tool for determining the ecological water requirements of sites in a catchment. 2.Seed-bank and vegetation surveys of wetland and riparian sites were undertaken in the Angas River catchment in South Australia to determine the distribution and abundance of plants associated with riparian habitats. Plant species were allocated to water plant functional groups (WPFGs sensu Brock and Casanova, Frontiers in Ecology; Building the Links, 1997, Elsevier Science). In addition to the seven functional groups already recognised, three new groups containing submerged and woody growth forms were included in this study. 3.Cluster analysis of sites on the basis of species presence/absence was compared with site clustering obtained from analysis of representation of WPFGs. Functional group analysis provided a similar segregation of species-poor sites to that resulting from analysis of species presence/absence, but provided better resolution of clusters for species-rich sites. Three clusters of species-rich sites were delineated: riparian sites that require year-round permanent water but have fluctuating water levels, spatially and temporally variable riparian sites with shrubs and trees and temporary wetlands that dry annually. 4.Segregation of sites on the basis of functional group representation can provide information to managers about the water requirements of suites of species in different parts of the catchment. Knowledge of the environmental water requirements of sites within a catchment can help managers to prioritise water management options and delivery within that catchment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Parker A.,University of Ballarat
Natural Hazards | Year: 2013

The paper presents the sea level rises (SLR) computed for the United States tide gauges with more than 100 years of recording. It is shown that the monthly sea levels oscillate about an almost linear longer-term trend with important multidecadal periodicities. The SLR time history is computed by linear fitting of 20, 30 and 60 years of data up to a given time (SLR20, SLR30 and SLR60) and is compared to the value obtained by considering all the data. It is shown that SLR60 has smaller oscillations, while SLR20 and SLR30 have much larger and frequent fluctuations. While SLR60 may oscillate ±10-30 % about the latest longer-term value, SLR30 may fluctuate ±50-100 % and SLR20 ± 100-200 %. The values obtained by considering all the data with a minimum of 60 years (SLRA) also fluctuate ±5-15 % about the latest longer-term value. This indicates the need to use the time history of SLR60 or SLRA when the record is longer than 60 years to assess the accelerating trend. For all the stations, the sea levels regularly oscillate about the linear longer-term trend, and if acceleration has to be computed, this is eventually negative, that is, the SLR is reducing. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


This study used the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ scales are emotional symptoms (ES), conduct problems (CP), hyperactivity (HY), peer problems (PP), and prosocial behaviors (PS). A total of 202 adolescents provided self-ratings and were also rated by their mothers and teachers. The findings indicated support for convergent validity for all five SDQ scales for all three respondents. Generally there was more convergence between mother-adolescent ratings than mother-teacher and adolescent-teacher ratings, especially for ES and PP. There was support for the discriminant validity between the traits in all scales, except between CP and HY. The findings are discussed in relation to the construct validity and clinical use of the SDQ. © The Author(s) 2012.


The majority of countries that support the use of donor insemination (DI) in artificial reproductive technology (ART) limit the number of children born from one donor. The setting of these donor limits, though intended to control for the risk of inadvertent half-sibling unions between the offspring of anonymous donors, actually have no evidence base. Controlling for the risk of inadvertent half-sibling unions may soon become unnecessary due to the increasing world-wide use of open-identity sperm donors and the revocation of donor anonymity in many countries. With the shift from anonymous to open-identity donation, the central issue is not the risk of genetic abnormality from inadvertent half-sibling consanguinity; it is the psycho-social impact of the multiple use of open-identity sperm donors. Despite this, the jurisdictions that allow or mandate the use of open-identity donors continue to observe existing limits that do not consider nor specifically control for the psycho-social impact of the multiple use of open-identity sperm donors. It is proposed that: (i) conservative interim donor limits be placed on the multiple use of open-identity donors, while research into the psycho-social impact of disclosure is undertaken to inform the establishment of evidence-based limits; and (ii) the existing limits in jurisdictions where anonymity is still commonly practiced or protected could be raised, if an updated mathematical model was used for calculating evidence-based anonymous donor limits. © 2010 The Author.


Boretti A.A.,University of Ballarat
Coastal Engineering | Year: 2012

Climate models (http://climatecommission.govspace.gov.au/files/2011/05/4108-CC-Science-Update-PRINT-CHANGES.pdf, 2011; http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm, 2011; Rahmstorf, 2007, 2010) calculate that temperatures are increasing globally and sea level rises are increasing due to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. More recent predictions (http://climatecommission.govspace.gov.au/files/2011/05/4108-CC-Science-Update-PRINT-CHANGES.pdf, 2011; Rahmstorf, 2007, 2010) have forecasted that sea level rises by 2100 will be higher than the 2007 projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm, 2011), with projected sea level rises increasing from 18-59. cm to 100. cm. In this brief communication, the predictions of Rahmstorf (2007) are validated against the experimental evidence over a 20. year period. The University of Colorado Sea Level satellite monitoring shows that the rate of rise of the sea level is not only well below the values computed in http://climatecommission.govspace.gov.au/files/2011/05/4108-CC-Science-Update-PRINT-CHANGES.pdf (2011) and Rahmstorf (2007, 2010), but actually reducing rather than increasing (http://sealevel.colorado.edu/, 2011b; 10,11). These results suggest that sea level predictions based solely on the presumed temperature evolution may fail to accurately predict the long term sea levels at the end of the century. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Long Q.,University of Ballarat
Swarm and Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2014

A new constraint handling technique for multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed in this paper. There are two important issues in multi-objective genetic algorithm, closeness of the obtained solutions to the real Pareto frontier and diversity of the obtained solutions. If considering a constrained multi-objective programming problem, one needs to take account of feasibility of solutions. Thus, in this new constraint handling technique, we systematically take closeness, diversity and feasibility as three objectives in a multi-objective subproblem. And solutions in each iteration are sorted by optimal sequence method based on those three objectives. Then, the solutions inherited to the next generation are selected based on its optimal order. Numerical tests show that the solutions obtained by this method are not only feasible, but also close to the real Pareto front and have good diversity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. © 2013ElsevierB.V. Allrightsreserved.


Parker A.,University of Ballarat
Natural Hazards | Year: 2013

It is shown in the short comment that the sea levels are oscillating about a longer-term trend and that the sea level rise (SLR) computed with time windows of 20, 30 or 60 years also oscillates, with the amplitude of these latter oscillations reducing as the time window increases. The use of only two values of the SLR distribution is misleading to infer conclusions about the accelerating behaviour. In particular, the comparison of the 30-year SLR 1950-1979 with the 30-year SLR 1980-2009 for the tide gauges along the Atlantic coast of North America north of Cape Hatteras to infer an accelerating behaviour is particularly wrong because the 30-year time window is a too short interval to appreciate the longer-term sea level trend cleared of the multi-decadal oscillations, and the two values from the SLR distribution are computed, respectively, at the times of a valley and a peak for the 60-year Atlantic Ocean multi-decadal oscillation. By using a 60-year time window or all the data since opening when more than 60 years of recording are available and by analysing the SLR time history, the only conclusion that can be inferred from the analysis of the tide gauges along the North American Atlantic coast is that the sea levels are oscillating without too much of a positive acceleration along their longer-term trend. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Zhang J.,University of Ballarat
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics | Year: 2011

Prion diseases (e.g. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), variant CJD (vCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI) and Kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cattles) are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. However, by now there have not been some effective therapeutic approaches or medications to treat all these prion diseases. Rabbits, dogs, and horses are the only mammalian species reported to be resistant to infection from prion diseases isolated from other species. Recently, the β2-α2 loop has been reported to contribute to their protein structural stabilities. The author has found that rabbit prion protein has a strong salt bridge ASP177-ARG163 (like a taut bow string) keeping this loop linked. This paper confirms that this salt bridge also contributes to the structural stability of horse prion protein. Thus, the region of β2-α2 loop might be a potential drug target region. Besides this very important salt bridge, other four important salt bridges GLU196-ARG156-HIS187, ARG156-ASP202 and GLU211-HIS177 are also found to greatly contribute to the structural stability of horse prion protein. Rich databases of salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts for horse prion protein can be found in this paper. ©Adenine Press (2011).

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