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Balamand, Lebanon

The University of Balamand is a private, officially secular university located at El-Koura, Lebanon. It was founded by the Orthodox Patriarch Ignatius IV of Antioch in 1988. The university's main campus is adjacent to Balamand Monastery, but it has two other campuses in Beirut: One is in Sin el Fil, which houses the majority of the Lebanese Academy of Fine Arts, and the other is neighboring Saint George Hospital in Achrafieh, which houses the faculty for medicine and medical science.Formerly, it was a project at the Koura District, which North Lebanon’s department came to continue as an inter-cultural message in 1988, and to fuse under its administration the Lebanese Academy of Fine Arts and Saint John of Damascus Institute of Theology.The University of Balamand was founded by the Patriarch through the concept of a Kouranian engineer called Elias Abi Shaheen, in which the concept formed between years 1983 and 1987, in the midst of the Lebanese Civil War. The project started soon after Governmental Clearance in 1988.As of 2010, the Master Plan at the mount of long heritage in the Balamand region, is still incomplete. Wikipedia.

Friction and wear performance of engine oils in the presence of polutetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and iron fluoride (FeF 3) catalyst with plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oils, and fully formulated oils were studied under extreme boundary lubrication (2.72 Hertzian contact load). Two brands of plain ZDDP oils with the same phosphorus percentages were used in the analysis. The study uses design of experiment (DOE) to analyse and optimise the fluorinated oil combinations, thus reducing phosphorus in both plain and fully formulated oils. High and low concentrations of fluorinated catalyst were optimised, and a (PTFE?+?catalyst) combination suitable for plain ZDDP oil and a fully formulated oil were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, wear profile analysis and tribosurfaces comparison. The experiment indicated that submicron FeF 3 catalyst played an important role in preventing the breakdown of the tribofilm. The reduction of phosphorus in engine oil was examined. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests with three replicates for each oil blend were conducted as part of the DOE software to study the behaviour of FeF 3 catalyst and PTFE or Teflon in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti?wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Several responses with respect to sample failure and post?wear measurements were analysed, and the overall desirability of the model was targeted to lower phosphorus blends. The goal of the model solution was to check the maximum and minimum interactions of PTFE and selected FeF 3 catalyst with respect to both plain ZDDP oils and fully formulated oil. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Kreidy R.,University of Balamand
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis | Year: 2015

Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common complication of deep vein thrombosis. This study aims to assess the role of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of PTS. A series of 206 patients diagnosed with lower extremity venous thrombosis were retrospectively reviewed. The PTS was observed in 30.58% of the patients. Recurrent venous thrombosis was identified in 3.4% of the patients without PTS and in 33.3% of patients with PTS (P <.001). Inherited thrombophilia alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis was more commonly detected when PTS was moderate to severe (P =.04 and <.001) or severe (P <.001). Recurrent venous thrombosis increases the incidence of PTS significantly. The severity of PTS raises when an underlying thrombophilia is present either alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Daher M.,University of Balamand
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the fore. An interdisciplinary healthcare team can help in these areas. The goals of this review are to raise the awareness of doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare team to the important ethical issues that must be addressed in providing medical care to elderly patients with advanced cancer; and also to encourage members of the healthcare team to take the ethical issues seriously so that we can improve the circumstances of a vulnerable group of patients-the elderly patients with cancer. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

There is a recent concern about the effects of P-containing anti-wear additives in regard to emissions reduction in automobiles and trucks. Research described here is aimed at providing good friction and wear performance while reducing suspected catalyst poisoning effects from compounds like zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP). The effects of adding submicron particles of titanium fluoride or iron fluoride along with polytetrafluoroethylene to ZDDP were investigated with bearing steel using a sliding ball-on-ring apparatus that operates under boundary lubrication. An optimized load of 336N (2.6GPa Hertzian contact pressure) and 60μl of oil quantity were used to run several tests using 0.05P% plain ZDDP with and without additives (1% catalysts and 2% PTFE) under two different speeds (3.14m/s for the first 943m (5000 revolutions) then 2.2m/s until failure or 18,856m (100,000 revolutions) whichever comes first) and steady state speed of 2.2m/s. Special attention was paid to the effects of running-in and temperature. Therefore, a break in period of 3min was chosen when the tribotest temperature reached 100°C. Results showed that 0.8% FeF3+0.2% TiF3 and 2% PTFE additives when combined with 0.05P% (phosphorus) ZDDP plain oil performed better than that when ZDDP is used alone. Thermally treated surfaces showed better coating and support our findings. A good transfer layer under extreme pressure was responsible for improving the antiwear resistance of additives and for lowering the wear volume and wear debris as it is evident by SEM and TEM images. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kreidy R.,University of Balamand
International Journal of Vascular Medicine | Year: 2014

Prevention, management, and treatment of venous thromboembolism requires understanding of the epidemiology and associated risk factors, particularly in recognizing populations warranting prophylaxis, in evaluating patients with high risk situations, and in determining the duration of anticoagulation required to minimize recurrent thrombosis and to avoid postthrombotic syndrome. The present paper reviews recent advances concerning acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis, analyses individual risks related to age, and focuses on thrombotic genetic risk factors and the synergistic gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and their importance in the management and treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. © 2014 Raghid Kreidy. Source

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