Al-Ameri T.K.,University of Baghdad
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2011
This work presents new insights of the generation, quality and migration pathways of the hydrocarbons in the East Baghdad Oil Field.The Khasib and Tannuma formations in East Baghdad are considered as oil reservoirs according to their high porosity (15-23%) and permeability (20-45 mD) in carbonate rocks. The hydrocarbons are trapped by structural anticline closure trending NW-SE. Gas chromatography analysis on these oil reservoirshave shown biomarkers of abundant ranges of n-alkanes of less than C22 (C17-C21) with C19 and C18 peaks. This suggests mainly liquid oil constituents of paraffinic hydrocarbons from marine algal source of restricted palaeoenvironments in the reservoir. The low non aromatic C15 + peaks are indicative for slight degradation and water washing. Oil biomarkers of Pr./Ph. = 0.85, C31/C30 < 1.0, location in triangle of C27-C29 sterane, C28/C29 of 0.6 sterane, Oleanane of 0.01 and CPI = 1.0, indicate an anoxic marine environment with carbonate deposits of Upper Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. Four Miospores, seven Dinoflagellates and one Tasmanite species confirm affinity to the upper most Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Chia Gara and Ratawi Formations.The recorded palynomorphs from the Khasib and Tannuma Formations are of light brown color of TAI = 2.8-3.0 and comparable to the mature palynomorphs that belong to the Chia Gara and the Lower part of Ratawi Formations.The Chia Gara Formation generated oil during Upper Cretaceous to Early Palaeogene and accumulated in structural traps of Cretaceous age, such as the Khasib and Tannuma reservoirs. The Chia Gara Formation generated and expelled high quantities of oil hydrocarbons according to their TOC wt% of 0.5-8.5 with S2 = 2.5-18.5 mg Hc/g Rock, high hydrogen index of the range 150-450 mg Hc/g Rock, good petroleum potential of 4.5-23.5 mg Hc/g Rock, mature (TAI = 2.8-3.0 and Tmax = 428-443C), kerogen type II and palynofacies parameters of up to 100% AOM (Amorphous Organic Matters). This includes algae deposits in a dysoxic-anoxic to suboxic-anoxic environment.Alternative plays are discussed according to the migration pathways. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Alwan S.M.,University of Baghdad
Molecules | Year: 2012
New derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid 1-8 were synthesized by acylation of the 7-amino group of the cephem nucleus with various arylidinimino-1,3,4- thiadiazole-thio(or dithio)-acetic acid intermediates 3a-d and 5a-d, respectively, so the acyl side chains of these new cephalosporins contained a sulfide or disulfide bond. This unique combination of a Schiff base with the sulfide or disulfide bonds in the acyl side chain afforded new cephalosporins of reasonable potencies, some of which were found to possess moderate activities against the tested microorganisms. Their chemical structures were characterized by H-NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. Preliminary in vitro antimicrobial activities of the prepared cephalosporins were investigated using a panel of selected microorganisms. Results indicated that the newly synthesized cephalosporins containing disulfide bonds (compounds 5-8) exhibited better activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cephalosporins cross-linked by a sulfide bond (compounds 1-4) showed a slight change in antimicrobial activities when compared with that of the reference cephalosporin (cephalexin). © 2012 by the authors.
Lafta R.,University of Baghdad
The Lancet | Year: 2013
After decades of war, sanctions, and occupation, Iraq's health services are struggling to regain lost momentum. Many skilled health workers have moved to other countries, and young graduates continue to leave. In spite of much rebuilding, health infrastructure is not fully restored. National development plans call for a realignment of the health system with primary health care as the basis. Yet the health-care system continues to be centralised and focused on hospitals. These development plans also call for the introduction of private health care as a major force in the health sector, but much needs to be done before policies to support this change are in place. New initiatives include an active programme to match access to health services with the location and needs of the population.
Hashim Z.M.,University of Baghdad
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014
Breast cancer is estimated to be the most common malignancy affecting women in Iraq. The cancer antigen CA 15-3 has been used as a possible serum marker of occult and recurrent breast carcinoma, either alone or in combination with other tumor markers such as HER2/neu, that has evolved as a major classifier of invasive breast cancer and target of therapy for the disease. ELISA, used to evaluate serum levels of CA15-3 and immuno-histochemistry staining technique, was used to establish the HER2/neu status. The results of this study indicate an increased level of CA15-3 in breast cancer patients (29.02±1.79 IU/ml) as compared to both women with benign tumor and healthy controls (13.78±1.24 and 8.92±0.48 IU/ml, respectively), and that this increase is associated to advanced stages. Patients with HER2/neu positive malignancies show elevated serum CA15-3 (37.09±2.55 IU/ml), as well as patients who developed recurrence (40.75±2.11 IU/ml). Our data study suggests that higher levels of CA 15-3 would be a reliable prognostic marker as they were directly related to advanced stages and recurrence. In addition persistent elevation of CA 15-3 was associated to HER2/neu positivity in breast cancer patients. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.
Hammadi O.A.,University of Baghdad
Photonic Sensors | Year: 2015
In this work, the photovoltaic properties of selenium-doped silicon photodiodes were studied. Influence of illumination of the impurity absorption range on the current-voltage and spectral characteristics of the fabricated device were considered. The photoresponse dependencies on the electric intensity, current, and radiation power at the sample were observed. Results obtained in this work showed that the current-sensitivity of the fabricated structures at the forward bias was rather higher than that of photoresistors. The photosensitivity and detectivity were up to 2.85×10−16W·Hz−1/2 and 2.1×1011cm·Hz1/2W−1, respectively. © 2015, The Author(s).