An Najaf al Ashraf, Iraq
An Najaf al Ashraf, Iraq

The University of Babylon is a university located in Babylon, Iraq. It consists of 20 colleges within three compounds, located seven kilometers south of the city of Hillah, in Babylon Province. The campus was originally the Administrative Institute of Babylon. Later some of the buildings were adopted for use by the medical college of the University of Kufa, before being established as a university in its own right in 1991.The university now teaches a wide variety of subjects, and during the 1990s, started teaching night classes. These became popular, especially among well-off families, after the increase in difficulty of high school examinations in 1997. Wikipedia.

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In the present paper, the effect of constant magnetic field on natural convection in a semi-circular enclosure that is filled with nanofluids (copper (nanoparticles) with pure water (base fluid)) with present heat flux is investigated numerically. The heat flux (q″) is supplied partly in the center of the base wall, and the other parts of base wall of the enclosure are assumed adiabatic. The center of the circular arc (-45°≤γ≤+45°) is assumed at constant cold temperature (Tc) and the other parts of the circular arc are adiabatic. The gravity (g) acts normal to the y-direction and the uniform external magnetic field (Bo) is applied parallel to gravity. Finite element method based on the variational formulation is employed to solve momentum and energy balance as well as post-processing streamfunctions and heatfunctions. The results are based on visualization of heat flow via temperature lines and heatfunctions, and fluid flow via streamfunctions. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and the results are found to be in good agreement. This paper examines the influence of pertinent parameters such as Rayleigh number (104≤Ra≤107), Hartmann number (0≤Ha≤80 step 20), and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤φ≤0.15 step 0.05) on the flow, temperature fields and the heat transfer performance of the enclosure.The results show that the heat transfer rate increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number and the nanoparticles volume fraction but it decreases with an increase of the Hartmann number. The effect of the magnetic field on heat transfer increases with the increase of Rayleigh number and it decreases with the increase of the nanoparticles fraction effect. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Hussein F.H.,University of Babylon
International Journal of Photoenergy | Year: 2012

The photocatalytic decolorization of industrial wastewater was investigated by using TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts. Heterogeneous photocatalytic processes applied under natural weathering conditions, in the presence of solar radiation show a promising degradation capability. The complete removal of color could be achieved in a relatively short time of about 20 minutes, when ZnO was used and about 100 minutes when TiO2 was used under solar irradiation. However, in the presence of artificial UV-light, complete decolorization of textile industrial wastewater was obtained after less than one hour of irradiation when ZnO was used and in less than two hours, when TiO2 was used at the same temperature. The results indicate that the degree of photocatalytic decolorization of textile industrial wastewater was obviously affected by different parameters. These parameters include catalyst mass, type of catalyst, type of reactor, type of dye, dye concentration, and temperature. The procedure used in this research can be used as an efficient technology for solar photocatalytic decolorization of the colored wastewater discharged from the textile industry under the climatic conditions of most countries. Copyright © 2012 Falah H. Hussein.

Hussein A.K.,University of Babylon
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

One of the great technological challenges in 21st century is the development of renewable energy technologies due to serious problems related with the production and use of energy. A new promising area of research grows rapidly which is called Nanotechnologies are considered nowadays one of the most recommended choices to solve this problem. This review aims to introduce several significant applications of nanotechnology in renewable energy systems. Papers reviewed including theoretical and experimental works related with nanotechnology applications in solar, hydrogen, wind, biomass, geothermal and tidal energies. A lot of literature are reviewed and summarized carefully in a useful tables to give a panoramic overview about the role of nanotechnology in improving the various sources of renewable energies. We think that this paper can be considered as an important bridge between nanotechnology and all available kinds of renewable energies. From the other side, further researches are required to study the effect of nanotechnology to enhance the renewable energy industry especially in geothermal, wind and tidal energies, since the available papers in these fields are limited. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Hussein A.K.,University of Babylon
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

This paper gives a comprehensive overview about the recent advances related with the application of the nanotechnology in various kinds of the solar collectors. Papers reviewed including theoretical, numerical and experimental up to date works related with the nanotechnology applications in the flat plate, direct absorption, parabolic trough, wavy, heat pipe and another kinds of the solar collectors. A lot of literature are reviewed and summarized carefully in a useful tables (Tables 1-7) to give a panoramic overview about the role of the nanotechnology in improving the various types of the solar collectors. It was found that the use of the nanofluid in the solar collector field can play a crucial role in increasing the efficiency of these devises. We think that this paper can be considered as an important link between the nanotechnology and all available kinds of the solar collectors. From the other side, further researches are required to study the effect of nanotechnology to enhance the solar collector industry over the next several coming years. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kadhim M.M.A.,University of Babylon
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

This paper focused on behavior of beam strengthened with CFRP plate and effect of strengthening length. The simply supported steel beam tested in previous work was modeled using ANSYS finite element software, The same parameters as the experimental data were used to model the steel beam in FEA. Characteristic points on the load-deflection response curve predicted using finite element analysis (FEA) were compared to experimental data. The comparison shows that the ANSYS finite element program is capable of modeling and predicting the actual deformation behavior for steel beam. The FE model simulated in this study used to build continuous steel beam and strengthening it by using different length of CFRP plate as a ratio of beam length. The FE analysis result shows that the length of CFRP plate when reach (40% and 60%) of span length and total beam length in sagging and hogging regions respectively, the increased of ultimate strength of beam become growth slowly. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hussien B.,University of Babylon
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2011

The D.C and A.C electrical conductivity of (poly-methyl methacrylate - alumina) composite has been investigated. For that purpose, the PMMA samples with Al2O3 additive prepared with different percentages(0,15,25,35 and 45) wt.% and different thickness. The experimental results showed that the D.C electrical conductivity increased with increasing the alumina concentrations and temperature. Also the activation energy change with increasing of additional alumina. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss, A.C electrical conductivity are changed with change the concentration of the filler and frequency of applied electrical field. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2011.

Jabbar A.N.,University of Babylon
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B | Year: 2011

This research proposes a new blind tracking algorithm for smart antenna arrays by switching the main beam iteratively using the cost calculated from the received and predicted symbol. This al-gorithm will be called Cost Steering Algorithm Using Demodulation-Remodulation Technique COSTAUS/DRT. It is completely independent of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) or any derived version from it, and it does not need to investigate the cyclostationary properties of the incoming signal. A complete derivation and analytical model with simulation using Simulink is given in this research. The algorithm was tested under three different target motions which are a triangular motion (linear), sinusoidal motion (circular) and saw tooth motion which is an adverse case when the linear motion changes its path suddenly. The transmitter uses 16-level PSK signal with no Forward Error Correction code (FEC) in order to test the algorithm under the worst situation. The algorithm is tested under different noise power levels. The antenna array is a linear array with 16-elements.

Aljeboree A.M.,University of Babylon
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

In this work, attapulgite clay was modified iron to obtained (Fe/attapulgite) and its capacity for the removal of a typical cationic dye, methylene blue, was studied. The modified samples were characterized by SEM, EDX, nitrogen-adsorption surface area (BET) and FTIR techniques. Various operational parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration, mass dosage and solution temperature in batch systems were investigated on the use of Fe/attapulgite in the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The amount of dye removed was dependent on initial dye concentration, mass dosage pH of solution and solution temperature. Experimental data were analyzed using three model equations: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms and it was found that the Freundlich isotherm model fitted the adsorption data most with the highest correlation (R2≥0.986). Thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) were calculated. The adsorption of MB dye onto Fe/attapulgite was found to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature, this study shows that the adsorption confirm physisorption mechanism.

Purpose: Tonometry, or measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), is one of the most important examination procedures in ophthalmic clinics, and IOP is an important parameter in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Because there are numerous types of tonometer available, it is important to evaluate the differences in readings between different tonometers. Goldmann applanation tonometers (GATs) and noncontact air-puff tonometers (APTs) are largely available in ophthalmic clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of AP tonometer by comparing the measurements of IOP made using this device with those made using a GAT. Patients and methods: This study involved 196 eyes from 98 study participants, all of whom were patients attending an ophthalmic outpatient clinic. Each patient's IOP was measured using both Goldmann applanation tonometry and AP tonometry, and the difference in readings between the two methods was calculated. Results: The mean IOP as measured by GAT was 13.06 ± 4.774 mmHg, while that as measured by AP tonometer was 15.91 ± 6.955 mmHg. The mean difference between the two methods of measurement was 2.72 ± 2.34 mmHg. The readings obtained by AP tonometer were higher than those obtained by GAT in 74% of patients, and this difference was most obvious when the GAT measurement of IOP exceeded 24 mmHg. No statistically significant variation in IOP was noted between the devices when the patients' age, sex, and laterality (right and left eyes) were considered. Conclusion: There is a significant difference in the measurement of IOP between GATs and AP tonometers. Goldmann applanation tonometry remains the most suitable and reliable method for measuring IOP. Because measurements of IOP by AP tonometer are usually higher than those obtained by GAT regardless of the patient's age, sex, or laterality of eyes, AP tonometry is a suitable method for community or mass screenings of IOP. © 2013 Farhood, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Hussein A.K.,University of Babylon
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2013

A finite volume numerical simulation of natural convection in a parallelogrammic air-filled cavity having a heated concentric circular cylinder is performed. The left and right sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at a uniform cold temperature, while both upper and lower walls of it are considered thermally insulated. A wide range of significant parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle and cylinder vertical locations are considered in the present study. Comparison with previously published works is made and found to be an excellent agreement. The results show that the strength of the flow circulation and the thickness of thermal boundary layer around the hot circular cylinder are increased dramatically when the Rayleigh number increases. Also, to increase the flow circulation inside the parallelogrammic cavity, it is recommended to make the inner cylinder moves downward until it reaches to [δ= - 0.2] and the parallelogrammic cavity sidewalls inclined to [Φ = 15°]. Moreover, it is found that for various values of the inclination angle, the average Nusselt numbers at inner cylinder surface and at both cavity sidewalls, decrease when the cylinder moves upward, while they increase when the cylinder moves downward. © 2013.

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