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Cando O.A.,University of Azuay | Hidalgo K.R.,University of Azuay | Palacios B.C.,University of Azuay
Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE ANDESCON, ANDESCON 2016 | Year: 2016

Freezing of gait (FOG) is a symptom of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) that affects the quality of life of these patients. This paper presents a new low-cost stimulus system to support the patient response to FOG episodes by using a vibratory cue. Freezing episodes are automatically detected by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the patient's right ankle and a pressure sensor embedded into a shoe insole to reduce false-positive episodes. This data is transmitted using Bluetooth technology to a PC and once a freezing event is detected, a vibratory stimulus is produced on the left sole by triggering a micromotor at 275 Hz, which is embedded into the left shoe insole. The entire system was evaluated over a walking circuit designed to provoke FOG events during acquisition of kinematic data. The average time to perform the complete circuit for PD patient is around 146 seconds (without stimulations) and 96 seconds with vibratory stimulation system; therefore showing that time diminishes by 34%. © 2016 IEEE.


Cueva H.,University of Azuay | Pozo F.,University of Azuay | Iturralde D.,University of Azuay
Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE ANDESCON, ANDESCON 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper discusses the design, development and implementation of an cross-platform program, called ENDS (Easy Network Designer Software), which allows to perform network virtualization and remote configuration of MikroTik equipment basic parameters through a graphical interface. The software was written in Java and it uses a MySQL database where the projects are saved. The program was tested by a relatively complex network, and the results shown were satisfactory. © 2016 IEEE.


Cobos-Cali M.,University of Azuay | Ladera V.,University of Salamanca | Perea M.V.,University of Salamanca | Garcia R.,University of Salamanca
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2017

Studies that deal with child maltreatment have become relevant during these past years. One important aspect to consider is the impact of maltreatment on the cognitive functioning and more precisely on language. Our objective is to analyze the different components in the comprehension and production of language in children victims of domestic abuse in Childreńs Homes. Participants: The sample consists of 104 participants divided in two groups. A group of children who have just been institutionalized due to domestic abuse (VG) (Age: 8 years 2 months with a standard deviation of 1, 5 years) without previous treatment; a group of comparison (CG) made up by children who have not been victim of domestic violence (Age: 8 years 6 months with a standard deviation of 2 years and a month), with similar characteristics of gender, age and schooling. Material: The Child Neuropsychological Assessment by Matute, Rosselli, Ardila and Ostrosky (2007) was applied. This test includes metalinguistic, oral and written comprehension and expression skills. Results: The VG group showed low scores in all components of the analyzed language with exception to the discourse, syllable and non-word dictation compared to the CG children. Conclusions: The alterations of the language observed in these children semantic suggest a lack of consolidation of phonological coding and a low use of code. From our findings an early language evaluation in these children can be of especial interest to apply timely intervention programs with the aim of diminishing the impact caused by domestic violence on school failure which is a frequent trait in these children. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Tinoco B.A.,University of Azuay | Aguilar J.M.,University of Azuay | Schleuning M.,Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Center ankfurt am Main Germany
Oikos | Year: 2016

Specialization of species in interaction networks influences network stability and ecosystem functioning. Spatial and temporal variation in resource availability may provide insight into how ecological factors, such as resource abundance, and evolutionary factors, such as phylogenetically conserved morphological traits, influence specialization within mutualistic networks. We used independent measures of hummingbird abundance and resources (nectar), information on hummingbird traits and plant-hummingbird interactions to examine how resource availability and species' morphology influence the specialization of hummingbirds in three habitat types (forest, shrubs, cattle ranch) sampled over 10 sessions across two years in the southern Andes of Ecuador. Specialization of hummingbird species in the networks was measured by three indices: d' (related to niche partitioning), generality (related to niche width) and PSI (related to pollination services). Specialization indices d', generality and PSI of hummingbird species were influenced by resource availability. All indices indicated that specialization of hummingbirds increased when the availability of resources decreased. Variation in d' was also explained by an interaction between resource availability and bill length; hummingbirds with a long bill switched from being more specialized than other species when resource availability was low to being similarly specialized when availability was high. Overall, our results highlight the importance of ecological and evolutionary factors determining the specialization of species in interaction networks. We demonstrate in particular that ecological gradients in resource availability cause substantial changes in consumers' foraging behavior contingent on their morphology. Changes in pollinator specialization along resource gradients can have impacts on ecosystem functions, such as pollination by animals. © 2016 Nordic Society Oikos.


Saravia D.,University of Azuay | Gonzalez V.M.,Autonomus Institute of Technology of Mexico
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

The cerebral palsy (CP) is an irreversible disorder that affects the human brain and causes problems with mobility and communication. This paper presents the results of designing, implementing and evaluating an easy-to-use and low-cost equipment that seeks to increase the motivation and effort of the children with cerebral palsy while they do their physical therapies. Through a validation process with the help of patients and physiotherapists, we designed a set of multimedia applications that were evaluated with children with cerebral palsy while doing their therapies. Our emphasis was on providing support for the distension muscle exercises as they are identified as the most painful activities that take place in a physical therapy session. The application was based on a Wiimote control, connected to a personal computer via Bluetooth, as a receptor of the infrared light emitted by a simple control made of an infrared led, an interrupter and a battery. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Carvallo J.P.,University of Azuay | Franch X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing | Year: 2012

Modern enterprise engineering (EE) requires deep understanding of organizations and their interaction with their context. Because of this, in early phases of the EE process, enterprise context models are often built and used to reason about organizational needs with respects to actors in their context and vice versa. However, far from simple, this task is usually cumbersome because of knowledge and communication gaps among technical personnel performing EE activities and their administrative counterparts. In this paper, we propose the use of strategic patterns expressed with the i* language aimed to help bridging this gap. Patterns emerged from several industrial applications of our DHARMA method, and synthesize knowledge about common enterprise strategies, e.g. CRM. Patterns have been constructed based on the well-known Porter's model of the 5 market forces and built upon i* strategic dependency models. In this way technical and administrative knowledge and skills are synthesized in a commonly agreeable framework. The use of patterns is illustrated with an industrial example in the telecom field. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Orellana D.,University of Cuenca | Hermida C.,University of Cuenca | Osorio P.,University of Azuay
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: A) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.


Latta S.C.,National Aviary United States | Tinoco B.A.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Astudillo P.X.,University of Azuay | Graham C.H.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Condor | Year: 2011

The tropical Andes rank first among the world's 25 "hotspots" of biodiversity and endemism yet are threatened and little studied. We contrast population trends in avian diversity in montane cloud forest (bosque altoandino) and similar forest degraded by the planting of introduced tree species (bosque introducido) in the Mazán Reserve, Ecuador. We describe changes in bird diversity and abundance in these habitats over 12 years and evaluate the nature of change within these avian communities. On the basis of 2976 count detections and 419 net captures of 76 species of landbirds, indices of similarity between the habitats were low, with only 47.6% of species occurring in both forest types. From 1994-95 to 2006-07, species richness decreased from 54 to 31 in bosque introducido and from 67 to 30 in bosque altoandino. Capture rates also declined from 56.0 to 28.5 birds per 100 mist-net hr in bosque introducido and from 38.0 to 22.4 birds per 100 mist-net hr in bosque altoandino. We explore various potentially interacting factors that might have caused the observed changes in bird communities, including changes in vegetation within the Mazán Reserve and environmental changes resulting from global warming. But our results also suggest that local and regional changes in habitat outside of the Mazán Reserve were likely responsible for some community changes within the reserve. We argue for increased population monitoring to verify trends and to strengthen the effectiveness of conservation efforts in the Andes. Copyright © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.


Bungartz F.,Charles Darwin Foundation AISBL | Bungartz F.,University of Azuay | Dutan-Patino V.L.,Charles Darwin Foundation AISBL | Dutan-Patino V.L.,University of Azuay | Elix J.A.,Australian National University
Lichenologist | Year: 2013

As part of a comprehensive biodiversity inventory of Galapagos lichens, all species in two closely related genera, Cryptothecia and Herpothallon, are reviewed. Both genera are superficially similar, ecorticate, cottony-byssoid crusts and are unusual insofar as their asci do not develop in distinct ascomata, but instead within ascigerous areas or even solitary inside pseudisidia. Species of Herpothallon typically have an I- medulla and are covered in ecorticate pseudisidia; only a single species is known fertile. Cryptothecia is characterized by ascigerous areas with loosely aggregated asci. In some species the asci are isolated, but others have closely aggregated asci embedded in a hyphal matrix with some carbonization, perhaps indicating preliminary stages towards a development of true ascomata. Lirellate ascomata of the enigmatic, monotypic Helminthocarpon leprevostii show similarity with these ascigerous areas, especially of C. darwiniana and C. galapagoana, two species newly described here. Both also have similar asci and ascospores. As previously suggested, Helminthocarpon should thus not be included in Graphidaceae, but it belongs in Arthoniales, possibly in Arthoniaceae or Opegraphaceae. A key to all species and brief descriptions are provided. Two of the three Cryptothecia species and two of the seven Herpothallon species reported here are new to science. All records apart from Herpothallon rubrocinctum are new to Galapagos and Ecuador. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2013.


Rojas C.,CONICET | Duchowicz P.R.,University of Azuay | Tripaldi P.,CONICET | Diez R.P.,CONICET
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2015

A predictive quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) is developed for modeling the retention index measured on the OV-101 glass capillary gas chromatography column, in a set of 1208 flavor and fragrance compounds. The 4885 molecular descriptors are calculated using the Dragon software and then are simultaneously analyzed through multivariable linear regression analysis using the replacement method (RM) variable subset selection technique. We proceed in three steps, the first one by considering all descriptor blocks, the second one by excluding conformational descriptors blocks, and the last one by analyzing only 3D-descriptors families. The models are properly validated through an external test set of compounds. Cross-validation methods such as leave-one-out and leave-more-out are applied, together with Y-randomization and applicability domain analysis. The results clearly suggest that 3D-descriptors do not offer relevant information for modeling the retention index, while a topological index such as the solvation connectivity index of first order has a high relevance for this purpose. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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