Muzaffarabad, Pakistan
Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a university at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. It was established in 1980, and is currently ranked at No.14 in HEC ranking of General category universities in Pakistan The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a multi-campus, multi-discipline university. The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has been making steady progress in both academic and administrative domains. During the 2005 earthquake, most of the buildings at the Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot campuses were destroyed, but new buildings equipped with modern facilities are now under construction, and new research programmes have already been launched. However Institute of Geology is ranked 2nd in whole country based upon diverse field work and researches in Masters and P.H.D programmes. Wikipedia.

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PubMed | University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University and University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biological dynamics | Year: 2016

In this paper, we study the global dynamics and bifurcations of a two-dimensional discrete time host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect. The existence of fixed points and their stability are analysed in all allowed parametric region. The bifurcation analysis shows that the model can undergo fold bifurcation and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. As the parameters vary in a small neighbourhood of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation condition, the unique positive fixed point changes its stability and an invariant closed circle bifurcates from the positive fixed point. From the viewpoint of biology, the invariant closed curve corresponds to the periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations between host and parasitoid populations. Furthermore, it is proved that all solutions of this model are bounded, and there exist some values of the parameters such that the model has a global attractor. These theoretical results reveal the complex dynamics of the present model.

PubMed | National Institute for Lasers & Optronics, Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Mekelle University, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanomedicine (London, England) | Year: 2016

With the development of the latest technologies, scientists are looking to design novel strategies for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer. Advances in medicinal plant research and nanotechnology have attracted many researchers to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles due to its several advantages over conventional synthesis (simple, fast, energy efficient, one pot processes, safer, economical and biocompatibility). Medicinally active plants have proven to be the best reservoirs of diverse phytochemicals for the synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this review, we discuss mechanistic advances in the synthesis and optimization of AgNPs from plant extracts. Moreover, we have thoroughly discussed the recent developments and milestones achieved in the use of biogenic AgNPs as cancer theranostic agents and their proposed mechanism of action. Anticipating all of the challenges, we hope that biogenic AgNPs may become a potential cancer theranostic agent in the near future.

PubMed | Medical Genetics Unit, Gomal Medical College, Gomal University, University of California at San Francisco and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Experimental eye research | Year: 2016

Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are a group of rare developmental disorders that affect the size of the ocular globe. A/M may present as the sole clinical feature, but are also frequently found in a variety of syndromes. A/M is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by chromosomal aberrations, copy number variations and single gene mutations. To date, A/M has been caused by mutations in at least 20 genes that show different modes of inheritance. In this study, we enrolled eight consanguineous families with A/M, including seven from Pakistan and one from India. Sanger and exome sequencing of DNA samples from these families identified three novel mutations including two mutations in the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A3 (ALDH1A3) gene, [c.1310_1311delAT; p.(Tyr437Trpfs*44) and c.964G>A; p.(Val322Met)] and a single missense mutation in Forkhead Box E3 (FOXE3) gene, [c.289A>G p.(Ile97Val)]. Additionally two previously reported mutations were identified in FOXE3 and in Visual System Homeobox 2 (VSX2). This is the first comprehensive study on families with A/M from the Indian subcontinent which provides further evidence for the involvement of known genes with novel and recurrent mutations.

PubMed | University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Federal University of São Paulo, University of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo and Quaid-i-Azam University
Type: | Journal: Behavioural brain research | Year: 2016

The electrical and chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) elicits panic-like explosive escape behaviour. Although neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) seem to organise oriented escape behaviour, when stimulated with excitatory amino acids at higher doses, non-oriented/explosive escape reactions can also be displayed. The aim of this work was to examine the importance of reciprocal projections between the VMH and the dPAG for the organisation of this panic-like behaviour. The chemical stimulation of the VMH with 9nmol of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) elicited oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours. The pretreatment of the dPAG with a non-selective blocker of synaptic contacts, cobalt chloride (CoCl

PubMed | Lahore College for Women University, University of Punjab, The University of Lahore, Islamia University of Bahawalpur and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Citrus limon peroxidase mediated decolourization of Direct Yellow 4 (DY4) was investigated. The process variables (pH, temperature, incubation time, enzyme dose, H

PubMed | National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE, King Abdulaziz University, The University of Lahore, Bolan Medical Hospital and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Ovarian cancer is the 5th most common cause of deaths in the women among gynecological tumors. There are many growing evidences that stress and other behavioral factors may affect cancer progression and patient survival. The purpose of this study is to determine the key role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and cytokines in the aggregation and progression of ovarian cancer.Stress variables (MDA, AGEs, AOPPs, NO), profile of antioxidants (SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E & A, GSH, GRx, GPx) and inflammatory biomarkers (MMP-9, MMP-2, MMP-11, IL-1 and TNF-) were biochemically assessed from venous blood of fifty ovarian cancer patients and twenty healthy control subjects. The results of all parameters were analyzed statistically by independent sample t-test.The results of the study demonstrated that the levels of stress variables like MDA (3.381.12nmol/ml), AGEs (2.720.22 ng/ml), AOPPs (128.4827.23 ng/ml) and NO (58.718.67 ng/ml) were increased in the patients of ovarian cancer as compared to control individuals whereas the profile of antioxidants like SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, GSH and GRx were decreased in ovarian cancer patients (0.110.08 g/ml, 2.411.01mol/mol of protein, 0.220.04 g/ml, 45.849.07g/ml, 4.881.18g/ml, 5.331.26 mol/ml respectively). But the level of GPx antioxidant was increased in ovarian cancer patients (6.580.21mol/ml). Moreover the levels of MMP-9 (64.875.35 ng/ml), MMP-2 (75.8718.82 ng/ml) and MMP-11 (63.588.48 ng/ml) were elevated in the patients. Similarly, the levels of various cytokines TNF- and IL-1 were also increased in the patients of ovarian cancer (32.173.52 pg/ml and 7.040.85 pg/ml respectively).MMPs are commonly expressed in ovarian cancer which are potential extrapolative biomarkers and have a major role in metastasis. Due to oxidative stress, different cytokines are released by tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) that result in the cancer progression. Consequently, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are the valuable therapeutic approaches to complement conservative anticancer strategies.

Manzoor M.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Abbasi M.K.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Sultan T.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Sultan T.,Land Resources Research Institute
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2016

Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) play a significant role in plant P nutrition by their effect on soil P dynamics and their subsequent ability to make P available to plants via solubilization and mineralization processes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of separate and combined use of indigenous PSB, poultry manure (PM) and compost on solubilization and mineralization of rock phosphate (RP) and their subsequent effect on growth and P accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.). A group of fifty seven bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere/rhizoplane of maize that had been grown in soils collected from varying altitudes (655–2,576 m) of the mountain region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After screening, the capacity of eleven isolates to solubilize mineral phosphate was quantitatively evaluated using insoluble Ca3(PO4)2 in culture medium as a time course study through spectrometer. The growth hormone producing (IAA) capacity of the isolates was also determined. Furthermore, five potential isolates were tested for their ability to increase P release capacity (mineralization) of insoluble RP in an incubation study. The effect of PSB inoculation on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot biomass and P accumulation in plants were assessed. The P solubilization index of selected isolates varied from 1.94 to 3.69, while the P solubilization efficiency ranged between 94.1% and 269.0%. The isolates MRS18 and MRS27 displayed the highest values. The P solubilization in the liquid medium was maximum at 6 and 9 days of incubation ranging between 9.91 and 44.04 µgmL−1 and the isolates MRS27 and MRS34 exhibited the highest solubilization. Six isolates showed additional capability of producing IAA ranging between 2.66 and 28.41 µgmL−1. Results of the incubation study indicated that P release capacity (P mineralization) of RP-amended soil varied between 6.0 and 11.8 µgPg−1 that had been significantly increased to 30.6–36.3 µgPg−1 (maximum value) when PSB were combined with RP. The combined application of PSB and organic amendments (PM, compost) with RP further increased P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 37.7 µgPg−1 compared with separate application of RP (11.8 µgPg−1) and organic amendments (21.5 and 16.5 µgPg−1). The overall effect of PSB (as a group) with RP over RP alone on maize growth showing a relative increase in shoot length 21%, shoot fresh weight 42%, shoot dry weight 24%, root length 11%, root fresh weight 59%, root dry weight 35% and chlorophyll content 32%. This study clearly indicates that use of PSB, and organic amendments with insoluble RP could be a promising management strategy to enhance P availability in soil pool and improve plant growth in intensive cropping systems. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Hussain Z.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Shahzad M.N.,University of Gujrat | Abbas K.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

The paper illustrates the results of regional frequency analysis of Annual Maximum Monthly Rainfall Totals (AMMRT) of seven sites of Sindh, Pakistan. The results of run test, lag-1 correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney test have shown that the data series at given sites is random, having no serial correlation and identically distributed. The values of discordancy measure have shown that there is no discordant site in the group of seven sites. L-moments based heterogeneity measure (H) shows that the region composed of seven sites is homogeneous. The results of L-moment ratio diagram and ZDIST statistic have shown that the three distributions: GNO, PE3 and GPA are suitable candidates for regional distribution. To obtain the rainfall quantiles at ungauged sites of the study area, a linear regression model has been developed, between the mean of AMMRT of gauged sites and their respective site’s elevation. The quality of the regression estimates has been tested using formal tests related to the assumptions of Classical Linear Regression Modeling (CLRM). The results have shown that the fitted model has satisfied various assumptions related to the estimation of CLRM. Hence, the estimates of this study will be useful for the estimation of rainfall quantiles of the study area for various return periods and can be utilized for the preventive measures of flood disasters, agricultural water management and the proposed improvement projects for the rehabilitation and modernization of major barrages of Indus River in the Sindh Province. © 2016 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Khan A.Q.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Qureshi M.N.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

In this paper, we study the qualitative behavior of following two systems of higher-order difference equations: xn+1=αxn-kβ+γyn-k+12,yn+1=α1yn-kβ1+γ1xn-k+12,n=0,1,⋯, and xn+1=ayn-kb+cxn-k+12,yn+1=a1xn-kb1+c1yn-k+12,n=0,1,⋯, where the parameters α,β,γ,α1,β1,γ1,a,b,c,a1,b1,andc1 and the initial conditions x0, x-1, ⋯, x-k, y0, y-1 ,⋯, y-k are positive real numbers. More precisely, we study the equilibrium points, local asymptotic stability, instability, global asymptotic stability of equilibrium points, and rate of convergence of positive solutions that converges to the equilibrium point P0=(0,0) of these systems. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results. These examples are experimental verification of our theoretical discussions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2015 10.1002/mma.3752 Research Article Research Articles Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

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