Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a university at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. It was established in 1980, and is currently ranked at No.14 in HEC ranking of General category universities in Pakistan The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a multi-campus, multi-discipline university. The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has been making steady progress in both academic and administrative domains. During the 2005 earthquake, most of the buildings at the Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot campuses were destroyed, but new buildings equipped with modern facilities are now under construction, and new research programmes have already been launched. However Institute of Geology is ranked 2nd in whole country based upon diverse field work and researches in Masters and P.H.D programmes. Wikipedia.

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Ahmed M.S.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Gardezi S.D.A.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

Sugarcane is an important crop that caters about 80 percent sugar requirement of the world. Modern day cultivated sugarcane is a complex hybrid between its few species like Saccharum officinarum L. and S. spontaneum L. having complex aneuploidy genomes with almost eight sets of basic chromosome number. Its flowering behaviours in the country and use of setts as seed narrow downs its genetic base. Molecular characterization provides the basis for determining its variability to start reasonable breeding program. Microsatellite markers have the unique ability to determine the extent of genetic divergence among sugarcane genotypes. In present study 49 SSR primers were utilized for selection of genetically diverse genotypes among 20 sugarcane cultivars adopted in Pakistan. A total of 420 bands were generated with a size range from 50 bp to 600 bp. The total number of bands generated by single primers pair ranged from 3 to 22. Polymorphic information contents (PIC) estimated ranged from 0.7 to 0.3. Cluster analysis grouped genotypes into four distinctive clusters at 70% genetic homology. Principal Coordinate analysis generated 50.04% variation from first 4 PCoA, of which PCoA-1 and PCoA-2 accounted 31% variability. PCoA divided genotypes into 4 groups in a similar pattern as generated with cluster analysis and authenticated the results of cluster analysis. Four genotypes viz; S-03-US-694, S-05-FSD-307, S-08-FSD-19 and HSF-240 were selected for future breeding endeavours involving crossing between genotypes that may provide valuable strategies for pyramiding beneficial gene(s) in novel sugarcane cultivars. It is concluded that use of SSR marker is very reliable approach for identification of diverse genotype(s) where phenotypic similarity of the cultivars leads to difficulty while selections of parents for hybridization. © 2017, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University and University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biological dynamics | Year: 2016

In this paper, we study the global dynamics and bifurcations of a two-dimensional discrete time host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect. The existence of fixed points and their stability are analysed in all allowed parametric region. The bifurcation analysis shows that the model can undergo fold bifurcation and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. As the parameters vary in a small neighbourhood of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation condition, the unique positive fixed point changes its stability and an invariant closed circle bifurcates from the positive fixed point. From the viewpoint of biology, the invariant closed curve corresponds to the periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations between host and parasitoid populations. Furthermore, it is proved that all solutions of this model are bounded, and there exist some values of the parameters such that the model has a global attractor. These theoretical results reveal the complex dynamics of the present model.

PubMed | National Institute for Lasers & Optronics, Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Mekelle University, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanomedicine (London, England) | Year: 2016

With the development of the latest technologies, scientists are looking to design novel strategies for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer. Advances in medicinal plant research and nanotechnology have attracted many researchers to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles due to its several advantages over conventional synthesis (simple, fast, energy efficient, one pot processes, safer, economical and biocompatibility). Medicinally active plants have proven to be the best reservoirs of diverse phytochemicals for the synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this review, we discuss mechanistic advances in the synthesis and optimization of AgNPs from plant extracts. Moreover, we have thoroughly discussed the recent developments and milestones achieved in the use of biogenic AgNPs as cancer theranostic agents and their proposed mechanism of action. Anticipating all of the challenges, we hope that biogenic AgNPs may become a potential cancer theranostic agent in the near future.

PubMed | Medical Genetics Unit, Gomal Medical College, Gomal University, University of California at San Francisco and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Experimental eye research | Year: 2016

Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are a group of rare developmental disorders that affect the size of the ocular globe. A/M may present as the sole clinical feature, but are also frequently found in a variety of syndromes. A/M is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by chromosomal aberrations, copy number variations and single gene mutations. To date, A/M has been caused by mutations in at least 20 genes that show different modes of inheritance. In this study, we enrolled eight consanguineous families with A/M, including seven from Pakistan and one from India. Sanger and exome sequencing of DNA samples from these families identified three novel mutations including two mutations in the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A3 (ALDH1A3) gene, [c.1310_1311delAT; p.(Tyr437Trpfs*44) and c.964G>A; p.(Val322Met)] and a single missense mutation in Forkhead Box E3 (FOXE3) gene, [c.289A>G p.(Ile97Val)]. Additionally two previously reported mutations were identified in FOXE3 and in Visual System Homeobox 2 (VSX2). This is the first comprehensive study on families with A/M from the Indian subcontinent which provides further evidence for the involvement of known genes with novel and recurrent mutations.

PubMed | University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Federal University of São Paulo, University of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo and Quaid-i-Azam University
Type: | Journal: Behavioural brain research | Year: 2016

The electrical and chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) elicits panic-like explosive escape behaviour. Although neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) seem to organise oriented escape behaviour, when stimulated with excitatory amino acids at higher doses, non-oriented/explosive escape reactions can also be displayed. The aim of this work was to examine the importance of reciprocal projections between the VMH and the dPAG for the organisation of this panic-like behaviour. The chemical stimulation of the VMH with 9nmol of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) elicited oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours. The pretreatment of the dPAG with a non-selective blocker of synaptic contacts, cobalt chloride (CoCl

PubMed | Lahore College for Women University, University of Punjab, The University of Lahore, Islamia University of Bahawalpur and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Citrus limon peroxidase mediated decolourization of Direct Yellow 4 (DY4) was investigated. The process variables (pH, temperature, incubation time, enzyme dose, H

PubMed | National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE, King Abdulaziz University, The University of Lahore, Bolan Medical Hospital and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Ovarian cancer is the 5th most common cause of deaths in the women among gynecological tumors. There are many growing evidences that stress and other behavioral factors may affect cancer progression and patient survival. The purpose of this study is to determine the key role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and cytokines in the aggregation and progression of ovarian cancer.Stress variables (MDA, AGEs, AOPPs, NO), profile of antioxidants (SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E & A, GSH, GRx, GPx) and inflammatory biomarkers (MMP-9, MMP-2, MMP-11, IL-1 and TNF-) were biochemically assessed from venous blood of fifty ovarian cancer patients and twenty healthy control subjects. The results of all parameters were analyzed statistically by independent sample t-test.The results of the study demonstrated that the levels of stress variables like MDA (3.381.12nmol/ml), AGEs (2.720.22 ng/ml), AOPPs (128.4827.23 ng/ml) and NO (58.718.67 ng/ml) were increased in the patients of ovarian cancer as compared to control individuals whereas the profile of antioxidants like SOD, Catalase, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, GSH and GRx were decreased in ovarian cancer patients (0.110.08 g/ml, 2.411.01mol/mol of protein, 0.220.04 g/ml, 45.849.07g/ml, 4.881.18g/ml, 5.331.26 mol/ml respectively). But the level of GPx antioxidant was increased in ovarian cancer patients (6.580.21mol/ml). Moreover the levels of MMP-9 (64.875.35 ng/ml), MMP-2 (75.8718.82 ng/ml) and MMP-11 (63.588.48 ng/ml) were elevated in the patients. Similarly, the levels of various cytokines TNF- and IL-1 were also increased in the patients of ovarian cancer (32.173.52 pg/ml and 7.040.85 pg/ml respectively).MMPs are commonly expressed in ovarian cancer which are potential extrapolative biomarkers and have a major role in metastasis. Due to oxidative stress, different cytokines are released by tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) that result in the cancer progression. Consequently, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are the valuable therapeutic approaches to complement conservative anticancer strategies.

Hussain Z.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Shahzad M.N.,University of Gujrat | Abbas K.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

The paper illustrates the results of regional frequency analysis of Annual Maximum Monthly Rainfall Totals (AMMRT) of seven sites of Sindh, Pakistan. The results of run test, lag-1 correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney test have shown that the data series at given sites is random, having no serial correlation and identically distributed. The values of discordancy measure have shown that there is no discordant site in the group of seven sites. L-moments based heterogeneity measure (H) shows that the region composed of seven sites is homogeneous. The results of L-moment ratio diagram and ZDIST statistic have shown that the three distributions: GNO, PE3 and GPA are suitable candidates for regional distribution. To obtain the rainfall quantiles at ungauged sites of the study area, a linear regression model has been developed, between the mean of AMMRT of gauged sites and their respective site’s elevation. The quality of the regression estimates has been tested using formal tests related to the assumptions of Classical Linear Regression Modeling (CLRM). The results have shown that the fitted model has satisfied various assumptions related to the estimation of CLRM. Hence, the estimates of this study will be useful for the estimation of rainfall quantiles of the study area for various return periods and can be utilized for the preventive measures of flood disasters, agricultural water management and the proposed improvement projects for the rehabilitation and modernization of major barrages of Indus River in the Sindh Province. © 2016 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Khan A.Q.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Qureshi M.N.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

In this paper, we study the qualitative behavior of following two systems of higher-order difference equations: xn+1=αxn-kβ+γyn-k+12,yn+1=α1yn-kβ1+γ1xn-k+12,n=0,1,⋯, and xn+1=ayn-kb+cxn-k+12,yn+1=a1xn-kb1+c1yn-k+12,n=0,1,⋯, where the parameters α,β,γ,α1,β1,γ1,a,b,c,a1,b1,andc1 and the initial conditions x0, x-1, ⋯, x-k, y0, y-1 ,⋯, y-k are positive real numbers. More precisely, we study the equilibrium points, local asymptotic stability, instability, global asymptotic stability of equilibrium points, and rate of convergence of positive solutions that converges to the equilibrium point P0=(0,0) of these systems. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results. These examples are experimental verification of our theoretical discussions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2015 10.1002/mma.3752 Research Article Research Articles Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

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