Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a university at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. It was established in 1980, and is currently ranked at No.14 in HEC ranking of General category universities in Pakistan The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a multi-campus, multi-discipline university. The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has been making steady progress in both academic and administrative domains. During the 2005 earthquake, most of the buildings at the Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot campuses were destroyed, but new buildings equipped with modern facilities are now under construction, and new research programmes have already been launched. However Institute of Geology is ranked 2nd in whole country based upon diverse field work and researches in Masters and P.H.D programmes. Wikipedia.

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Ahmed M.S.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Gardezi S.D.A.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

Sugarcane is an important crop that caters about 80 percent sugar requirement of the world. Modern day cultivated sugarcane is a complex hybrid between its few species like Saccharum officinarum L. and S. spontaneum L. having complex aneuploidy genomes with almost eight sets of basic chromosome number. Its flowering behaviours in the country and use of setts as seed narrow downs its genetic base. Molecular characterization provides the basis for determining its variability to start reasonable breeding program. Microsatellite markers have the unique ability to determine the extent of genetic divergence among sugarcane genotypes. In present study 49 SSR primers were utilized for selection of genetically diverse genotypes among 20 sugarcane cultivars adopted in Pakistan. A total of 420 bands were generated with a size range from 50 bp to 600 bp. The total number of bands generated by single primers pair ranged from 3 to 22. Polymorphic information contents (PIC) estimated ranged from 0.7 to 0.3. Cluster analysis grouped genotypes into four distinctive clusters at 70% genetic homology. Principal Coordinate analysis generated 50.04% variation from first 4 PCoA, of which PCoA-1 and PCoA-2 accounted 31% variability. PCoA divided genotypes into 4 groups in a similar pattern as generated with cluster analysis and authenticated the results of cluster analysis. Four genotypes viz; S-03-US-694, S-05-FSD-307, S-08-FSD-19 and HSF-240 were selected for future breeding endeavours involving crossing between genotypes that may provide valuable strategies for pyramiding beneficial gene(s) in novel sugarcane cultivars. It is concluded that use of SSR marker is very reliable approach for identification of diverse genotype(s) where phenotypic similarity of the cultivars leads to difficulty while selections of parents for hybridization. © 2017, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

Akhtar S.,Hefei University of Technology | Akhtar S.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Sahir N.,Asian Institute of Technology | Yang X.,Hefei University of Technology
Acta Geochimica | Year: 2017

Recently measured high gamma ray values in the Yanchang Formation of the Upper Triassic in the Ordos Basin have added an interesting and controversial twist to the study of the formation’s uranium enrichment and genesis. High uranium and thorium contents in the tuffaceous layer cause high gamma ray values in the Yanchang Formation. Petrographic studies, major elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace elements have been systematically analyzed to determine the composition, geochemical environment, and diagenetic processes of the layer. The observed color of the tuffaceous layer in the study area varies from yellow to yellowish brown. The tuff consists of matrix supported with sub-rounded to sub-angular lithic fragments. These lithic fragments probably derived from pre-existing rocks and incorporated into the tuffaceous layer during volcanic eruption. Quartz, plagioclase, and biotite were observed in well to poorly sorted form, in addition to framboidal pyrite and organic laminae. Measured ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 ranged from 3.277 to 6.105 with an average of 3.738. The ratio of TiO2/Al2O3 varied from 0.037 to 0.201 with an average of 0.061, indicating that the sediments of the tuffaceous layer originated from an intermediate magma. REE distribution patterns show sharp negative Eu anomalies, indicating a reducing environment, which is suitable for uranium deposition. A reducing environment was confirmed by black shale in the base of the Yanchang Formation. Such black shale has high organic matter content that can take kerogene from mudstone and provide a reducing environment for uranium enrichment in the tuffaceous layer. Moreover, negative Eu anomalies and the REE patterns indicate a subduction-related volcanic arc environment as the magma source of the tuffaceous layers. High values of Rb, Ba, and Sr might be the result of fluid phase activities; low values of Hf and Eu indicate the involvement of crustal material during diagenesis of the tuff. Discrimination diagrams (Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb, Th/Hf vs Ta/Hf) suggest an active continental margin as the tectonic setting of source volcanoes. Plots of Nb versus Y, Rb versus Y + Nb, TiO2 versus Zr, and Th/Yb versus Nb/Yb of the tuffaceous content point to calc-alkaline continental arc-related magmatism. We concluded that uranium enrichment in the tuffaceous layer was supported by oxidation–reduction. © 2017 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany

Khan M.Z.,Karakoram International University | Khan B.,WWF Pakistan | Awan M.S.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Begum F.,Karakoram International University
ORYX | Year: 2017

Livestock depredation has particular significance in pastoral societies across the Himalayas. The dynamics of depredation by the snow leopard Panthera uncia and wolf Canis lupus were investigated by means of household surveys in the Hushey Valley, in the Karakoram Mountains of Pakistan. During 2008–2012 90% of the households in the valley lost livestock to snow leopards and wolves, accounting for 0.8 animals per household per year. The cost of depredation per household was equivalent to PKR 9,853 (USD 101), or 10% of the mean annual cash income. The majority (41%) of predation incidents occurred in summer pastures, predominantly at night in open spaces. Of the total number of predation incidents, 60% were attributed to snow leopards and 37% to wolves; in 3% of cases the predator was unknown. As an immediate response to predation the majority of the local people (64%, n = 99) opted to report the case to their Village Conservation Committee for compensation and only 1% preferred to kill the predator; 32% did not respond to predation incidents. The perceived causes of predation were poor guarding (77%), reduction in wild prey (13%), and livestock being the favourite food of predators (10%). The most preferred strategies for predator management, according to the respondents, were enhanced guarding of livestock (72%), followed by increasing the availability of wild prey (18%), and lethal control (10%). Livestock depredation causing economic loss may lead to retaliatory killing of threatened predators. For carnivore conservation and livestock security in this area we recommend improved livestock guarding through collective hiring of skilled shepherds and the use of guard dogs. Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2017

Shaheen H.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Aziz S.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Ejaz Ul Islam Dar M.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

Forest ecosystem provide valuable services and livelihood support to the rural mountain communities of the Himalayas. Present research was conducted to assess the forest ecosystem services and vegetation structure of Neelum valley in Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 56 plants species belonging to 32 familes were recorded from the studied forest stands. The dominant species were Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Vibrunum grandiflorum, Indigofera haterantha, and Agrostris gigantica. The recorded value of species diversity was found to be 2.35; richness as 1.61; species evenness as 0.75; and maturity index as 49.34%. Thirty two plants speices were reported having ethnomedicinal usage. Fourty two percent respondents were using wild vegetables whereas 23% were involved in mushroom collection. Population showed an average family size of 8.80; herd size of 5.26; land holding as 1.59 acres; and grazing area of 0.302 acre/grazing unit. Annual fuel wood consumption of 3.11 kg/ capita/ day was recorded. Forest stands showed an average tree density of 344/ha. An average stem/stump value of 2.01 indicated high tree felling intensity. Regeneration pattern was represented with an average of 85 seedlings/ha. A continuous grazing pressure along with moderate erosion effects was observed. Vegetation structure showed significant disturbance due to deforestation, overgrazing, trampling and environmental changes. Conservation policy should be applied at local and regional levels by authorities for conservation and maintenance of forest services. © 2017, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.

Akram M.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Usmanghani K.,University of Karachi | Ahmed I.,Baqai Medical University | Azhar I.,University of Karachi | Hamid A.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2014

Traditional medicines are practiced worldwide for treatment of gouty arthritis since ancient times. Herbs and plants always have been used in the treatment of different diseases such as gout. The present article deals with the therapeutic strategies and options for the cure of gouty arthritis. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical textbooks and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases. In this article a detailed introduction, classification, epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of gout with reference to modern and Unani system of medicines have been discussed. It is also tried to provide a list of plants used in the treatment of gout along with their formulations used in Unani system of medicine. The herbs and formulations have been used in different systems of medicine particularly Unani system of medicines exhibit their powerful role in the management and cure of gout and arthritis. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and some of them are in clinical trials. Their results are magnificent and considerable. However their mechanisms of actions are still on the way.

PubMed | University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University and University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biological dynamics | Year: 2016

In this paper, we study the global dynamics and bifurcations of a two-dimensional discrete time host-parasitoid model with strong Allee effect. The existence of fixed points and their stability are analysed in all allowed parametric region. The bifurcation analysis shows that the model can undergo fold bifurcation and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. As the parameters vary in a small neighbourhood of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation condition, the unique positive fixed point changes its stability and an invariant closed circle bifurcates from the positive fixed point. From the viewpoint of biology, the invariant closed curve corresponds to the periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations between host and parasitoid populations. Furthermore, it is proved that all solutions of this model are bounded, and there exist some values of the parameters such that the model has a global attractor. These theoretical results reveal the complex dynamics of the present model.

PubMed | University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Federal University of São Paulo, University of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo and Quaid-i-Azam University
Type: | Journal: Behavioural brain research | Year: 2016

The electrical and chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) elicits panic-like explosive escape behaviour. Although neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) seem to organise oriented escape behaviour, when stimulated with excitatory amino acids at higher doses, non-oriented/explosive escape reactions can also be displayed. The aim of this work was to examine the importance of reciprocal projections between the VMH and the dPAG for the organisation of this panic-like behaviour. The chemical stimulation of the VMH with 9nmol of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) elicited oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours. The pretreatment of the dPAG with a non-selective blocker of synaptic contacts, cobalt chloride (CoCl

Hussain Z.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Shahzad M.N.,University of Gujrat | Abbas K.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2016

The paper illustrates the results of regional frequency analysis of Annual Maximum Monthly Rainfall Totals (AMMRT) of seven sites of Sindh, Pakistan. The results of run test, lag-1 correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney test have shown that the data series at given sites is random, having no serial correlation and identically distributed. The values of discordancy measure have shown that there is no discordant site in the group of seven sites. L-moments based heterogeneity measure (H) shows that the region composed of seven sites is homogeneous. The results of L-moment ratio diagram and ZDIST statistic have shown that the three distributions: GNO, PE3 and GPA are suitable candidates for regional distribution. To obtain the rainfall quantiles at ungauged sites of the study area, a linear regression model has been developed, between the mean of AMMRT of gauged sites and their respective site’s elevation. The quality of the regression estimates has been tested using formal tests related to the assumptions of Classical Linear Regression Modeling (CLRM). The results have shown that the fitted model has satisfied various assumptions related to the estimation of CLRM. Hence, the estimates of this study will be useful for the estimation of rainfall quantiles of the study area for various return periods and can be utilized for the preventive measures of flood disasters, agricultural water management and the proposed improvement projects for the rehabilitation and modernization of major barrages of Indus River in the Sindh Province. © 2016 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Khan A.Q.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Qureshi M.N.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

In this paper, we study the qualitative behavior of following two systems of higher-order difference equations: xn+1=αxn-kβ+γyn-k+12,yn+1=α1yn-kβ1+γ1xn-k+12,n=0,1,⋯, and xn+1=ayn-kb+cxn-k+12,yn+1=a1xn-kb1+c1yn-k+12,n=0,1,⋯, where the parameters α,β,γ,α1,β1,γ1,a,b,c,a1,b1,andc1 and the initial conditions x0, x-1, ⋯, x-k, y0, y-1 ,⋯, y-k are positive real numbers. More precisely, we study the equilibrium points, local asymptotic stability, instability, global asymptotic stability of equilibrium points, and rate of convergence of positive solutions that converges to the equilibrium point P0=(0,0) of these systems. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results. These examples are experimental verification of our theoretical discussions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2015 10.1002/mma.3752 Research Article Research Articles Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

Rahim N.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Kaleem Abbasi M.,University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir | Hameed S.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2016

The use of efficient and effective nodulating Bradyrhizobia strains considered as an ecologically and environmentally sound management strategy for soybean production. A 2-yr (2009 and 2010) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven indigenous Bradyrhizobium strains, one exotic TAL-102 and three N fertilizer rates, i.e., 25, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 on the productivity and N2 fixation of rainfed soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] grown in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Bradyrhizobium inoculation accelerated plant growth by increasing shoot length (26-47%), root length (45-73%) and shoot dry weight (58-104%). Seed yield in the control was 861 kg ha-1 that significantly increased to 1450–2072 kg ha-1 with Bradyrhizobium strains. Seed yields under indigenous NR20 and NR22 strains was 24 and 28% higher than that recorded from the exotic TAL-102. Number of nodules, nodules dry weight and acetylene reduction assay with Bradyrhizobium strains were 55–123%, 94–178% and 38–103%, (respectively) higher than the non-inoculated control. The higher N rate (N100) depressed nodulation and N2 fixation. A significant variation in the symbiotic effectiveness and yield potential showed that inoculation response was site/strain specific. Two indigenous strains NR20 and NR22 were found highly efficient and displayed superiority over the exotic strain TAL-102. Multi-locational trials are required to check the suitability of these isolated isolates for other agro-climatic conditions before using as inoculants or bio-fertilizers. © 2016, Gorgan Univ Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. All rights reserved.

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