Walther G.,University of Avignon
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2015
OBJECTIVES—: The first objective of this study was to demonstrate differences within endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasoreactivity in macro- and microcirculation beds among patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) compared with healthy counterparts. The second objective was to determine relationships among the function of macro- and microvascular systems and abdominal adiposity, as well as inflammatory markers in the 3 groups.APPROACH AND RESULTS—: Cross-sectional analyses of 53 patients with MetS without T2D and 25 with T2D, as well as aged 40 years and sex-matched healthy controls included microvascular (cutaneous blood flow measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in response to iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside), and macrovascular reactivity (flow-mediated dilation and nitrate-mediated dilation) along with anthropometric measures, plasma glucose, and insulin and inflammatory markers. Compared with controls, MetS participants showed depressed endothelial function of both micro- and macrocirculation beds. T2D in patients with MetS revealed an exacerbated vascular smooth muscle dysfunction in micro- and macrocirculation compared with MetS without T2D. Indices of micro- and macrocirculation were predominantly inversely related to abdominal fat and inflammatory markers.CONCLUSIONS—: MetS was associated with endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent dysfunction, affecting both the macro- and the microvascular systems. Participants with diabetes mellitus demonstrated the most severe smooth muscle dysfunction. The presence of central abdominal fat and systemic inflammation seems implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunctions in MetS. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Clair G.,University of Avignon
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP | Year: 2012
Pathogenesis hinges on successful colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by pathogenic facultative anaerobes. The GI tract is a carbohydrate-limited environment with varying oxygen availability and oxidoreduction potential (ORP). How pathogenic bacteria are able to adapt and grow in these varying conditions remains a key fundamental question. Here, we designed a system biology-inspired approach to pinpoint the key regulators allowing Bacillus cereus to survive and grow efficiently under low ORP anoxic conditions mimicking those encountered in the intestinal lumen. We assessed the proteome components using high throughput nanoLC-MS/MS techniques, reconstituted the main metabolic circuits, constructed ΔohrA and ΔohrR mutants, and analyzed the impacts of ohrA and ohrR disruptions by a novel round of shotgun proteomics. Our study revealed that OhrR and OhrA are crucial to the successful adaptation of B. cereus to the GI tract environment. Specifically, we showed that B. cereus restricts its fermentative growth under low ORP anaerobiosis and sustains efficient aerobic respiratory metabolism, motility, and stress response via OhrRA-dependent proteome remodeling. Finally, our results introduced a new adaptive strategy where facultative anaerobes prefer to restrict their fermentative potential for a long term benefit.
Dangles O.,University of Avignon
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2012
Polyphenols having catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) nuclei are strong in vitro antioxidants owing to their ability to rapidly reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS), bind transition metal ions as inert complexes and regenerate the potent chain-breaking antioxidant α-tocopherol. Polyphenols provide antioxidant protection to plants by acting as electron donors to peroxidases that reduce hydrogen peroxide into water. Polyphenols are also likely to improve the oxidative stability of food emulsions by binding metal ions and/or reducing ROS at phospholipid or protein interfaces. This protection may extend to the gastric compartment where millimolar concentrations of polyphenols can accumulate after consumption of a meal rich in plant products. Beyond the digestive tract, direct antioxidant effects become quite hypothetical as polyphenols are only poorly absorbed and mostly converted into weakly reducing metabolites. However, despite the low circulating concentrations of polyphenol metabolites, ROS-scavenging and/or inhibition of ROS-producing enzymes could still operate provided that polyphenol metabolites accumulate on the very sites of oxidative stress and inflammation. Finally, oxidation of polyphenols in cells can lead to electrophilic/oxidizing metabolites with a capacity to up-regulate genes coding for antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, the ability of polyphenols to act as antioxidants in humans must be severely qualified. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.9.7 | Award Amount: 3.42M | Year: 2012
Many real world systems possess a rich multi-level structure and exhibit complex dynamics that are the result of a web of interwoven interactions among elements with autonomous decision-making capabilities. CONGAS will develop new mathematical models and tools, rooted in game theory, for the analysis, prediction and control of dynamical processes in such complex systems.CONGAS will provide a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the emergence of structure and patterns in complex systems, accounting for interactions spanning various scales in time and space, and acting at different structural and aggregation levels. This framework will be built around game theoretical concepts, in particular evolutionary and multi-resolution games, and will include also techniques drawn from graph theory, statistical mechanics, control and optimization theory. Specific attention will be devoted to systems that are prone to intermittency and catastrophic events due to the effect of collective dynamics.The theory developed in the project will be validated by considering three use cases, one on the growth of the Internet, one on business ecosystems and one on viral marketing dynamics in Internet marketplaces.The CONGAS Consortium comprises seven universities and research institution and includes leading scientists in game theory, evolutionary games, complex systems science, network science and data-driven analysis of socio-technical systems.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 1.73M | Year: 2017
The goal of Olive-Net project is to introduce a novel approach for the exploration, valorization and marketing of new products based on bioactive compounds from Olea europaea. This will be achieved through an extended and well-balanced scheme of researchers secondments between universities and enterprises from EU & Associated countries as well as universities from Third countries. A mutual scientific project developed on the needs and interests of both sectors exploiting the existing expertise will be the base of this proposal. Products and side-products of the olive tree such as olive oil, edible olive fruits, olive mill waste and olive tree leaves, will be subjected to a series of state-of-the-art extraction and isolation cascades in order to provide extracts, enriched fractions and isolated compounds of high purity. Target chemical categories will involve the well known olive oil polyphenols and secoiridoids, that will be assessed for their safety and pharmacological effects against inflammation, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, etc. in cell-based and in vivo assays. All active ingredients will be identified and characterized with advanced analytical techniques, in order to be integrated in formulations and products in the area of nutraceuticals/dietary supplements. Within this project, core scientific multidisciplinary knowledge from different research areas will be integrated creating valuable synergies. Expertise will be transferred by means of the seconded researchers training in environments with different research orientation where complimentary skills are required. Special attention will be given to dissemination activities aiming to public awareness of benefits of healthy diet(s). Olive-Net aspires to create a successful model promoting considerably researchers competences and long-lasting collaboration between Industry and Academia.
University of Avignon and French Atomic Energy Commission | Date: 2012-06-05
The present invention concerns a method for enhancing the growth rate, the biomass production and/or the fermentative potential of an anaerobic microorganism, comprising the steps consisting in: (a) modifying said anaerobic microorganism by inactivating the ohrR gene, the ohrR gene product or homolog thereof; (b) culturing the modified anaerobic microorganism obtained in step (a) under low-ORP anaerobic conditions.
University of Avignon | Date: 2012-12-12
The present invention concerns a method for enhancing the growth rate, the biomass production and/or the fermentative potential of an anaerobic microorganism, comprising the steps consisting in : (a) modifying said anaerobic microorganism by inactivating the ohrR gene, the ohrR gene product or homolog thereof ; (b) culturing the modified anaerobic microorganism obtained in step (a) under low-ORP anaerobic conditions.
Telefonica and University of Avignon | Date: 2011-09-19
Methods, systems, and computer program products for biometric authentication and more particularly to a method for classifying biometric data consisting in constructing, on the basis of a first universal statistical model and based on a set of first individual collections of biometric data, a second statistical model comprising a plurality of statistical sub-models and taking into consideration the biometric specificities of an individual or class of individuals, such that the first and second statistical models jointly define a highly discriminatory universal statistical model.
Aix - Marseille University, French National Center for Scientific Research and University of Avignon | Date: 2015-03-11
A device for detecting radiation particles comprising at least one sensor for sensing radiation particles, capable of supplying an electrical pulse when it is traversed by at least one radiation particle, and at least one detection circuit comprising a voltage-controlled oscillator to which said electrical pulse originating from the sensor is supplied as the control voltage. The voltage-controlled oscillator is a ring oscillator.
University of Avignon | Date: 2016-11-23
The present invention relates to novel amphiphilic dendrimers, hereafter denoted Dendri-TAC. The present invention also relates to perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions stabilized by these amphiphilic dendrimers and their uses for in vivo diagnostic and/or for therapy, notably as theranostic tools, for detection and/or treatment of cancer.