Clermont-Ferrand, France
Clermont-Ferrand, France

The University of Auvergne , also known as “Universite d'Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand I” or Clermont-Ferrand I, is a French public university, based in Clermont-Ferrand, in the region of Auvergne. It is under the Academy of Clermont-Ferrand. It is the head of PRES Clermont Université consortium; PRES being the league of elite universities of France. Hence, the university is constantly ranked as a leading academic institution by various French academicians and newspapers, most notably Le Figaro.The Université d’Auvergne was founded in 1519 and as such in 1806 as a medical school. Soon the university established itself as a premier center for medical studies, and continues to do so for over 100 years. It became the Université d’Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand 1 on March 16, 1976.The university has a status of EPSCSP, which is the highest French accreditation. This leads to high emphasis over the professional and research areas of the university. A comprehensive institution, it offers more than 60 national degrees in Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Law and Forensics, Economics and Politics, Management and Administration, and Technology. Wikipedia.


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This experiment examined the effect of a train of regular repetitive clicks of different frequencies (8 Hz, 20 Hz) on time judgment in a bisection task in children aged 5 and 8 years old and adults with two duration ranges (200/800 and 400/1600 ms). Participants’ scores on neurospychological tests assessing memory, information processing speed and different components of attention control were also measured. The results showed that a train of clicks produced a time dilation in the children as well as in the adults, with the result that the perceived duration was judged to last longer with than without clicks. However, the time dilation reached a maximum level at a lower click frequency value (8 Hz) in the children than in the adults (20 Hz). In addition, beyond this click value (8 Hz), a reversal effect was observed in the youngest children, who responded “long” less often, while the time dilation was extended in the adults. In addition, while the differences in the time dilation between the click and the no-click condition were not correlated with the individual cognitive capacities, those that occurred when the click frequency increased from 8 to 20 Hz were significantly correlated with individual capacities in terms of attention and working memory. The hypothesis of a slower internal clock in the younger children is discussed as are the attentional interference processes involved in the click effect on time judgment. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Thibault R.,University of Auvergne | Pichard C.,University of Geneva
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Undernutrition is insufficiently detected in in- and outpatients, and this is likely to worsen during the next decades. The increased prevalence of obesity together with chronic illnesses associated with fat-free mass (FFM) loss will result in an increased prevalence of sarcopenic obesity. In patients with sarcopenic obesity, weight loss and the body mass index lack accuracy to detect FFM loss. FFM loss is related to increasing mortality, worse clinical outcomes, and impaired quality of life. In sarcopenic obesity and chronic diseases, body composition measurement with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, or computerized tomography quantifies the loss of FFM. It allows tailored nutritional support and disease-specific therapy and reduces the risk of drug toxicity. Body composition evaluation should be integrated into routine clinical practice for the initial assessment and sequential follow-up of nutritional status. It could allow objective, systematic, and early screening of undernutrition and promote the rational and early initiation of optimal nutritional support, thereby contributing to reducing malnutrition-induced morbidity, mortality, worsening of the quality of life, and global health care costs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG.


Davicco M.-J.,University of Auvergne
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2016

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The design and the development of functional foods is a key issue for bone health and a scientific challenge as well. As most studies have focused on calcium, and have paid less attention to other nutrients, our knowledge of the influence of nutrition on bone health remains limited. It has been well acknowledged that the human diet contains a wide and complex range of bioactive molecules endowed with interesting protective properties. In this context, and according to their high content in micronutrients, a growing body of evidence has enlightened the high nutritional value of berries. This review addresses the emerging interest in berries for bone health. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies indicate that berry intakes are relevant to prevent osteopenia in humans. Their bone-sparing effects can be partly explained by their content in phytochemicals and vitamins. Beyond their antioxidant or anti-inflammatory functions, those micronutrients have been shown to modulate enzyme activities, cellular signaling pathways, and gene expression. SUMMARY: Berry-enriched foods represent a relevant opportunity in the design of nutritional strategies targeting bone alteration. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Raisch J.,University of Auvergne
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs, a key class of gene expression regulators, have emerged as crucial players in various biological processes such as cellular proliferation and differentiation, development and apoptosis. In addition, microRNAs are coming to light as crucial regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses, and their abnormal expression and/or function in the immune system have been linked to multiple human diseases including inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, and cancers. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of microRNAs with a focus on their role and mode of action in regulating the immune system during inflammation and carcinogenesis.


Matsuzaki S.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Matsuzaki S.,University of Auvergne | Darcha C.,CHU Clermont Ferrand
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012

Background Endometrium is derived from intermediate mesoderm via mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) during development of the urogenital system. By retaining some imprint of their mesenchymal origin, endometrial epithelial cells may be particularly prone to return to this state, via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that pelvic endometriosis originates from retrograde menstruation of endometrial tissue and that EMT-like and MET-like processes might be involved in the pathogenesis of pelvic endometriosis.Methods We investigated commonly used molecular markers for EMT, including cytokeratin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, S100A4 and dephosphorylated beta-catenin by immunohistochemistry in different forms of pelvic endometriosis: deep infiltrating endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and superficial peritoneal endometriosis (red and black lesions), as well as samples of menstrual endometrium, other benign ovarian cysts (mucinous and serous cyst adenoma), and abdominal scar endometriosis for comparison. Results Epithelial cells of red peritoneal lesions and ovarian endometriosis showed less epithelial marker (cytokeratin, P < 0.0001) expression and more mesenchymal marker (vimentin and/or S100A4, P < 0.0001) expression than those of menstrual endometrium. In contrast, epithelial cells of black peritoneal lesions and deep infiltrating endometriosis showed more epithelial marker (E-cadherin) expression than those of menstrual endometrium (P < 0.03), red peritoneal lesions (P < 0.0001) and ovarian endometriosis (P< 0.0001), but maintained expression of some mesenchymal markers (vimentin, S100A4). In addition, dephosphorylated beta-catenin protein expression was significantly higher in epithelial cells of deep infiltrating endometriosis (P < 0.0001) than in epithelial cells of red and black peritoneal lesions and ovarian endometriosis. Conclusions EMT-like and MET-like processes might be involved in the pathogenesis of pelvic endometriosis. © 2012 The Author.


Duvivier C.,University of Auvergne
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2013

This paper assesses whether cities enhance the technical efficiency of nearby rural counties by allowing for heterogeneous urban effects both by region and city type. An empirical application is demonstrated using the Chinese county-level agricultural data from 2005 to 2009. We find that urban proximity significantly enhances efficiency in the Eastern region, while its effect is lower and less significant for the Central region and not significant at all for the Western region. In addition, urban effects vary across the urban hierarchy. We find that provincial-level cities have a deteriorating impact on technical efficiency, while lower-level cities enhance technical efficiency in most regions. Implications of these findings in terms of urban and regional planning are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Giraudet F.,University of Auvergne | Avan P.,University of Auvergne
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2012

Purpose of review: For lack of therapy targeting sensorineural hearing loss, hearing-impaired patients must be fitted with sound-amplifying hearing aids or cochlear implants, successfully in a majority of cases. Yet failures are often found among auditory neuropathies. Recent findings: Auditory neuropathies are a class of conditions characterized by disrupted spike synchrony in auditory pathways despite reasonably preserved hearing sensitivity: amplification by hearing aids is inadequate and electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve may not improve discharge synchrony. Summary: Among the already partially understood pathogenetic frameworks, this article reviews physiological reasons why some rehabilitation procedures can restore neural synchrony, whereas others either fail or might even increase the damage, and what tests could help predict the outcome of intervention. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Drabo A.,University of Auvergne
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables, and income inequalities. Theoretically, all the mechanisms described in the literature underline a negative impact of income inequality on health status. However, empirical studies have found different results and there is far from a consensus. In this paper how environment degradation could be considered a channel through which income distribution affects population health is investigated. A simple theoretical model, based on Magnani's, is developed in which relative income affects health status through the level of pollution-abatement expenditures. Econometric analysis suggests that income inequalities negatively affect environmental quality, and that environment degradation worsens population's health. This negative effect of income inequalities on the environment is mitigated by good institutions. It is also suggested that income inequalities negatively affect health status. Another interesting result is that, when environmental variables are taken into account, the level and the statistical significance of the coefficient of the income-inequality variable vanish. This supports the notion that environment quality is an important channel through which income inequalities affect population health. These results hold for air-pollution indicators (CO2 and SO2) and a water-pollution indicator (BOD). The finding is also robust for rich and developing countries. Countries with high income inequalities may implement distributive policies in order to avoid their negative impact on health. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.


Tubert-Jeannin S.,University of Auvergne
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Dietary fluoride supplements were first introduced to provide systemic fluoride in areas where water fluoridation is not available. Since 1990, the use of fluoride supplements in caries prevention has been re-evaluated in several countries. To evaluate the efficacy of fluoride supplements for preventing dental caries in children. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 12 October 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 12 October 2011), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 12 October 2011), WHOLIS/PAHO/MEDCARIB/LILACS/BBO via BIREME (1982 to 12 October 2011), and Current Controlled Trials (to 12 October 2011). We handsearched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing, with minimum follow-up of 2 years, fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges) with no fluoride supplement or with other preventive measures such as topical fluorides in children less than 16 years of age at the start. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS). Two review authors, independently and in duplicate, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, and carried out risk of bias assessment and data extraction. In the event of disagreement, we sought consensus and consulted a third review author. We contacted trial authors for missing information. We used the prevented fraction (PF) as a metric for evaluating the efficacy of the intervention. The PF is defined as the mean caries increment in controls minus mean caries increment in the treated group divided by mean caries increment in controls. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses when data could be pooled. We assessed heterogeneity in the results of the studies by examining forest plots and by using formal tests for homogeneity. We recorded adverse effects (fluorosis) when the studies provided relevant data. We included 11 studies in the review involving 7196 children.In permanent teeth, when fluoride supplements were compared with no fluoride supplement (three studies), the use of fluoride supplements was associated with a 24% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16 to 33%) reduction in decayed, missing and filled surfaces (D(M)FS). The effect of fluoride supplements was unclear on deciduous or primary teeth. In one study, no caries-inhibiting effect was observed on deciduous teeth while in another study, the use of fluoride supplements was associated with a substantial reduction in caries increment.When fluoride supplements were compared with topical fluorides or with other preventive measures, there was no differential effect on permanent or deciduous teeth.The review found limited information on the adverse effects associated with the use of fluoride supplements. This review suggests that the use of fluoride supplements is associated with a reduction in caries increment when compared with no fluoride supplement in permanent teeth. The effect of fluoride supplements was unclear on deciduous teeth. When compared with the administration of topical fluorides, no differential effect was observed. We rated 10 trials as being at unclear risk of bias and one at high risk of bias, and therefore the trials provide weak evidence about the efficacy of fluoride supplements.


Patent
National Graduate School of Chemistry of Clermont Ferrand and University of Auvergne | Date: 2012-12-31

The present invention relates to the use of compounds for the treatment or prevention of pain in mammals, in particularly in human beings, and also to a process for preparing these compounds.

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