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Clermont-Ferrand, France

The University of Auvergne , also known as “Universite d'Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand I” or Clermont-Ferrand I, is a French public university, based in Clermont-Ferrand, in the region of Auvergne. It is under the Academy of Clermont-Ferrand. It is the head of PRES Clermont Université consortium; PRES being the league of elite universities of France. Hence, the university is constantly ranked as a leading academic institution by various French academicians and newspapers, most notably Le Figaro.The Université d’Auvergne was founded in 1519 and as such in 1806 as a medical school. Soon the university established itself as a premier center for medical studies, and continues to do so for over 100 years. It became the Université d’Auvergne Clermont-Ferrand 1 on March 16, 1976.The university has a status of EPSCSP, which is the highest French accreditation. This leads to high emphasis over the professional and research areas of the university. A comprehensive institution, it offers more than 60 national degrees in Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Law and Forensics, Economics and Politics, Management and Administration, and Technology. Wikipedia.

Matsuzaki S.,Estaing University Hospital Center | Matsuzaki S.,University of Auvergne
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012

Background Endometrium is derived from intermediate mesoderm via mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) during development of the urogenital system. By retaining some imprint of their mesenchymal origin, endometrial epithelial cells may be particularly prone to return to this state, via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that pelvic endometriosis originates from retrograde menstruation of endometrial tissue and that EMT-like and MET-like processes might be involved in the pathogenesis of pelvic endometriosis.Methods We investigated commonly used molecular markers for EMT, including cytokeratin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, S100A4 and dephosphorylated beta-catenin by immunohistochemistry in different forms of pelvic endometriosis: deep infiltrating endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and superficial peritoneal endometriosis (red and black lesions), as well as samples of menstrual endometrium, other benign ovarian cysts (mucinous and serous cyst adenoma), and abdominal scar endometriosis for comparison. Results Epithelial cells of red peritoneal lesions and ovarian endometriosis showed less epithelial marker (cytokeratin, P < 0.0001) expression and more mesenchymal marker (vimentin and/or S100A4, P < 0.0001) expression than those of menstrual endometrium. In contrast, epithelial cells of black peritoneal lesions and deep infiltrating endometriosis showed more epithelial marker (E-cadherin) expression than those of menstrual endometrium (P < 0.03), red peritoneal lesions (P < 0.0001) and ovarian endometriosis (P< 0.0001), but maintained expression of some mesenchymal markers (vimentin, S100A4). In addition, dephosphorylated beta-catenin protein expression was significantly higher in epithelial cells of deep infiltrating endometriosis (P < 0.0001) than in epithelial cells of red and black peritoneal lesions and ovarian endometriosis. Conclusions EMT-like and MET-like processes might be involved in the pathogenesis of pelvic endometriosis. © 2012 The Author. Source

Duvivier C.,University of Auvergne
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2013

This paper assesses whether cities enhance the technical efficiency of nearby rural counties by allowing for heterogeneous urban effects both by region and city type. An empirical application is demonstrated using the Chinese county-level agricultural data from 2005 to 2009. We find that urban proximity significantly enhances efficiency in the Eastern region, while its effect is lower and less significant for the Central region and not significant at all for the Western region. In addition, urban effects vary across the urban hierarchy. We find that provincial-level cities have a deteriorating impact on technical efficiency, while lower-level cities enhance technical efficiency in most regions. Implications of these findings in terms of urban and regional planning are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Droit-Volet S.,University of Auvergne
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

This study examined the effects of emotion on implicit timing. In the implicit timing task used, the participants did not receive any temporal instructions. Instead they were simply asked and trained to press a key as quickly as possible after a stimulus (response stimulus) that was separated from a preceding stimulus by a given temporal interval (reference interval duration). However, in the testing phase, the interval duration was the reference interval duration or a shorter or longer interval duration. In addition, the participants attended two sessions: a first baseline session in which no stimulus was presented during the inter-stimulus intervals, and a second emotional session in which emotional facial expressions (angry, neutral and sad facial expressions) were presented during these intervals. Results showed faster RTs for interval durations close to the reference duration in both the baseline and the emotional conditions and yielded a U-shaped curve. This suggests that implicit processing of time persists in emotional contexts. In addition, the RT was faster for the facial expressions of anger than for those of neutrality and sadness. However, the U-shaped RT curve did not peak clearly at a shorter interval duration for the angry than for the other facial expressions. This lack of time distortion in an implicit timing task in response to arousing emotional stimuli questions the idea of an automatic speeding-up of the interval clock system involved in the representation of time. © 2016 Sylvie Droit-Volet. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Drabo A.,University of Auvergne
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables, and income inequalities. Theoretically, all the mechanisms described in the literature underline a negative impact of income inequality on health status. However, empirical studies have found different results and there is far from a consensus. In this paper how environment degradation could be considered a channel through which income distribution affects population health is investigated. A simple theoretical model, based on Magnani's, is developed in which relative income affects health status through the level of pollution-abatement expenditures. Econometric analysis suggests that income inequalities negatively affect environmental quality, and that environment degradation worsens population's health. This negative effect of income inequalities on the environment is mitigated by good institutions. It is also suggested that income inequalities negatively affect health status. Another interesting result is that, when environmental variables are taken into account, the level and the statistical significance of the coefficient of the income-inequality variable vanish. This supports the notion that environment quality is an important channel through which income inequalities affect population health. These results hold for air-pollution indicators (CO2 and SO2) and a water-pollution indicator (BOD). The finding is also robust for rich and developing countries. Countries with high income inequalities may implement distributive policies in order to avoid their negative impact on health. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source

Tubert-Jeannin S.,University of Auvergne
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Dietary fluoride supplements were first introduced to provide systemic fluoride in areas where water fluoridation is not available. Since 1990, the use of fluoride supplements in caries prevention has been re-evaluated in several countries. To evaluate the efficacy of fluoride supplements for preventing dental caries in children. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 12 October 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 12 October 2011), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 12 October 2011), WHOLIS/PAHO/MEDCARIB/LILACS/BBO via BIREME (1982 to 12 October 2011), and Current Controlled Trials (to 12 October 2011). We handsearched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing, with minimum follow-up of 2 years, fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges) with no fluoride supplement or with other preventive measures such as topical fluorides in children less than 16 years of age at the start. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS). Two review authors, independently and in duplicate, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, and carried out risk of bias assessment and data extraction. In the event of disagreement, we sought consensus and consulted a third review author. We contacted trial authors for missing information. We used the prevented fraction (PF) as a metric for evaluating the efficacy of the intervention. The PF is defined as the mean caries increment in controls minus mean caries increment in the treated group divided by mean caries increment in controls. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses when data could be pooled. We assessed heterogeneity in the results of the studies by examining forest plots and by using formal tests for homogeneity. We recorded adverse effects (fluorosis) when the studies provided relevant data. We included 11 studies in the review involving 7196 children.In permanent teeth, when fluoride supplements were compared with no fluoride supplement (three studies), the use of fluoride supplements was associated with a 24% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16 to 33%) reduction in decayed, missing and filled surfaces (D(M)FS). The effect of fluoride supplements was unclear on deciduous or primary teeth. In one study, no caries-inhibiting effect was observed on deciduous teeth while in another study, the use of fluoride supplements was associated with a substantial reduction in caries increment.When fluoride supplements were compared with topical fluorides or with other preventive measures, there was no differential effect on permanent or deciduous teeth.The review found limited information on the adverse effects associated with the use of fluoride supplements. This review suggests that the use of fluoride supplements is associated with a reduction in caries increment when compared with no fluoride supplement in permanent teeth. The effect of fluoride supplements was unclear on deciduous teeth. When compared with the administration of topical fluorides, no differential effect was observed. We rated 10 trials as being at unclear risk of bias and one at high risk of bias, and therefore the trials provide weak evidence about the efficacy of fluoride supplements. Source

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