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Auckland, New Zealand

The Auckland University of Technology is a university in New Zealand. It was formed on 1 January 2000 when the Auckland Institute of Technology was granted university status. Its primary campus is on Wellesley Street in Auckland's Central business district . AUT has three secondary campuses: North Shore, South, and the Millennium Institute of Sport and Health . For branding purposes, since 2010 the Auckland University of Technology refers to itself as AUT University. Wikipedia.

Moir T.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Signal, Image and Video Processing | Year: 2015

A novel approach to finite-impulse response system identification is given. The method is formulated differently from ordinary least mean squares (LMS) or block LMS, which are traditional approaches and has a significant advantage of speed improvement when the correlation matrix has a large condition number. Unlike other approaches which are numerically complex, this method has a similar computational burden as LMS and gives the same optimal solution after convergence. It avoids transformation matrices by writing the system description in terms of a convolution matrix which has a special lower-triangular format. In this way the correlation matrix is different from conventional least-squares approaches and maintains a modest condition number as the correlation matrix in ordinary least-squares climbs high. The method has as wide a range of applications as ordinary LMS-based solutions but can also work on deterministic inputs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag London

Niederman F.,Mis St Louis University | Tan F.B.,Auckland University of Technology
Communications of the ACM | Year: 2011

Working wit h a globally distributed IT team can offer substantial benefits- sometimes it is the only way to address certain tasks-but it also presents challenges. Many studies have addressed how to work well in these situations: notably, Nunamaker and colleagues present nine principles for virtual teamwork7 (see Table 1). Although this advice is likely to be helpful in general, in our view it insufficiently addresses differences in managing teams involving IT staff from different cultures. © 2011 ACM.

Thomas S.,Bournemouth University | Kersten P.,Auckland University of Technology | Thomas P.W.,Bournemouth University
Clinical Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

Objective: To examine the validity and sensitivity to change of the Multiple Sclerosis-Fatigue Self-Efficacy scale. Design: A validation study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Setting: Community setting. Participants: Adults with a clinically definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and significant fatigue taking part in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a group-based fatigue management programme (FACETS) for people with multiple sclerosis (N=164). Main measures: The 9-item Multiple Sclerosis-Fatigue Self-Efficacy scale was completed at baseline, 1-, 4- and 12 months post intervention. Validity, internal consistency and sensitivity to change were examined using classical test theory and Rasch analysis. Results: Item 3 was unanswered by 6% of respondents as they did not know any other people with multiple sclerosis; remaining analyses were carried out with this item deleted. All response choices were utilised, no floor or ceiling effects were evident and there were few missing responses. Cronbach's alphas were high (baseline, 0.89; follow-up 1, 0.93; follow-up 2, 0.94; follow-up 3, 0.90). The Multiple Sclerosis-Fatigue Self-Efficacy scale (8-item) demonstrated good sensitivity to change following attendance of the FACETS programme (within participant effect sizes 0.66 and 0.69 and 0.54 at 1, 4, and 12 months follow-up). Principal Components Analysis yielded one component. In the Rasch analysis two items with disordered thresholds were rescored. Item 8 displayed differential item functioning by disability and was combined into a testlet with item 4, resulting in a unidimensional scale. The sample was well targeted to the scale. Conclusion: At a scale level the Multiple Sclerosis-Fatigue Self-Efficacy scale is internally valid and has good sensitivity to change. © The Author(s) 2014.

Liu J.J.,University of Auckland | Lu J.,Auckland University of Technology | McKeage M.J.,University of Auckland
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2012

Membrane transporters govern the movement of drugs and their metabolites across biological membranes, thereby determining their pharmacokinetics, efficacy and adverse drug reactions. Platinum-based anticancer drugs are a mainstay of chemotherapy for many human malignancies. However, their clinical utility is limited by tumor resistance and normal tissue toxicities, which are determined at least in part by the level of tissue accumulation of platinum. Recently, several members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), solute carrier (SLC) and ATPase membrane protein superfamilies have been found to contribute to the net accumulation of platinum drugs in malignant and normal tissues. Herein, a review has been carried out to critically evaluate current preclinical and clinical evidence implicating membrane transporters as determinants of the pharmacology of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin and related investigational compounds. The evidence includes studies of recombinant cell systems with genetically modified expression of individual membrane transporters, platinum-resistant or -sensitive human cancer cells and in vivo xenografted tumors, animal models of platinum-induced nephro-, oto- or neurotoxicity, and clinical studies of associations between the membrane transporter tumor expression and patient outcomes from platinum-based chemotherapy. Understanding the role of membrane transporters as determinants of the pharmacology of platinum drugs will be a basis for targeting these drug transporters in individualized and optimized platinum-based cancer therapy, and new drug development. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Broom B.C.,Auckland University of Technology
Postgraduate Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a very common skin condition that causes considerable suffering and is often poorly responsive to drug treatment regimens. Most clinicians accept that multiple factors play a role in the aetiology of CSU, but there is a widespread reluctance to accept a significant role for 'mindbody' factors, despite a large number of clinical reports and studies over many decades suggesting their relevance. This reluctance has multiple origins. A primary influence is the flawed dualistic model of mind and body relatedness underpinning much of modern medical care. In this view, if a pathophysiological mechanism can be discerned, then 'mind' factors can be largely ignored. Recent evidence demonstrating intimate structural and functional relations between peripheral nerves and mast cells, and local skin secretion of mast cell-influencing neuropeptides by nerves, provides an argument for discarding old 'organic' and dualistic conceptualisations of CSU. A sound, integrative, multifactorial approach requires a unitive 'mindbody' model in which physical and subjective dimensions of personhood are seen as coexisting and equally deserving of exploration and management. Another influence is the tendency for 'psychosomatic' research studies in CSU to focus on patient experience using broad group-based diagnostic categories, such as anxiety and depressive disorders, and generic measures of stress. Two case examples are given, illustrating that CSU arises in relation to highly individual and relevant 'stories', which would not usually be picked up by these generic measures. It is suggested that an appropriate 'mindbody' management programme leading to good clinical outcomes for CSU is dependent on clinicians discerning unique patient 'stories'. Finally, a lack of formal studies comparing drug and 'mindbody' treatment outcomes will continue to negatively influence the adoption of 'mindbody' approaches in CSU. There is an urgent need for properly structured comparative studies, and the essential elements of a suitable 'mindbody' approach appropriate to such research are briefly outlined.

Yeap W.K.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

The question as to whether spatial information is coded using an egocentric or an allocentric frame of reference has led to three prominent but competing models of spatial cognition being proposed. In this paper, these models are reviewed on theoretical rather than empirical grounds and are shown to be similar. While using these two different frames of reference produce equivalent maps, the action guiding property of egocentric maps means that these maps are best computed at the perceptual-motor level and the ease of updating an allocentric map means that these maps are best computed for representing the larger environment. However, the latter is simply too empowering and is not suitable as a "map in the head". Based on a recent computational theory of perceptual mapping, we suggest an alternative - an allocentric trace of local environments visited rather than an allocentric map of the physical environment itself. Such a trace is egocentric and transient and has both a spatial and a temporal aspect. It provides a rich input that will allow different species to learn a different enduring representation of its environment, each tailored to their own needs for survival. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Foure A.,University of Nantes | Nordez A.,University of Nantes | McNair P.,Auckland University of Technology | Cornu C.,University of Nantes
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

The aims of this study were to determine the effects of plyometric training on both active and passive parts of the series elastic component (SEC) stiffness, and on geometrical parameters [i.e., muscle architecture, muscle and tendon cross-sectional area (CSA)] of the plantarflexors muscle-tendon complex to assess possible specific adaptations of the elastic properties. Nineteen subjects were randomly divided into a trained group and a control group. Active and passive components of the SEC stiffness were determined using a fast stretch during submaximal voluntary isometric plantarflexor activity. Geometrical parameters of the triceps surae muscles and the Achilles tendon were determined using ultrasonography. A significant increase in the passive component of the SEC stiffness was found (p < 0.05). In contrast, a significant decrease in the active part of the SEC stiffness was observed (p < 0.05). No significant changes in plantarflexor muscles CSA, architecture and Achilles tendon CSA were seen (p > 0.05). Thus, plyometric training led to specific adaptations within each part of the SEC. Theses adaptations could increase both the efficiency of the energy storage-recoil process and muscular tension transmission leading to an increase in jump performances. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Plews D.J.,High Performance Sport New Zealand | Laursen P.B.,High Performance Sport New Zealand | Kilding A.E.,Auckland University of Technology | Buchheit M.,ASPIRE Academy for Sports Excellence
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to compare 2 different methodological assessments when analyzing the relationship between performance and heart-rate (HR)-derived indices (resting HR [RHR] and HR variability [HRV]) to evaluate positive adaptation to training. The relative change in estimated maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and 10-km-running performance was correlated to the relative change in RHR and the natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals on an isolated day (RHRday; Ln rMSSDday) or when averaged over 1 wk (RHRweek; Ln rMSSDweek) in 10 runners who responded to a 9-wk training intervention. Moderate and small correlations existed between changes in MAS and 10-km-running performance and RHRday (r = .35, 90%CI [-.35, .76] and r = -.21 [-.68, .39]), compared with large and very large correlations for RHRweek (r = -.62 [-.87, -.11] and r = .73 [.30, .91]). While a trivial correlation was observed for MAS vs Ln rMSSDday (r = -.06 [-.59, .51]), a very large correlation existed with Ln rMSSDweek (r = .72 [.28, .91]). Similarly, changes in 10-km-running performance revealed a small correlation with Ln rMSSDday (r = -.17 [-.66, .42]), vs a very large correlation for Ln rMSSDweek (r = -.76 [-.92, -.36]). In conclusion, the averaging of RHR and HRV values over a 1-wk period appears to be a superior method for evaluating positive adaption to training compared with assessing its value on a single isolated day. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Lo W.K.C.,University of Otago | Cavigliasso G.,Australian National University | Stranger R.,Australian National University | Crowley J.D.,University of Otago | And 2 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2014

The reaction of [Pt(N-N)2]2+ [N-N = 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) or 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine (4,4′-Me2bpy)] with phosphine ligands [PPh3 or PPh(PhSO3)2 2-] in aqueous or methanolic solutions was studied by multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P, and 195Pt) NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, UV-visible spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. NMR spectra of solutions containing equimolar amounts of [Pt(N-N)2]2+ and phosphine ligand give evidence for rapid formation of long-lived, 5-coordinate [PtII(N-N)2(phosphine)]n+ complexes. In the presence of excess phosphine ligand, these intermediates undergo much slower entry of a second phosphine ligand and loss of a bpy ligand to give [Pt II(N-N)(phosphine)2]n+ as the final product. The coordination of a phosphine ligand to the Pt(II) ion in the intermediate [Pt(N-N)2(phosphine)]n+ complexes is supported by the observation of 31P-195Pt coupling in the 31P NMR spectra. The 5-coordinate nature of [Pt(bpy)2{PPh(PhSO 3)2}] is confirmed by X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystal structural analysis shows that the Pt(II) ion in [Pt(bpy) 2{PPh(PhSO3)2}]·5.5H2O displays a distorted square pyramidal geometry, with one bpy ligand bound asymmetrically. These results provide strong support for the widely accepted associative ligand substitution mechanism for square planar Pt(II) complexes. X-ray structural characterization of the distorted square planar complex [Pt(bpy)(PPh3)2](ClO4)2 confirms this as the final product of the reaction of [Pt(bpy)2]2+ with PPh3 in CD3OD. The results of density functional calculations on [Pt(bpy)2]2+, [Pt(bpy) 2(phosphine)]n+, and [Pt(bpy)(phosphine)2] n+ indicate that the bonding energy follows the trend of [Pt(bpy)(phosphine)2]n+ > [Pt(bpy) 2(phosphine)]n+ > [Pt(bpy)2]2+ for stability and that the formation reactions of [Pt(bpy) 2(phosphine)]n+ from [Pt(bpy)2]2+ and [Pt(bpy)(phosphine)2]n+ from [Pt(bpy) 2(phosphine)]n+ are energetically favorable. These calculations suggest that the driving force for the formation of [Pt(bpy)(phosphine)2]n+ from [Pt(bpy)2] 2+ is the formation of a more energetically favorable product. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Tajammal Munir M.,University of Auckland | Yu W.,University of Auckland | Young B.R.,University of Auckland | Wilson D.I.,Auckland University of Technology
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The term Process Analytical Technology (PAT) is now popular in the chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries, collectively representing instruments, methods and strategies to provide a timely analysis of critical quality parameters to improve product quality and reduce cost. However in practice, the term PAT has narrowed down to predominantly focussing on just analytical instruments, and the associated mathematical processing losing the original holistic view. Consequently, due to the absence of an explicit focus on process control for real-time product release (RTR), PAT can lose sight of this overall aim. At the same time, traditional process control thinking alone can lose sight of key quality issues. This paper explores the potential of PAT in the dairy sector including appropriate instrumentation, analysis methods, the use of underlying models, and broad strategies to facilitate the real-time release of product. We also discuss why such a more holistic PAT approach is necessary to realise the full potential of the philosophy behind PAT which is consistent real-time product quality assurance. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Beardsley C.,Strength and Conditioning Research Ltd | Contreras B.,Auckland University of Technology
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2014

The functional movement screen (FMS) is a pre-participation screening tool comprising 7 individual tests for which both individual scores and an overall score are given. The FMS displays both interrater and intrarater reliability but has been challenged on the basis of a lack of validity in several respects. The FMS seems to have some degree of predictive ability for identifying athletes who are at an increased risk of injury. However, a poor score on the FMS does not preclude athletes from competing at the highest level nor does it differentiate between athletes of differing abilities. Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Konycheva G.,University of Auckland | Dziadek M.A.,University of Auckland | Ferguson L.R.,University of Auckland | Krageloh C.U.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2011

Two important lines of research have enhanced our understanding of the molecular role of nutrition in influencing behavior. First, exposure to an adverse environment during early life can influence the long-term behavior of the offspring. Second, regulation of the nervous system development and functioning appears to involve epigenetic mechanisms that require a continuous supply of methyl group donors in food. We hypothesized that a maternal diet during pregnancy deficient in methyl donors (MDD) may lead to altered behavior in offspring through permanent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation. We used a rat model of prenatal dietary MDD to test this hypothesis in female offspring as they aged. Prenatal MDD reduced birth weight, litter size, and newborn viability. Aged female offspring of MDD mothers showed increased anxiety and increased learning ability in comparison with control diet group offspring. To explore the role of MDD on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain of adult offspring, we studied expression and methylation of 4 selected genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 11 type 2, neuronatin, and reelin proteins in the hippocampus. No major group differences in methylation or expression of the studied genes were detected, except for a significant down-regulation of the reelin gene in the MDD female offspring. The prenatal MDD diet caused intrauterine growth restriction, associated with long-term effects on the behavior of the offspring. However, the observed behavioral differences between the MDD and control diet offspring cannot be explained by epigenetic regulation of the specific genes investigated in this study. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Soltic S.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Chalmers A.N.,Auckland University of Technology
Advances in OptoElectronics | Year: 2015

This paper describes an effective approach for the optimization of multiband spectra to produce prospective white-light spectra having specific color temperatures. The optimization process employs a genetic algorithm known as differential evolution, which aims to minimize the color rendering differences between a prospective white-light spectrum and its corresponding reference illuminant. Color rendering is assessed by calculating the CIEDE2000 color difference (ΔE00) for 14 CIE test colors under the two sources. Optimized white-light spectra were matched to three CIE standard illuminants, that is, A (2856 K), D50 (5003 K), and D65 (6504 K). Optimal solutions for three-and four-band 25 and 50 nm Gaussian spectra are presented and analyzed, together with mixed 4-LED spectra that were optimized in the same way. In all cases, the simulated sources were shown to provide color rendering of such quality that ΔE00av ≤ 2.24 units. Such white-light sources would likely find wide acceptance in numerous lighting applications. © 2015 Snjezana Soltic and Andrew Neil Chalmers.

Klug H.,University of Salzburg | Kmoch A.,Auckland University of Technology
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2015

Within the last decades tremendous progress has been made in analysing, characterising and understanding the processes, functions, and structures of the environment. Numerous indicators have been proposed and operationalised using computing techniques. However, many of the approaches are based on specific case study areas and the transfer of approaches is hampered due to incompatible data formats, data availability limitations, and/or unavailable modelling routines. Information on modelling routines, existing result datasets, and updates of previously derived analyses are missing. Considering the recent technological and methodological developments, environmental modelling providing indicators for decision support is likely to change in the next decade. This research provides a heuristic conceptual basis for driving the next generation of real-time multi-purpose data assembling, evaluating, modelling, and visualisation towards the operationalisation of decisions. Turning field observations into useful (near) real-time decision support information is demonstrated based on a hydrological example of future Integrated Water Resources Management. This paper describes new ways of near real-time indicator processing using Wireless Sensor Networks and standardised web services. Publicly available and standardised environmental information as Open Geospatial Consortium compliant Sensor Observation Services with its data formats Observations & Measurements and Water Markup Language 2.0 automatically feed into Web Processing Services for timely information delivery, discovery and access of the spatially explicit environmental conditions as pull and push based web services accompanied with notification for immediate actions in crisis times. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Johnson K.,Auckland University of Technology | Calinescu R.,University of York
QoSA 2014 - Proceedings of the 10th International ACM SIGSOFT Conference on Quality of Software Architectures (Part of CompArch 2014) | Year: 2014

We present a generic method for the effcient constraint re- resolution of a component-based software architecture after changes such as addition, removal and modification of components. Given a formal description of an evolving system as a constraint-specification problem, our method identifies and executes the re-resolution steps required to verify the system's compliance with constraints after each change. At each step, satisfiability modulo theory (SMT) techniques determine the satisfiability of component constraints expressed as logical formulae over suitably chosen theories of arithmetic, reusing results obtained in previous steps. We illustrate the application of the approach on a constraint- satisfaction problem arising from cloud-deployed software services. The incremental method is shown to re-resolve sys- tem constraints in a fraction of the time taken by standard SMT resolution. Copyright © 2014 ACM 978-1-4503-2577-6/14/06 ...$15.00.

Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Morrison S.,Old Dominion University | Barrett R.,Griffith University
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity | Year: 2010

The current study investigated the effect of 2 different types of unilateral resistance training on the postural tremor output of 19 neurologically healthy men age 70-80 yr. The strength- (n = 7) and coordination-training (n = 7) groups trained twice a week for 6 wk, performing dumbbell biceps curls, wrist flexions, and wrist extensions, while the control group (n = 5) maintained their normal activities. Changes in index-finger tremor (RMS amplitude, peak, and proportional power) and upper limb muscle coactivation were assessed during 4 postural conditions that were performed separately with the trained and untrained limbs. The 2 training groups experienced significantly greater reductions in mean RMS tremor amplitude, peak, and proportional tremor power 8-12 Hz and upper limb muscle coactivation, as well as greater increases in strength, than the control group. These results further demonstrate the benefits of resistance training for improving function in older adults. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Aldayel A.,Edith Cowan University | Aldayel A.,King Saud University | Jubeau M.,Jean Monnet University | McGuigan M.,Edith Cowan University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

This study compared alternating current and pulsed current electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) for torque output, skin temperature (Tsk), blood lactate and hormonal responses, and skeletal muscle damage markers. Twelve healthy men (23-48 yr) received alternating current EMS (2.5 kHz delivered at 75 Hz, 400 μs) for the knee extensors of one leg and pulsed current (75 Hz, 400 μs) for the other leg to induce 40 isometric contractions (on-off ratio 5-15 s) at the knee joint angle of 100° (0°: full extension). The use of the legs for each condition was counterbalanced among subjects, and the two EMS bouts were separated by 2 wk. The current amplitude was consistently increased to maximally tolerable level, and the torque and perceived intensity were recorded over 40 isometric contractions. Tsk of the stimulated and contralateral knee extensors were measured before, during, and for 30 min after EMS. Blood lactate, growth hormone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, testosterone, and cortisol were measured before, during, and for 45 min following EMS. Muscle damage markers included maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, muscle soreness with a 100-mm visual analog scale, and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, which were measured before and 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after EMS. No significant differences in the torque induced during stimulation (∼30% maximal voluntary isometric contraction) and perceived intensity were found, and changes in Tsk, blood lactate, and hormones were not significantly different between conditions. However, all of the measures showed significant (P < 0.05) changes from baseline values. Skeletal muscle damage was evidenced by prolonged strength loss, development of muscle soreness, and increases in plasma CK activity; however, the changes in the variables were not significantly different between conditions. It is concluded that acute effects of alternating and pulsed current EMS on the stimulated muscles are similar. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Tamborindeguy A.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rico Bini R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rico Bini R.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to measure saddle height effects on knee joint load. Nine uninjured non-cyclists were evaluated in three saddle heights: 100% of trochanteric height-REF; 103% of REF-HIGH; and 97% of REF-LOW. Two-dimensional sagittal plane force applied on the pedal and kinematics were recorded. After inverse dynamics of the lower limb, knee resultant force was computed as tibiofemoral normal and shear components and compressive patellofemoral force. Peak patellofemoral compressive force and peak compressive and shear tibiofemoral forces did not differ when saddle height was changed. Knee angle at the lower crank position increased at LOW compared to REF and HIGH saddle height (p< 0.02). Small saddle height changes (±3%) did not affect knee joint load, at low workloads on uninjured subjects, while changes in knee angle did not relate to effects on joint forces. These findings suggest that setting saddle height by knee angle secures the maintenance of joint load at low workloads on uninjured subjects. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Abundance indices of southern Gulf Leucoraja ocellata residing in Northumberland Strait, Canada, declined from 2001 to 2005, but increased during 2006 to 2008. Catch rates in 2009 were the lowest in the time series. The size of the area occupied in Northumberland Strait varied with changes in the abundance indices. Leucoraja ocellata were primarily caught in the north-west half of the strait over sandy to gravelly seabed; a near total absence was documented from the eastern half despite suitable habitat and a previously established presence documented during research surveys conducted before 2000. In Northumberland Strait, L. ocellata occupied shallow (50% cumulative occurrence=12m) and warm (50% cumulative occurrence=16·5° C) coastal waters and were not present in the cold (<1° C, >35m) intermediate layer. Abundance and distribution data highlight the need for continuing studies to monitor the status of this population, which is classified as endangered by the IUCN and Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Journal of Fish Biology. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Yu W.,University of Auckland | Wilson D.I.,Auckland University of Technology | Young B.R.,University of Auckland
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2012

Variations in sampling time, or sampling jitter, is a common insidious industrial control problem. This work investigates how the stochastic sampling jitter adversely affects the performance of control loops using control performance assessment (CPA) tools. It is analytically shown that sampling jitter may both improve or deteriorate the control performance, and through simulation, it is demonstrated that the estimates of Harris index from the time invariant ARMA model are reliable, provided the sampling jitter is relatively small. Furthermore we propose a method to analyze the effects of sampling jitter, when the jitter is unknown and not directly measurable. From the simulations of 15 typical processes, it is shown that the proposed method is reliable for most of the investigated cases. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

Gutierrez J.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Ray S.K.,Manukau Institute of Technology
International Conference on Information Networking | Year: 2014

In future generation networks users will be offered different types of services and they will be expected to choose the best-possible connection from different underlying networks. One of the keys for the success of such ubiquitous services is the issue of assigning proper prices for those services. This paper explores a user-oriented pricing approach for next-generation networks where pricing for services will not be governed by long-term agreements but will be based on ad-hoc usage (policy-dependent), short-term agreements and spot-pricing (and payment). Based on the usage, the users will make decisions on what to pay and who to pay for the best service they require. This approach is now possible as a result of a range of evolved broadband wireless access standards and technologies, intelligent agents, autonomic communications, new pricing schemes and policy-based techniques. This new landscape also allows multiple competing Access Providers to dynamically assign prices and poses interesting challenges to regulators. The paper also discusses our thoughts on the mechanisms required to make this approach work. © 2014 IEEE.

Wilson D.,Auckland University of Technology
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2012

Building an Indigenous mental health workforce is a strategy used to develop culturally responsive and effective mental health services in New Zealand. However, researchers know little about Indigenous (Mori) mental health nursing. We undertook a Mori-centered methodology and grounded theory using focus groups to collect data from 10 Mori mental health nurses. We then analyzed the data using constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling until saturation of the core category and subcategories emerged. "Bridging two worlds," together with two subcategories, "going beyond" and "practicing differently," explains the process Mori mental health nurses used to resolve the tensions they encountered working in the worlds of mainstream and Mori health services. This research provides insight into the tensions Indigenous and minority nurses experience when attempting to integrate cultural perspectives and practices to meet the needs of their patients. © The Author(s) 2012.

Huang L.,Auckland University of Technology
2012 19th International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice, M2VIP 2012 | Year: 2012

In this paper, the dynamic model of a bicycle in its vertical balance state is established using Newton Euler equations. Some special features of bicycle design and operation are explored to simplify the model in the point of view of multi body dynamics. The model can be used for design and stability analysis for bicycles and general mobile robots in a similar structure. © 2012 AUT University.

Wright S.D.,University of Auckland | Gillman L.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Ross H.A.,University of Auckland | Keeling D.J.,University of Auckland
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2010

Aim: The evolutionary speed hypothesis (ESH) attempts to explain global patterns of species richness on the basis that rates of molecular evolution and speciation in warmer climates have led to a greater accumulation of taxa at lower latitudes. A substantial alternative hypothesis to the ESH is the tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH). However, recent tests of the TCH, using amphibians as the model taxon, have relied on the assumption that rates of molecular evolution are stable across latitudes and elevations. Here, we test for the first time for systematic variation in rates of molecular evolution across latitude and elevation among amphibians. Location: The dataset is geographically diverse with samples from all continents except Antarctica and also from many of the earth's major tropical-warm temperate archipelagos. Methods: We tested for substitution rate heterogeneity across climatically varying habitats with the mitochondrial RNA genes 12S and 16S. Thus, we report here on our findings for amphibians - a taxon whose phylogenetic and trophic contexts are remote fromthose previously tested - using genes that have also not been examined before. The study utilized paired contrasts of sister species (188 species across 18 families, including both caudates and anurans) that are spatially separated in either latitudinal or elevational dimensions. Results: We found substantially faster substitution rates for species living in warmer habitats (P = 0.001-0.002) at both lower latitudes (P < 0.02) and lower elevations (P < 0.01). Main conclusions: The consistency of these results with the previous studies that used quite different organisms - and in this instance also using different genes - suggests that this is a ubiquitous pattern in nature consistent with the predictions of the ESH. Recent tests of the TCH that, in estimating diversification rates, have relied on the assumption that DNA evolution occurs at a constant rate across latitudes and elevations, require reconsideration in light of the findings presented here. Our results indicate that greater caution is required when estimating dates of divergence using DNA sequence data. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Increasing migration into urbanized centers in the Solomon Islands poses a great threat to adjacent coral reef fisheries because of negative effects on the fisheries and because it further erodes customary management systems. Parrotfish fisheries are of particular importance because the feeding habits of parrotfish (scrape and excavate coral) are thought to be critical to the resilience of coral reefs and to maintaining coral reef health within marine protected areas. We investigated the ecological impact of localized subsistence and artisanal fishing pressure on parrotfish fisheries in Gizo Town, Western Solomon Islands, by analyzing the density and size distribution of parrotfishwith an underwater visual census (UVC), recall diary (i.e., interviews with fishers), and creel surveys to independently assess changes in abundance and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) over 2 years. We then compared parrotfish data from Gizo Town with equivalent data from sites open to and closed to fishing in Kida and Nusa Hope villages, which have different customary management regimes. Results indicated a gradient of customary management effectiveness. Parrotfish abundance was greater in customary management areas closed to fishing, especially with regard to larger fish sizes, than in areas open to fishing. The decline in parrotfish abundance from 2004 to 2005 in Gizo was roughly the same magnitude as the difference in abundance decline between inside and outside customary management marine reserves. Our results highlight how weak forms of customary management can result in the rapid decline of vulnerable fisheries around urbanized regions, and we present examples in which working customary management systems (Kinda and Nusa Hope) can positively affect the conservation of parrotfish-and reef fisheries in general-in the highly biodiverse Coral Triangle region. © 2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

Hoving H.J.T.,University of Groningen | Lipinski M.R.,South Tourism | Videler J.J.,University of Groningen | Bolstad K.S.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Marine Biology | Year: 2010

Spermatangium implantation is reported in the large oceanic squid Taningia danae, based on ten mated females from the stomachs of sperm whales. Implanted spermatangia were located in the mantle, head and neck (on both sides) or above the nuchal cartilage, under the neck collar and were often associated with incisions. These cuts ranged from 30 to 65 mm in length and were probably made by males, using the beak or arm hooks. This is the first time wounds facilitating spermatangium storage have been observed in the internal muscle layers (rather than external, as observed in some other species of squid). The implications of these observations for the mating behavior of the rarely encountered squid T. danae are discussed. © The Author(s) 2009.

Beardsley C.,Strength and Conditioning Research Ltd | Contreras B.,Auckland University of Technology
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2014

Studies support the use of kettlebells for improving power, although evidence for using them to improve strength and aerobic fitness is still equivocal. Studies investigating the biomechanical properties of kettlebell training have been fruitful, and it may be useful for developing sprint running performance and for injury prevention. However, we still do not know the optimal loads for maximizing system and joint power production, how the mechanics, joint moments, and electromyographic activity changes as loads increase during kettlebell swings, nor whether kettlebell training transfers to sports performance. Copyright © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Beardsley C.,Strength and Conditioning Research Ltd | Contreras B.,Auckland University of Technology
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2014


Foure A.,University of Nantes | Cornu C.,University of Nantes | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Nordez A.,University of Nantes
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2012

Men are reportedly at higher risk of plantar flexor muscle injury and Achilles tendon ruptures than women. Biomechanical parameters are thought to play a role in the higher frequency of injury to males. One parameter is the stiffness of tissues; a stiff tissue cannot absorb sufficient energy with loading, and subsequently may be more likely to be injured. Thus, our purpose was to investigate the gender difference in the geometrical parameters of plantar flexor's muscle-tendon complex and the stiffness of both active and passive parts of the series elastic component (S SEC1 and S SEC2, respectively). Using the alpha method on data obtained from quick stretches to the plantar flexors performed during isometric contractions, S SEC1 and S SEC2 were assessed. Plantar flexor muscles and Achilles tendon cross-sectional areas (CSA TS and CSA AT, respectively) were determined in young healthy men (n = 49) and women (n = 31). The findings showed that S SEC2 was higher in men (p < 0.001), but this difference was not apparent when S SEC2 was normalized to CSA AT (p > 0.05). In contrast, S SEC1 was lower in men (p < 0.001) and remained so after normalization to CSA TS. Higher joint stiffness observed in men was notably influenced by lever arm length. Thus, the results of this study have implications for performance and injury. © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bolstad K.S.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Hoving H.J.T.,University of Groningen
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2011

Reproduction remains poorly understood in the Onychoteuthidae, with information previously published on only six of the ∼25 species, from three of the seven genera. Herein new information is presented for a further five species from four genera: mated and spent females are reported from the genera Onychoteuthis, Onykia, Notonykia and Callimachus, and the morphologies and locations of implanted spermatangia for the species Onychoteuthis meridiopacifica and Onykia aequatorialis are provided. Males of the genus Onychoteuthis are found to implant spermatangia within longitudinal cuts in the female's mantle surface, while males of Onykia implant individual spermatangia into the female's mantle at various locations, without a specific associated wound. These different implantation strategies are discussed in the context of mating and fertilization. A bulb-like structure at the aboral end of the spermatangium, possibly unique to the genus Onychoteuthis, is also described and examined and its function discussed. All onychoteuthids examined herein are observed to undergo extreme late-life physical degeneration. © 2011 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Babakov V.A.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics | Year: 2012

A kinematically possible velocity field allowing calculation of all the necessary integrals in quadratures and obtaining an analytical solution for the resistance force induced by impactor penetration into the target is constructed. The Saint-Venant model of a rigid-plastic body and the theorem on the upper bound of the limit load are used in solving the problem. The essence of the method applied is using the equilibrium equation in the form of the Lagrange equation. The kinematically possible velocity field allows obtaining an upper bound of the limit load, i. e., estimating the resistance force to impactor penetration. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Tudor K.,Auckland University of Technology
European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling | Year: 2014

This review offers a critical commentary on the contributions to this issue. It outlines four aspects to a critical approach and uses them to read horizontally across all five papers. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Carter P.D.,Auckland University of Technology
Groupwork | Year: 2014

Use of mirrors with people with phantom limbs reveals that extraordinary and immediate changes in felt experience can occur when an internal schema in the brain is projected out and then perceived as external. This opens up a fascinating new area of work for group psychotherapy given the discovery of the neurologically embedded social self. Examination of a psychodramatic production of an individual's internally held social self suggests similar mechanisms are in operation for the updating of the social self schema. It appears that the interpersonal field is a primary factor in the formation of the self and that the corresponding neurobiological structures can be further modified with mirroring of the cognitive, affective and relational aspects of the social self. Understanding these mechanisms will enhance the different techniques of interpersonal mirroring that already occur in most group modalities. Progress will be made as we reflect on the results of putting these new insights and ideas into practice.

Marshall R.N.,Eastern Institute of Technology | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2013

Knee injuries in golf comprise approximately 8% of all injuries, and are considered to result from overuse, technical faults or a combination of those factors. This review examines factors involved in injury, including the structure of the knee joint, kinematics and kinetics of the golf swing, forces sustained by knee joint structures and the potential for joint injury as well as injury prevention strategies. The golf swing generates forces and torques which tend to cause internal or external rotation of the tibia on the femur, and these are resisted by the knee ligaments and menisci. Research has shown that both maximum muscle forces and the forces sustained during a golf swing are less than that required to cause damage to the ligaments. However, the complex motion of the golf swing, involving both substantial forces and ranges of rotational movement, demands good technique if the player is to avoid injuring their knee joint. Most knee injury in golf is likely related to joint laxity, previous injuries or arthritis, and such damage may be exacerbated by problems in technique or overuse. In addition to appropriate coaching, strategies to remedy discomfort include specific exercise programmes, external bracing, orthotics and equipment choices. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Naeem M.A.,Auckland University of Technology
2014 9th International Conference on Digital Information Management, ICDIM 2014 | Year: 2014

Stream-based join algorithms are a promising technology for modern real-time data-warehouses. A particular category of stream-based joins is a semi-stream join where a single stream is joined with a disk based master data. The join operator typically works under limited main memory and this memory is generally not large enough to hold the whole disk-based master data. Recently, a seminal join algorithm called MESHJOIN (Mesh Join) has been proposed in the literature to process semi-stream data. MESHJOIN is a candidate for a resource-aware system setup. However, MESHJOIN is not very selective. In particular, MESHJOIN does not consider the characteristics of stream data and its performance is suboptimal for skewed stream data. In this paper I propose a novel Cached-based Semi-Stream Join (CSSJ) using a cache module. The algorithm is more appropriate for skewed distributions, and I present results for Zipfian distributions of the type that appear in many applications. I conduct a rigorous experimental study to test our algorithm. Our experiments show that CSSJ outperforms MESHJOIN significantly. I also present the cost model for our CSSJ and validate it with experiments. © 2014 IEEE.

Dassanayake R.S.,Kent State University | Shelley J.T.,Kent State University | Cabelli D.E.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Brasch N.E.,Auckland University of Technology
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2015

The reactions of the carbonate radical anion (CO3 . -) with vitamin B12 derivatives were studied by pulse radiolysis. The carbonate radical anion directly oxidizes the metal center of cob(II)alamin quantitively to give hydroxycobalamin, with a bimolecular rate constant of 2.0×109 M-1 s-1. The reaction of CO3 . - with hydroxycobalamin proceeds in two steps. The second-order rate constant for the first reaction is 4.3×108 M-1 s-1. The rate of the second reaction is independent of the hydroxycobalamin concentration and is approximately 3.0×103 s-1. Evidence for formation of corrinoid complexes differing from cobalamin by the abstraction of two or four hydrogen atoms from the corrin macrocycle and lactone ring formation has been obtained by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/HRMS). A mechanism is proposed in which abstraction of a hydrogen atom by CO3 . - from a carbon atom not involved in the π conjugation system of the corrin occurs in the first step, resulting in formation of a CoIII C-centered radical that undergoes rapid intramolecular electron transfer to form the corresponding CoII carbocation complex for about 50 % of these complexes. Subsequent competing pathways lead to formation of corrinoid complexes with two fewer hydrogen atoms and lactone derivatives of B12. Our results demonstrate the potential of UHPLC combined with HRMS in the separation and identification of tetrapyrrole macrocycles with minor modifications from their parent molecule. Irreversible damage to B12 by CO3 •-: The reaction between CO3 . - and the vitamin B12 derivative HOCbl produces multiple modified corrinoid species with two or four fewer hydrogen atoms and lactone derivatives. UHPLC/HRMS has been successfully employed to separate and characterize these corrinoids. The metal center of cob(II)alamin is rapidly oxidized by CO3 . -. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Said F.M.,Massey University | Said F.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Brooks J.,Auckland University of Technology | Chisti Y.,Massey University
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

The carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the biomass of microfungi tends to be quite different (e.g. 10-15) compared with the C:N ratio in the red pigments (e.g. >20) of the fungus Monascus ruber. Therefore, determining an optimal C:N ratio in the culture medium for maximizing the production of the pigments is important. A culture medium composition is established for maximizing the production of the red pigment by the fungus M. ruber ICMP 15220 in submerged culture. The highest volumetric productivity of the red pigment was 0.023 AU L-1 h-1 in a batch culture (30 °C, initial pH of 6.5) with a defined medium of the following composition (g L-1): glucose (10), monosodium glutamate (MSG) (10), MgSO4·7H2O (0.5), KH2PO4 (5), K2HPO4 (5), ZnSO4·7H2O (0.01), FeSO4·7H2O (0.01), CaCl2 (0.1), MnSO4·H2O (0.03). This medium formulation had a C:N mole ratio of 9:1. Under these conditions, the specific growth rate of the fungus was 0.043 h-1 and the peak biomass concentration was 6.7 g L-1 in a 7-day culture. The biomass specific productivity of the red pigment was 1.06 AU g-1 h-1. The best nitrogen source proved to be MSG although four other inorganic nitrogen sources were evaluated. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kersten P.,Auckland University of Technology | White P.J.,University of Southampton | Tennant A.,University of Leeds
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Purpose: The Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure is recommended to evaluate the quality of care. However, there is no evidence that it is valid in rehabilitation. Aims were to examine the internal construct (factorial) validity of the CARE in the assessment of the patient-therapist relationship. Method: CARE data were part of an experimental study of acupuncture and different currently used acupuncture placebo controls, including 213 patients (age 66.8, SD 8.3, 58% female) with chronic stable hip or knee pain of mechanical origin, waiting for a joint replacement. CARE was completed two weeks into the study and on completion, two weeks later. Data analysis: Cronbach alpha, factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Results: Internal construct validity was supported (82% of variance explained by the first factor; fit to the Rasch model χ 2=18.2, P=0.57). CARE was unidimensional, had local independence of items, good item fit, absence of Differential Item Functioning and invariance over time. Three percent of people did not complete items 9 & 10. Conclusions: CARE satisfied strict criteria for internal construct validity. An interval scale transformation is available that can be used in clinical practice and research. Further work is required to investigate item non-response and how this may be dealt with in clinical settings. Implications for Rehabilitation The Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure CARE satisfies strict criteria for internal construct validity. A transformation table is available, which can be used to convert the raw ordinal data into interval data. The CARE is suitable to evaluate the empathic nature of the consultation process between therapists and patients. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Ranganathan N.,Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore | Lee D.Y.,Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore | Youhe L.,Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore | Lo G.-Q.,Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2011

Bosch process is widely used in the fabrication of through silicon via (TSV) holes for 3-D integrated circuit and 3-D Packaging applications mainly due to its high silicon etch rate and selectivity to mask. However, the adverse impact on the electrical performance of the TSV due to the sidewall scallops or wavy profile due to the cyclical nature of the Bosch process has not been thoroughly investigated. This paper therefore focuses on the impact of sidewall scallops on the inter-via electrical leakage performance. Based on finite element analysis, this paper describes that the high stress concentration on the dielectric and barrier layers at the sharp scallops can potentially contribute to barrier failure. It is demonstrated that by smoothening the sidewalls of the TSV, the thermo-mechanical stresses on the dielectric and tantalum barrier is significantly reduced. A test vehicle is designed and fabricated with different geometry of deep silicon vias to study the impact of sidewall profile smoothening for different copper diffusion barrier stacks. It is experimentally demonstrated that the inter-via electrical leakage current can be reduced by almost three orders of magnitude when the sidewall roughness is reduced or replaced by a smoother sidewall. It is also indicated that it is sufficient to smoothen the initial few micrometers of the TSV depth by using a non-Bosch etch process. It is concluded that the Bosch etch process can still be used, with all its merits of high etch rate and high etch selectivity, by tailoring a short initial etch step to smoothen the top sidewalls to minimize the adverse effects of the sidewall scallops. © 2011 IEEE.

Fatichi S.,ETH Zurich | Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | Leuzinger S.,ETH Zurich
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2013

Projections of the future carbon and water cycles rely on knowledge on how forests will respond to rising atmospheric CO2. Experiments with elevated CO2 are logistically challenging and carbon pools and fluxes are difficult to measure and upscale due to their spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Therefore, it is important to combine the knowledge derived from experimental results with modeling. Here, we systematically compare data from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a mature deciduous forest in Switzerland with realizations from an ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris). We test whether a mechanistic ecohydrological model is able to simulate physiological plant responses under ambient and elevated CO2 concentration. We overcome measurement limitations by quantifying differences in response to ambient and elevated CO2 over ten years. The reliability of model realizations is demonstrated by comparing simulations with field observations of stomatal conductance, sap flow, leaf and fruit litter, and stem growth. The model successfully captures the observed CO2-induced difference in stomatal conductance and transpiration and its sensitivity to atmospheric demand, as well as qualitative changes in soil moisture. The simulated differences between CO2 scenarios generally fall within the uncertainty of experimental observations, both for the carbon and water balance. Simulated total evapotranspiration is 2.8% (18mmyr-1) lower and soil moisture 1.2% higher in the CO2-enriched scenario. Latent and sensible heat are modified by ca. 1Wm-2. Net primary production is simulated to increase by 19.8% and allocation to stem growth is 53gCyr-1m-2 higher in the elevated CO2 scenario, which represents the limit of the detection threshold of the experiment. Results show that while ecohydrological models can be used to reliably simulate multi-year energy, water, and carbon fluxes at the stand level, testing carbon allocation remains critical with current accuracy of field measurements. Uncertainties due to the simplified carbon allocation scheme are shown to be more significant for carbon than for energy and water fluxes. Generally, we conclude that for this type of forest, differences in annual energy and water fluxes induced by elevated CO2 are likely to be less than 10%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

McRobbie H.,University of Nottingham | McRobbie H.,Queen Mary, University of London | McRobbie H.,Auckland University of Technology | Raw M.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Chan S.,University of Hong Kong
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: Tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) interventions are often seen as expensive with little impact on the prevalence of tobacco use. However, activities that promote the cessation of tobacco use and support abstinence have an important role in any comprehensive tobacco control program and as such are recognized within Article 14 (A14) of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Objectives: To review current evidence for TDT and recommend research priorities that will contribute to more people being helped to stop tobacco use. Methods: We used the recommendations within the A14 guidelines to guide a review of current evidence and best practice for promotion of tobacco cessation and TDT, identify gaps, and propose research priorities. Results: We identified nine areas for future research (a) understanding current tobacco use and the effect of policy on behavior, (b) promoting cessation of tobacco use, (c) implementation of TDT guidelines, (d) increasing training capacity, (e) enhancing population-based TDT interventions, (f) treatment for different types of tobacco use, (g) supply of low-cost pharmaceutical devices/products, (h) investigation use of nonpharmaceutical devices/products, and (i) refinement of current TDTs. Specific research topics are suggested within each of these areas and recognize the differences needed between high- and low-/middleincome countries. Conclusions: Research should be prioritized toward examining interventions that (a) promote cessation of tobacco use, (b) assist health care workers provide better help to smokers (e.g., through implementation of guidelines and training), (c) enhance population-based TDT interventions, and (d) assist people to cease the use of other tobacco products. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Foo G.H.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Zhang X.,University of New South Wales
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2016

The conventional direct torque control (DTC) features control structure simplicity, fast dynamic response, and parameter robustness. Nevertheless, it suffers from the problems of variable switching frequency and large torque ripples. This paper presents a modified DTC algorithm for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives with fast torque dynamics and constant switching frequency. The aforementioned problems are alleviated by adding a PI torque regulator to autonomously alter the effective duty cycle of the applied voltage vector. As a result, a constant switching frequency and also reduced torque ripples are obtained while retaining the benefits of the classical DTC. In addition, the torque dynamic response is further improved by introducing a modified switching table during transient conditions. By incorporating the modified switching table, the torque dynamic response is superior to that of the classical DTC. Simulation and experiment results included confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2015 IEEE.

Moustafa A.,University of Wollongong | Zhang M.,University of Wollongong | Bai Q.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing | Year: 2016

The widespread use of web services in forming complex online applications requires service composition to cope with highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments. Traditional centralized service composition techniques are not sufficient to address the needs of applications in decentralized environments. In this paper, a stigmergic-based approach is proposed to model the decentralized service interactions and handle service composition in highly dynamic open environments. In the proposed approach, web services and resources are modeled as multiple agents. Stigmergic-based self-organization mechanisms among agents are deployed to facilitate adapting service composition. In addition, to overcome the limitations of traditional QoS-based approaches, trust measurements are deployed as a criterion for service selection. To improve the performance of the proposed stigmergic-based approach under dynamic scale-free environments, we investigate the hybridization with local search operators to consolidate adaptation, and diversity schemes are introduced to facilitate continual service adaptation. Extensive experiments show the efficiency of the proposed approach in dealing with incomplete information and dynamic factors in composing and adapting web services in open environments. The experiment results also show that the proposed approach achieves a better performance than other traditional approaches. © 2014 IEEE.

Andrade A.D.,Auckland University of Technology | Urquhart C.,Manchester Metropolitan University
Information Technology and People | Year: 2010

Purpose: This paper seeks to use actor network theory (ANT) to examine the different phases - i.e. translation process - of an information and communication technology (ICT) initiative intended to bring development to underserved rural communities in the Peruvian Andes by providing access to computers and the internet. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a holistic-multiple case study based on cross-sectional data collected between July and November 2005 by means of in-depth interviews, field notes and photographs gathered in eight rural communities in Peru, plus demographic data and background reports obtained from the sponsor of an ICT for development (ICT4D) project. The collected data are analysed through the lens of ANT. Findings: The ANT analysis dissects the history of the translations of the ICT4D project. ANT analytic dimensions of convergence and devices afford a great deal of insight into the underlying anatomy of the project and its assumptions. The study shows that when actors' interests are not aligned and the network procedures defined by the ICT4D initiative sponsors are unfamiliar to local people, the network cannot be established. Practical implications: Since ICT4D projects invariably superimpose technological networks over existing networks, ANT analytic dimensions do provide some unique and useful understandings for such projects. ANT overall affords visibility of the actions of both humans and non-humans, and their disparate goals. The focus on the alignment of disparate goals is particularly important in ICT4D research, where the recipients need to be engaged in a different way. Often in ICT4D projects, participants are using ICT for the first time, and there is no compulsion for them to do so. So the process of translation is very important in an ICT4D context; while there are many ways to engage participants, ANT gives particular insight into how that process might play out. Originality/value: The paper demonstrates the usefulness of ANT's concepts for analysing a rural telecentre project and itemises how the use of each ANT analytical concept might contribute to ICT4D research. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Yu W.,University of Auckland | Wilson D.I.,Auckland University of Technology | Young B.R.,University of Auckland
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2010

Abstract: Assessing the quality of existing industrial control loops, or comparing between two alternative controller designs is becoming an important routine auditing task for the control engineer. While most of the research and commercial activity in CPA has been applied to linear systems to date, those researchers investigating nonlinear systems fall into one of two groups. The first group focussed on the diagnosis of a common specific nonlinearity, namely valve stiction [1-3], while the second group tried to establish the minimum variance performance lower bound (MVPLB) [4-8]. In this paper we will propose a new CPA performance index for general nonlinear models based on an ANOVA-like variance decomposition method. The results of two simulation examples illustrate that the proposed methodology is efficient and accurate. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gillman L.N.,Auckland University of Technology
Ecology | Year: 2016

Global patterns in ecology need to be identified and interpreted if macroecological processes are to be fully understood. Facilitating effects on seedlings such as that of nurse plants and competitive effects such as allelopathy have been well recognized but the importance of plants acting as killers through physical damage by the litterfall they produce has received relatively little attention. Here I examine latitudinal patterns of physical disturbance to seedlings (microdisturbance) due to litterfall and discuss the macroecological implications in light of current research. Analyses of results from published studies show that both the risk of litterfall disturbance, as measured using artificial model seedlings, and the proportion of seedling mortalities due to litterfall decrease significantly with increasing latitude. Patterns of microdisturbance appear to be driven by the dynamic interaction between macro-litterfall, safe sites with protective overhead vegetation, topography, and animal activity. However, we are informed on this subject by few studies. There is evidence, again from a limited number of studies, for considerable spatial heterogeneity in microdisturbance intensity and for seedling resilience to litterfall damage to differ substantially among species. Therefore, differential survival among microsites may produce regeneration niche diversity. However, more focused studies are required across a range of forest types and latitudes before these results can be generalized. Therefore, there is fertile ground for researchers to use comparable multifactorial methods to investigate the implications of microdisturbance at macro-ecological scales. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

Sallis P.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Claster W.,Beppu University | Hernandez S.,Catholic University of the Maule
Computers and Geosciences | Year: 2011

Physical damage to property and crops caused by unanticipated wind gusts is a well understood phenomenon. Predicting its occurrence continues to be a challenge for meteorologists and climatologists. Various approaches to gust occurrence model building have been proposed. The very nature of the event is problematic because of its brief duration following a rapid change of state in wind velocity that immediately precedes it. Events classified as wind gusts have a typical duration of less than 20. s and are often much shorter. The rapidly accelerating wind velocity preceding them is often not apparent until the gust occurs. They come quickly, occur suddenly, and then end as abruptly as they began.Observations of 2000 gust events were made during the research to which this paper refers. These observations indicated a mean interval of 3.2. min between the beginning and end of wind velocity change and a noticeable linear progression in the acceleration pattern. It was also noted that state changes regularly occur, often over only seconds in time. In combination, these factors pose both a sampling and a data interpretation challenge, making reliable prediction difficult. This paper describes some new research undertaken to investigate methods of wind gust measurement and prediction. In particular, a machine-learning approach is taken to determine a satisfactory analytical process and to produce meaningful and useful results. An algorithm for use with real-time climate data collection and analysis is proposed, with a description of its implementation. Real-time data sampling provides input for this study using terrestrial sensor telemetry. Near-ground truth data are recorded independent of geostrophic upper atmosphere conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Byard K.,Auckland University of Technology
Electronics Letters | Year: 2015

Cross-correlation of binary sequences is a technique used in many applications. A method is presented whereby fast cross-correlation can be employed in applications that initially use the parameters of sequences derived from difference sets. The simple idea is to replace the difference set sequence with a sequence that has similar parameters, but for which a fast cross-correlation method exists. Experimental tests using a computer confirm the time savings of this method. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2015.

Luke B.,Queensland University of Technology | Kearins K.,Auckland University of Technology | Verreynne M.-L.,University of Queensland
International Journal of Public Sector Management | Year: 2011

Purpose: This article aims to consider success in terms of the financial returns and risks of new public management (NPM) in state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Design/methodology/approach: Financial returns of New Zealand SOEs were examined through a review of their annual reports over a five-year period. Dimensions of risk were examined through interviews conducted in two phases over a two-year period with senior executives from 12 of the (then) 17 SOEs operating in New Zealand. Findings: Findings indicate the potential for SOEs to operate as profitable government investments, with clear support for positive financial returns under NPM. However, variations noted within individual SOEs also indicate that profitable and commercial operations may not be possible in all cases. An examination of the risks associated with SOEs' operations reveals a number of dimensions of risk, encompassing financial, political (including regulatory), reputational, and public accountability aspects. Practical implications: There is a need for an enhanced awareness on the part of internal and external stakeholders (such as the government and general public) of the risks SOEs face in pursuing higher levels of profitability. Also required, is a more acute understanding on the part of internal and external stakeholders (e.g. government and the public) of the need for SOEs to manage the range of risks identified, given the potentially delicate balance between risk and return. Originality/value: While previous studies have considered the financial returns of SOEs, or the risks faced by the public sector in terms of accountability, few have addressed the two issues collectively in a single context. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Krull C.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Egeter B.,University of Otago
New Zealand Journal of Ecology | Year: 2016

Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are a threat to New Zealand’s biodiversity. Predation of frog species by feral pigs is a notable problem in other countries where pigs have been introduced. Our study aimed to determine through analysis of stomach contents if feral pigs are consuming frogs in the Waitakere Ranges, Auckland. Auckland Council contract pig hunters collected 274 feral pig stomach samples. Of these samples, 184 were screened for frog consumption via both dissecting microscope and DNA analyses. A single frog was identified by morphological and DNA analysis, the introduced green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea). Anecdotal evidence from the hunter records also suggests that nine other individual frogs were found in the stomach of the same pig (n = 10 total). This evidence of frog predation by feral pigs should be considered along with the many other negative impacts of feral pigs in New Zealand, and management programmes for pigs should be considered in areas of biodiversity value. © New Zealand Ecological Society.

Shan B.,University of Hong Kong | Cai Y.Z.,University of Hong Kong | Brooks J.D.,Auckland University of Technology | Corke H.,University of Hong Kong
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2011

This study investigated the antibacterial efficiency of five spice and herb extracts (cinnamon stick, oregano, clove, pomegranate peel, and grape seed) against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica in cheese at room temperature (∼23°C). The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of cheese was periodically tested by oxidative analyses. The results showed that all five plant extracts were effective against three foodborne pathogens in cheese. Treatments with these extracts increased the stability of cheese against lipid oxidation. Clove showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The reduction of foodborne pathogen numbers and the inhibition of lipid oxidation in cheese indicated that the extracts of these plants (especially clove) have potential as natural food preservatives. Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Kearins K.,Auckland University of Technology | Collins E.,University of Waikato
Business Strategy and the Environment | Year: 2012

This article examines the phenomenon of values-based firms being sold to larger mainstream firms. Its focus is on the sensemaking rationale offered by a New Zealand ecopreneur who sold an organic beverage company after 20years at the helm. The company case study is presented through two enterprise development narratives based on alternative sensemaking modes. Key values-related challenges arising in ecopreneurial business are identified, including (1) adhering to the founder's values, (2) growing the business sustainably, (3) deciding whether and when to expand ownership to cope with undercapitalization, (4) deciding who to bring in as new owners to ensure values alignment, (5) determining how and when the founder might leave and (6) ensuring the attractiveness of the sustainability values so that they might be retained. Other factors implicated in the sale of values-based firms are also postulated. It is argued that, although ecopreneurs might be accused of selling out their principles by selling up, there is some evidence that eco-brands are being maintained and that growth prospects could be improved after acquisition. Serial ecopreneurship may even extend social benefits. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Devine-Wright P.,University of Exeter | Wrapson W.,Auckland University of Technology | Henshaw V.,University of Sheffield | Guy S.,University of Manchester
Building Research and Information | Year: 2014

Policies to decarbonize heat provision involve the diffusion of low carbon thermal technologies (e.g. ground-source heat pumps and wood pellet boilers). In domestic buildings, such efforts presume the compatibility of novel technologies with practices of home-making, in terms of comfort, cosiness and sociability. However, research on engagement with low carbon technologies post-installation is limited, particularly with older adults, a growing social group in an ageing society. This study explores how older adults living with low carbon thermal technologies represent thermal comfort, drawing on in-depth interviews in diverse UK home environments (owner-occupied and rented; extra-care, sheltered and care homes; urban and rural). Findings indicate that cosiness and glow are highly valued by and for older adults, and achieved in diverse ways that may run counter to policy goals. In owner-occupied, rural homes, wood-burning stoves were retained after installation of under-floor heating/heat pumps to provide a visible glow and hospitality to guests. In care homes, fake fireplaces provide cosiness and glow without compromising concerns about risk. The research suggests that presumed emissions savings from the deployment of low carbon heating technologies may be overestimated, as home-making practices lead to the supplementing of these devices to provide comfort, cosiness and sociability. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Hisada M.,Kobe University | Ozawa S.,Kobe University | Zhang K.,Kobe University | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Evolving Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper, we propose a new incremental linear discriminant analysis (ILDA) for multitask pattern recognition (MTPR) problems in which a chunk of training data for a particular task are given sequentially and the task is switched to another related task one after another. The Pang et al.'s ILDA is extended such that a discriminant space of the current task is augmented with effective discriminant vectors that are selected from other tasks based on the class separability. We call this selective augmentation of discriminant vectors knowledge transfer of feature space. In the experiments, the proposed ILDA is evaluated for seven MTPR problems, each of which consists of three recognition tasks. The results demonstrate that the proposed ILDA with knowledge transfer outperforms the conventional ILDA and its naive extension to MTPR problems with regard to both class separability and recognition accuracy. We confirm that the proposed knowledge transfer works well to evolve effective feature spaces online in MTPR problems. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Vidalakis C.,University of the West of England | Tookey J.E.,Auckland University of Technology | Sommerville J.,Glasgow Caledonian University
Construction Innovation | Year: 2011

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a logistical analysis of construction supply chains by assessing the impact of varying demand on the performance of builders' merchants' logistics. Design/methodology/approach - Taking into consideration that the vast majority of construction materials are distributed through intermediary organisations, the paper focuses on the logistics of builders' merchants. The study follows a field study approach to develop a conceptual logistics model facilitating experimentation using simulation modelling. Findings - The paper highlights the importance of incorporating intermediary organisations in the study of construction supply chains and reveals the implications of varying demand on logistics performance related to inventory and transportation costs. Research limitations/implications - In order to limit assumptions associated with individual company characteristics, the sample has included data from one builder's merchant company. To allow external benchmarking, the suggested approach has to be applied to a wider sample. Practical implications - The paper provides a practical understanding in terms of the function of intermediary organisations in construction supply chains and the application of logistics management in construction. Originality/value - Considering the complexity involved in construction supply chain operations, the value of this research is twofold. First, the research contributes to an interdisciplinary approach to the study of construction supply chains and second, provides a risk-free environment for modelling supply chain cost performance. © 2011 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

Higham D.G.,Performance Science and Medicine | Pyne D.B.,Australian Institute of Sport | Pyne D.B.,University of Canberra | Anson J.M.,University of Canberra | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2016

Higham, DG, Pyne, DB, Anson, JM, Hopkins, WG, and Eddy, A. Comparison of activity profiles and physiological demands between international rugby sevens matches and training. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1287-1294, 2016 - The specificity of contemporary training practices of international rugby sevens players is unknown. We quantified the positional group-specific activity profiles and physiological demands of on-field training activities and compared these with match demands. Twenty-two international matches and 63 rugby-specific training drills were monitored in 25 backs and 17 forwards from a national squad of male rugby sevens players over a 21-month period. Drills were classified into 3 categories: low-intensity skill refining (n 23 drills, 560 observations), moderate- to high-intensity skill refining (n 28 drills, 600 observations), and game simulation (n 12 drills, 365 observations). Movement patterns (via Global Positioning System devices) and physiological load (via heart rate monitors) were recorded for all activities, and the differences between training and matches were quantified using magnitude-based inferential statistics. Distance covered in total and at ≥3.5 m·s -1, maximal velocity, and frequency of accelerations and decelerations were lower for forwards during competition compared with those for backs by a small but practically important magnitude. No clear positional group differences were observed for physiological load during matches. Training demands exceeded match demands only for frequency of decelerations of forwards during moderate- to high-intensity skill-refining drills and only by a small amount. Accelerations and distance covered at ≥6 m·s -1 were closer to match values for forwards than for backs during all training activities, but training drills consistently fell below the demands of international competition. Coaches could therefore improve physical and physiological specificity by increasing the movement demands and intensity of training drills. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Singh H.,Auckland University of Technology
ACIS 2010 Proceedings - 21st Australasian Conference on Information Systems | Year: 2010

COBIT is a well-known framework for IT governance, and provides an extensive list of control objectives for IT managers. However, anecdotal evidence shows that many organizations that use COBIT do not implement the entire framework. Instead, they focus their efforts on only some of COBIT's control objectives. We argue that this could be due to the bounded rationality of IT managers, which affects their ability to assess the outcomes of control, and the diminishing returns from implementing controls, because of enforcement costs incurred to control shirking. Managers would thus find it useful if the various control objectives could be ranked, so that they could prioritize their efforts. We use network analysis to identify the most central control objectives in COBIT. We also discuss the development of a measure of "control capital" to capture the level of control an organization achieves after implementing a particular set of controls. Future research will test the empirical validity of this measure. © 2010 Harminder Singh.

Foley L.S.,University of Auckland | Maddison R.,University of Auckland | Rush E.,Auckland University of Technology | Olds T.S.,University of South Australia | And 2 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2013

Objective: Low levels of daily energy expenditure (insufficient physical activity and increased sedentary time) have been associated with adverse health outcomes in young people. The Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adolescents (MARCA) is a computerized, self-report, use-of-time tool that can assess daily energy expenditure. The study aim was to validate the MARCA for the estimation of energy expenditure in young people, using the criterion standard doubly labeled water. Materials/Methods: Over a 15 day assessment period, 32 participants (10-18 years) completed the MARCA and underwent a doubly labeled water protocol. Indirect calorimetry was used to assess resting metabolic rate. Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) were estimated from both the MARCA and doubly labeled water. Association and agreement between methods for TEE and AEE were assessed using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots, respectively. Results: Compared to doubly labeled water, the MARCA over-estimated TEE by an average of 50 kcal/day (limits of agreement - 1 589 to 1 490 kcal/day) and under-estimated AEE 105 kcal/day (limits of agreement - 1 404 to 1 614 kcal/day). The MARCA showed strong correlation with doubly labeled water for TEE (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001) and moderate correlation for AEE (rho = 0.56, p = 0.0009). Conclusions: Overall, the MARCA indicated moderate validity for the assessment of daily TEE and AEE. The wide limits of agreement indicate the MARCA has greater utility for group-level rather than individual-level estimates. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Braakhuis A.J.,University of Auckland | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Lowe T.E.,The New School
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

The beneficial effects of exercise and a healthy diet are well documented in the general population but poorly understood in elite athletes. Previous research in subelite athletes suggests that regular training and an antioxidant-rich diet enhance antioxidant defenses but not performance. Purpose: To investigate whether habitual diet and/or exercise (training status or performance) affect antioxidant status in elite athletes. Methods: Antioxidant blood biomarkers were assessed before and after a 30-min ergometer time trial in 28 male and 34 female rowers. The antioxidant blood biomarkers included ascorbic acid, uric acid, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte- superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Rowers completed a 7-d food diary and an antioxidant-intake questionnaire. Effects of diet, training, and performance on resting biomarkers were assessed with Pearson correlations, and their effect on exercise-induced changes in blood biomarkers was assessed by a method of standardization. Results: With the exception of GPx, there were small to moderate increases with exercise for all markers. Blood resting TAC had a small correlation with total antioxidant intake (correlation .29; 90% confidence limits, ±.27), and the exercise-induced change in TAC had a trivial to small association with dietary antioxidant intake from vitamin C (standardized effect .19; ±.22), vegetables (.20; ±.23), and vitamin A (.25; ±.27). Most other dietary intakes had trivial associations with antioxidant biomarkers. Years of training had a small inverse correlation with TAC (-.32; ±.19) and a small association with the exercise-induced change in TAC (.27; ±.24). Conclusion: Training status correlates more strongly with antioxidant status than diet does. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

The geospatial skills shortage in New Zealand requires the development of more undergraduate geographic information system (GIS) courses. However, the internationalisation of New Zealand's tertiary education system has resulted in an increasingly diverse tertiary student population, which makes it challenging to teach GIS in a way that maximises relevance to all tertiary students. One approach to this challenge is to make use of the recent proliferation of openly available GIS data, and to internationalise GIS curricula by using open-ended assessments that provide students with the opportunity to learn GIS by constructing their own geographies of relevance. © 2016 New Zealand Geographical Society.

Yeap W.K.,Auckland University of Technology
Topics in Cognitive Science | Year: 2011

Much of what we know about cognitive mapping comes from observing how biological agents behave in their physical environments, and several of these ideas were implemented on robots, imitating such a process. In this paper a novel approach to cognitive mapping is presented whereby robots are treated as a species of their own and their cognitive mapping is being investigated. Such robots are referred to as Albots. The design of the first Albot, Albot0, is presented. Albot0 computes an imprecise map and employs a novel method to find its way home. Both the map and the return-home algorithm exhibited characteristics commonly found in biological agents. What we have learned from Albot0's cognitive mapping are discussed. One major lesson is that the spatiality in a cognitive map affords us rich and useful information and this argues against recent suggestions that the notion of a cognitive map is not a useful one. © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

Zambas S.I.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Nursing Education | Year: 2010

Although considered an essential nursing skill, systematic physical assessment is rarely visible in everyday practice. Some nurses question whether systematic physical assessment is relevant to nursing, and others complain that they do not see it used in practice. Why is this, when these skills are considered so integral to nursing? This article challenges nurse educators to reflect on the purpose of the systematic physical assessment within nursing by analyzing the underlying assumptions of this apparent sacred cow. © SLACK Incorporated.

Swinton P.A.,Robert Gordon University | Stewart A.D.,Robert Gordon University | Lloyd R.,University of Abertay Dundee | Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the traditional squat with 2 popular exercise variations commonly referred to as the powerlifting squat and box squat. Twelve male powerlifters performed the exercises with 30, 50, and 70% of their measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with instruction to lift the loads as fast as possible. Inverse dynamics and spatial tracking of the external resistance were used to quantify biomechanical variables. A range of significant kinematic and kinetic differences (p < 0.05) emerged between the exercises. The traditional squat was performed with a narrow stance, whereas the powerlifting squat and box squat were performed with similar wide stances (48.3 ± 3.8, 89.6 ± 4.9, 92.1 ± 5.1 cm, respectively). During the eccentric phase of the traditional squat, the knee traveled past the toes resulting in anterior displacement of the system center of mass (COM). In contrast, during the powerlifting squat and box squat, a more vertical shin position was maintained, resulting in posterior displacements of the system COM. These differences in linear displacements had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on a number of peak joint moments, with the greatest effects measured at the spine and ankle. For both joints, the largest peak moment was produced during the traditional squat, followed by the powerlifting squat, then box squat. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also noted at the hip joint where the largest moment in all 3 planes were produced during the powerlifting squat. Coaches and athletes should be aware of the biomechanical differences between the squatting variations and select according to the kinematic and kinetic profile that best match the training goals. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Moskvina A.,Auckland University of Technology | Liu J.,University of Auckland
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

When two social groups merge, members of both groups should socialize effectively into the merged new entity. In other words, interpersonal ties should be established between the groups to give members appropriate access to resource and information. Viewing a social group as a network, we investigate such integration from a computational perspective. In particular, we assume that the networks have equipotent nodes, which refers to the situation when every member has equal privilege. We introduce the network integration problem: Given two networks, set up links between them so that the integrated network has diameter no more than a fixed value. We propose a few heuristics for solving this problem, study their computational complexity and compare their performance using experimental analysis. The results show that our approach is a feasible way to solve the network integration problem by establishing a small number of edges. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology | Kasabov N.,University of Zurich
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

The brain functions as a spatio-temporal information processing machine and deals extremely well with spatio-temporal data. Spatio- and spectro-temporal data (SSTD) are the most common data collected to measure brain signals and brain activities, along with the recently obtained gene and protein data. Yet, there are no computational models to integrate all these different types of data into a single model to help understand brain processes and for a better brain signal pattern recognition. The EU FP7 Marie Curie IIF EvoSpike project develops methods and tools for spatio and spectro temporal pattern recognition. This paper proposes a new evolving spiking model called NeuCube as part of the EvoSpike project, especially for modeling brain data. The NeuCube is 3D evolving Neurogenetic Brain Cube of spiking neurons that is an approximate map of structural and functional areas of interest of an animal or human brain. Optionally, gene information is included in the NeuCube in the form of gene regulatory networks that relate to spiking neuronal parameters of interest. Different types of brain SSTD can be used to train a NeuCube, including: EEG, fMRI, video-, image- and sound data, complex multimodal data. Potential applications are: EEG -, fMRI-, and multimodal brain data modeling and pattern recognition; Brain-Computer Interfaces; cognitive and emotional robots; neuro-prosthetics and neuro-rehabilitation; modeling brain diseases. Analysis of the internal structure of the model can trigger new hypotheses about spatio-temporal pathways in the brain. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Chung H.,Auckland University of Technology
19th International Congress on Sound and Vibration 2012, ICSV 2012 | Year: 2012

Modelling the vibration of composite structures requires including the effects of uncertain material properties of individual components at mid-frequency. The purpose of this model is to predict the vibration of double-leaf plate with random parameters. One plate is excited by some force, then the vibration travels to the other plate via beams. The random parameters are the elastic modulus of the plates, and coupling conditions between components. The finite element method often used to incorporate the uncertainties in the stiffness matrix. However composite structures typically have tens of components, and formulating the stiffness matrix becomes overwhelming. Here the solution is found by minimizing the lagrangian representing the energy in the structure. The solution is expressed using the Fourier series. The coupling between components are modelled as additional energy contribution. This energy is quantified using varying resistance due to relative separation, slipping, and rotation between neighbouring components. The uncertainties then can be represented by sub-matrices in the lagrangian. As a result, the computation is simplified.

Raza B.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on Global Software Engineering Workshops, ICGSEW 2015 | Year: 2015

Context: This study is directed towards understanding the problems related to the transition phase carried out during the switching of outsourcing vendors in a near-shore context. Objective: Given the scarcity of such studies, an understanding of how the transition of distributed projects is enacted needs to be constructed. This study will contribute such an understanding of the complexity and nature of this key project phase. Method: This study demonstrates the use of secondary data in a longitudinal case study research. The two data analysis techniques used are temporal bracketing and dilemma analysis which enabled us to understand the vendor transition process over time and further come to grips with the various stakeholders' views and tensions - respectively. Results: The results of this study will contribute across substantive, conceptual and methodological domains. Conclusion: In the constructed framework the aim is to identify archetypes and patterns to identify problems before they manifest as major failures. © 2015 IEEE.

Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology | Kasabov N.,University of Zurich
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

Spatio- and spectro-temporal data (SSTD) are the most common types of data collected in many domain areas, including engineering, bioinformatics, neuroinformatics, ecology, environment, medicine, economics, etc. However, there is lack of methods for the efficient analysis of such data and for spatio-temporal pattern recognition (STPR). The brain functions as a spatio-temporal information processing machine and deals extremely well with spatio-temporal data. Its organisation and functions have been the inspiration for the development of new methods for SSTD analysis and STPR. The brain-inspired spiking neural networks (SNN) are considered the third generation of neural networks and are a promising paradigm for the creation of new intelligent ICT for SSTD. This new generation of computational models and systems are potentially capable of modelling complex information processes due to their ability to represent and integrate different information dimensions, such as time, space, frequency, and phase, and to deal with large volumes of data in an adaptive and self-organising manner. The paper reviews methods and systems of SNN for SSTD analysis and STPR, including single neuronal models, evolving spiking neural networks (eSNN) and computational neuro-genetic models (CNGM). Software and hardware implementations and some pilot applications for audio-visual pattern recognition, EEG data analysis, cognitive robotic systems, BCI, neurodegenerative diseases, and others are discussed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Khan U.,Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering | Klette R.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Crowd counting based on video camera recordings faces two major problems, namely inter-occlusion among the people, and perspective scaling. Though the former issue has been adequately addressed using different regression and model-based schemes, a solution to the later problem remains an open problem so far. This paper proposes a novel scene-independent solution to perspective scaling. We show that it supports promising results. A property matrix, combining both a grey-level co-occurrence matrix and segmentation properties, is first obtained which is subsequently weighted using logarithmic relationships between pixel distances and foreground regions. We apply a Gaussian process regression, using a compounded kernel, to acquire an estimate for the crowd count. We show that results are comparable to those obtained when using more complex and costly techniques. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Nikbakhsh S.,University of Technology Malaysia | Manaf A.B.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Zamani M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Janbeglou M.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 26th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, WAINA 2012 | Year: 2012

There is a big risk for public Wi-Fi users being tricked into connecting to rogue access points. Rogue access point is one of the most serious threats in WLAN, since it exposes a large number of users to MITM and evil twin attack. In this paper we propose a practical method that warns users to avoid connecting to the rogue access points. Proposed method compares the gateways and the routes that a packet travels to determine whether an access point is legitimate or not. This method can easily detect Man-In-The-Middle and evil twin attack without any assistance from the WLAN operator. © 2012 IEEE.

Neitzert T.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2015

Additive manufacturing processes and materials are described with respect to their ability to generate finished products. The accuracy of produced parts is seen as an important criterion for this technology to compete with subtractive or constant volume technologies. From the existing literature can be concluded process variation is high and part accuracy is not better then IT grade 9. The manufacturing process itself is complex and dependent on a number of machine, material and geometry parameters. A better understanding of the heat transfer within the product build environment will assist in the future to improve the process and therefore the resulting parts' accuracy. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Thrimawithana D.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Madawala U.K.,University of Auckland | Neath M.,University of Auckland
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

Bidirectional inductive power transfer (IPT) systems are attractive for applications such as electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid systems which preferably require contactless and two-way power transfer. However, in contrast to unidirectional IPT systems, bidirectional IPT systems require more sophisticated control strategies to control the power flow. An indispensible component of such control strategies is the robust and accurate synchronization between the primary-and pickup-side converters, without which the transfer of real power in any direction cannot be guaranteed. This paper proposes a novel technique that synchronizes converters on both the primary and pickup sides of bidirectional IPT systems. The technique uses an auxiliary winding, located on the pickup side, to produce a synchronizing signal which, in turn, can be utilized to regulate the real power flow. This paper also presents a mathematical model for the proposed technique and investigates its sensitivity for component tolerances. The viability of the technique, which is applicable to both single-and multiple-pickup IPT systems, is demonstrated through both simulations and experimental results of a 1-kW prototype bidirectional IPT system. © 2012 IEEE.

Nisbet A.,Auckland University of Technology | Woodward A.,Edith Cowan University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Wireless network technology has been available for public and private use for almost two decades. The casual approach to security with the early standards and channel selection began to cause issues when the initial security standard, WEP, was discovered to have serious flaws. The closer examination of security and efficiency that followed led to better security protocols, easier setup and better guidelines to ensure efficiency of radio communications. A survey of 5 areas throughout New Zealand was conducted and this is compared with a survey of 5 areas around Perth in Western Australia. The results indicate that whilst improvements continue to be made in security implementations, a small percentage of users do not implement their networks with the recommended settings. Whilst Australian users are slightly better at complying with recommendations, it is clear that some work still needs to be done in the areas of security and efficiency. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Etherington T.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Etherington T.R.,University of Auckland
Progress in Physical Geography | Year: 2015

Isolation is a fundamental geographical characteristic that plays an important role in invasion ecology. However, risk mapping for established non-native species currently tends to ignore isolation, and instead focuses on the risk of population growth through the use of species distribution models. By focusing on how geographical isolation can be used to improve invasive species risk assessments this paper aims to: (i) provide a brief review of how methods to quantify isolation have developed, (ii) describe least-cost modelling as one approach to quantify isolation, (iii) promote catchment area mapping as a method of continuous isolation mapping that can improve invasive species risk assessments that may currently only consider risk from population growth, and (iv) discuss ways in which geographical isolation could be modified to control invasive species. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Tan K.W.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Tan K.W.,University of Auckland | Li Y.,University of Auckland | Li Y.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) plays an important role in determining the absorption and disposition of consumed xenobiotics including various drugs and dietary phytochemicals and is also one of the prominent efflux transporters involved in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we have investigated the interactions between ABCG2 and 56 naturally-occurring phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenes and other common dietary phytochemicals, as well as two non plant-based compounds (hippuric acid and propyl gallate) using cell- and membrane-based transport inhibition assays. Of the non-flavonoid phytochemicals tested, berberine, celastrol, ellagic acid, limonin, oleanolic acid, propyl gallate, sinapic acid and ursolic acid demonstrated significant inhibition of ABCG2-mediated transport. Chrysoeriol, laricitrin, myricetin 3′,4′,5′- trimethylether, pinocembrin, quercitrin, tamarixetin, tricetin and tricetin 3′,4′,5′-trimethylether were also identified as novel flavonoid ABCG2 inhibitors. The identified inhibitory activity of dietary phytochemicals on ABCG2 provides a framework for further investigation of ABCG2-modulated phytochemical bioavailability, MDR, and possible food-drug interactions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Goh S.S.,Edith Cowan University | Laursen P.B.,Edith Cowan University | Laursen P.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Dascombe B.,University of Newcastle | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

No previous studies have investigated the effect of lower body compression garments (CG) on running performance in the heat. This study tested the hypothesis that CG would negatively affect running performance in the heat by comparing CG and non-CG conditions for running performance and physiological responses in hot and cold conditions. Ten male recreational runners (29.0 ± 10.0 years, V̇O2max: 58.7 ± 2.7 ml kg -1 min-1) performed four treadmill tests consisting of 20-min running at first ventilatory threshold followed by a run to exhaustion at V̇O2max velocity in four conditions: 10°C with CG, 10°C without CG, 32°C with CG, and 32°C without CG (randomised, counterbalanced order). Time to exhaustion (TTE), skin and rectal temperature, V̇O2, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were compared between CG and non-CG conditions at each environmental temperature. TTE was not significantly different between the CG and non-CG conditions at 10°C (158 ± 74 vs. 148 ± 73 s) and 32°C (115 ± 40 vs. 97 ± 33 s); however, there was a small (0.15) and moderate effect size (0.48), respectively, suggestive of an improvement in TTE with CG. Lower limb skin temperature was 1.5°C higher at 10°C with CG (P < 0.05), but no significant differences in other physiological variables, including rectal temperature, were observed between garment conditions. Interestingly, RPE was lower (P < 0.05) during submaximal running at 32°C with CG (13.8 ± 2.0) compared with non-CG (14.5 ± 2.7). It was concluded that CG had no adverse effects on running performance in hot conditions. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Ikeda E.,Auckland University of Technology
Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation | Year: 2014

To review the use of quality of life (QOL) measures utilised in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relevant articles were identified through database searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text and SPORTDiscus with Full Text via EBSCO Health Database, PsycINFO and ProQuest Health and Medicine (from 2000 to May 2013). Original research articles were included that measured QOL in children and youth with ASD aged 5-20 years. Searches were limited to articles from peer-reviewed journals, in English or German, and those available in full text. The search identified 1,165 titles and 13 met the inclusion criteria. The review identified a number of QOL measures used in children and youth with ASD, with the most common one being the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL). QOL measures using self-reports were uncommon, and the reliability and validity of QOL measures were not sufficiently reported for this population. Large discrepancies in QOL scores were found between self-reports and proxy-reports. Despite the differences in study design and methodological quality, there was consistency in the results among studies; children and youth with ASD provided lower QOL scores, particularly for social domains, compared to their healthy counterparts. The PedsQL is likely to be an appropriate QOL measure for use in children and youth with ASD. Future research should focus on examining the appropriateness, reliability and validity of QOL self-reports for use in this population.

Pointing S.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Belnap J.,U.S. Geological Survey
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2014

This review considers the regional scale of impacts arising from disturbance to desert soil ecosystems. Deserts occupy over one-third of the Earth's terrestrial surface, and biological soil covers are critical to stabilization of desert soils. Disturbance to these can contribute to massive destabilization and mobilization of dust. This results in dust storms that are transported across inter-continental distances where they have profound negative impacts. Dust deposition at high altitudes causes radiative forcing of snowpack that leads directly to altered hydrological regimes and changes to freshwater biogeochemistry. In marine environments dust deposition impacts phytoplankton diazotrophy, and causes coral reef senescence. Increasingly dust is also recognized as a threat to human health. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Diefenthaeler F.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Diefenthaeler F.,University of Texas at Austin | Bini R.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Vaz M.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano | Year: 2012

Lower limb muscles activation was assessed during cycling to exhaustion using frequency band analysis. Nine cyclists were evaluated in two days. On the first day, cyclists performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise to measure peak power output, which was used on the second day to define the workload for a constant load time to exhaustion cycling exercise (maximal aerobic power output from day 1). Muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL), long head of biceps femoris (BF), lateral head of gastrocnemius (GL), and tibialis anterior (TA) from the right lower limb was recorded during the time to exhaustion cycling exercise. A series of nine band-pass Butterworth digital filters was used to analyze muscle activity amplitude for each band. The overall amplitude of activation and the high and low frequency components were defined to assess the magnitude of fatigue effects on muscle activity via effect sizes. The profile of the overall muscle activation during the test was analyzed using a second order polynomial, and the variability of the overall bands was analyzed by the coefficient of variation for each muscle in each instant of the test. Substantial reduction in the high frequency components of VL and BF activation was observed. The overall and low frequency bands presented trivial to small changes for all muscles. High relationship between the second order polynomial fitting and muscle activity was found (R2 > 0.89) for all muscles. High variability (~25%) was found for muscle activation at the four instants of the fatigue test. Changes in the spectral properties of the EMG signal were only substantial when extreme changes in fatigue state were induced.

Chaix B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chaix B.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Meline J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Meline J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 13 more authors.
Health and Place | Year: 2013

Recent studies have relied on GPS tracking to assess exposure to environmental characteristics over daily life schedules. Combining GPS and GIS allows for advances in environmental exposure assessment. However, biases related to selective daily mobility preclude assessment of environmental effects, to the extent that these studies may represent a step backward in terms of assessment of causal effects. A solution may be to integrate the Public health/Nutrition approach and the Transportation approach to GPS studies, so as to combine a GPS and accelerometer data collection with an electronic mobility survey. Correcting exposure measures and improving study designs with this approach may permit mitigating biases related to selective daily mobility. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Klein J.,Auckland University of Technology
ASCILITE 2012 - Annual conference of the Australian Society for Computers in Tertiary Education | Year: 2012

The earliest notion of a university came from people walking through the streets of Athens thinking about how the world works and trying to understand it. Apple Distinguished Educator Dr. William Rankin from Abilene Christian University (2012) reframes this notion of the peripatetic learner, originating from Aristotelian philosophy, to describe how mobile technologies have brought about a new way of thinking about education. The ability to be mobile has implications in reshaping future learning: to rethink the spatiotemporal structures of formal tertiary education means to understand both the affordances and challenges. The disruption of traditional pedagogies enables new forms of collaborative interactions to occur. This paper considers how to define a learning space that is no longer constrained by the physical classroom. By taking a technological perspective and a mixed methodology, it aims to evaluate practices of harnessing mobility and collaboration through existing or potential applications on the mobile platform. © 2012 Judit Klein.

Van Ginckel A.,Foundation Flanders Aspirant Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen | Van Ginckel A.,Ghent University | Baelde N.,General Hospital Jan Palfijn | Almqvist K.F.,Ghent University | And 4 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2010

Objective: To longitudinally estimate the change in glycosaminoglycan content of knee cartilage in asymptomatic untrained female novice runners participating in a Start To Run program (STR) compared to sedentary controls. Method: Nine females enrolling in a 10-week STR and 10 sedentary controls participated voluntarily. Prior to and after the 10-week period, both groups were subjected to dGEMRIC imaging. dGEMRIC indices of knee cartilage were determined at baseline and for the change after the 10-week period in both groups. Based on a self-reported weekly log, physical activity change during the study was depicted as decreased, unchanged or increased. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to test the hypotheses that dGEMRIC changes occurred between groups and according to physical activity changes respectively. Results: No significant differences were established between groups for dGEMRIC indices at baseline (P=0.541). A significant positive change of the median dGEMRIC index in the runners group was demonstrated when compared to the controls [+11.66. ms (95% CI: -25.29, 44.43) vs -9.56. ms (95% CI: -29.55, 5.83), P=0.006]. The change in dGEMRIC index differed significantly according to physical activity change (P=0.014), showing an increase in dGEMRIC index with increasing physical activity. Conclusion: Since cartilage appears to positively respond to moderate running when compared to a sedentary lifestyle, this running scheme might be considered a valuable tool in osteoarthritis prevention strategies. Caution is warranted when applying these results to a wider population and to longer training periods. © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

Li X.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Ma M.,Nanyang Technological University
2015 10th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, ICICS 2015 | Year: 2015

Electromagnetic energy harvesting has been identified as a free compliment resource to wireless sensor nodes, which essentially prolongs the operating lifespan of built-in batteries. Voltage multiplier is a critical component in energy harvesting circuits and it attracted plenty of efforts in studying how to optimize the design. However, little information was found on how to determine the necessary amount of coupling capacitance required in a voltage multiplier design. This paper aims to fill in this gap and provides an analysis on how coupling capacitance affects voltage and power outputs. Computer simulations affirm that as long as the coupling capacitance is beyond a certain value, e.g., 10pF for Wi-Fi energy harvesting circuit operating at 2.45GHz, it has limited effect on voltage output and power output of a voltage multiplier. © 2015 IEEE.

Buchheit M.,Academy for Sports Excellence | Laursen P.B.,High Performance Sport New Zealand | Laursen P.B.,Auckland University of Technology
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a well-known, time-efficient training method for improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, physical performance in athletes. HIT involves repeated short (<45 s) to long (2-4 min) bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods (refer to the previously published first part of this review). While athletes have used 'classical' HIT formats for nearly a century (e.g. repetitions of 30 s of exercise interspersed with 30 s of rest, or 2-4-min interval repetitions ran at high but still submaximal intensities), there is today a surge of research interest focused on examining the effects of short sprints and all-out efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory. Prescription of HIT consists of the manipulation of at least nine variables (e.g. work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, between-series recovery duration and intensity); any of which has a likely effect on the acute physiological response. Manipulating HIT appropriately is important, not only with respect to the expected middle- to long-term physiological and performance adaptations, but also to maximize daily and/or weekly training periodization. Cardiopulmonary responses are typically the first variables to consider when programming HIT (refer to Part I). However, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and neuromuscular load should also be considered to maximize the training outcome. Contrasting HIT formats that elicit similar (and maximal) cardiorespiratory responses have been associated with distinctly different anaerobic energy contributions. The high locomotor speed/power requirements of HIT (i.e. ≥95 % of the minimal velocity/power that elicits maximal oxygen uptake [v/p ̇V ̇ O2max] to 100 % of maximal sprinting speed or power) and the accumulation of high-training volumes at high-exercise intensity (runners can cover up to 6-8 km at v ̇ V ̇ O2max per session) can cause significant strain on the neuromuscular/musculoskeletal system. For athletes training twice a day, and/or in team sport players training a number of metabolic and neuromuscular systems within a weekly microcycle, this added physiological strain should be considered in light of the other physical and technical/tactical sessions, so as to avoid overload and optimize adaptation (i.e. maximize a given training stimulus and minimize musculoskeletal pain and/or injury risk). In this part of the review, the different aspects of HIT programming are discussed, from work/relief interval manipulation to HIT periodization, using different examples of training cycles from different sports, with continued reference to the cardiorespiratory adaptations outlined in Part I, as well as to anaerobic glycolytic contribution and neuromuscular/musculoskeletal load. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Buchheit M.,Academy for Sports Excellence | Buchheit M.,Physiology Unit | Laursen P.B.,High Performance Sport New Zealand | Laursen P.B.,Auckland University of Technology
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

High-intensity interval training (HIT), in a variety of forms, is today one of the most effective means of improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, the physical performance of athletes. HIT involves repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. For team and racquet sport players, the inclusion of sprints and all-out efforts into HIT programmes has also been shown to be an effective practice. It is believed that an optimal stimulus to elicit both maximal cardiovascular and peripheral adaptations is one where athletes spend at least several minutes per session in their 'red zone,' which generally means reaching at least 90 % of their maximal oxygen uptake ( VO2max). While use of HIT is not the only approach to improve physiological parameters and performance, there has been a growth in interest by the sport science community for characterizing training protocols that allow athletes to maintain long periods of time above 90 % of VO2max (T@VO2max). In addition to T@VO2max, other physiological variables should also be considered to fully characterize the training stimulus when programming HIT, including cardiovascular work, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and acute neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain. Prescription for HIT consists of the manipulation of up to nine variables, which include the work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, as well as the between-series recovery duration and intensity. The manipulation of any of these variables can affect the acute physiological responses to HIT. This article is Part I of a subsequent II-part review and will discuss the different aspects of HIT programming, from work/relief interval manipulation to the selection of exercise mode, using different examples of training cycles from different sports, with continued reference to T@VO2max and cardiovascular responses. Additional programming and periodization considerations will also be discussed with respect to other variables such as anaerobic glycolytic system contribution (as inferred from blood lactate accumulation), neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain (Part II). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013.

Rishi M.,Institute for International Management and Technology | Gaur S.S.,Auckland University of Technology
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2012

Purpose: This paper attempts to identify the emerging themes that can shed light on the sales and marketing issues and challenges being faced by global hospitality organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a multi-method approach for data collection. A thorough literature review, a focus group and personal interviews were conducted to explore the themes and construct a tentative thematic web. Publicly accessible secondary data in the form of customer reviews were drawn from world's leading web site - Tripadvisor.com. A total of 702 reviews of the customers of luxury hotels from the world's top two tourist destinations - France and USA - were analyzed, using thematic analysis. Customers' perspective is juxtaposed with industry's perspective to offer insights on the sales and marketing issues and challenges being faced by hospitality organizations globally. Findings: Marketing challenges, namely personalization/customization of services, service management, creating a strong parent brand, under-utilization of the social media and diverting tourists from heritage properties, are identified as some of the key emerging sales and marketing issues and challenges faced by the global hospitality industry. Practical implications: Analytically identified themes in this research paper provide valuable insights on issues and challenges related to sales and marketing for the policy makers and practitioners from the hospitality industry. Findings are based on the analyses of real customer data from the world's leading tourist destinations. This makes the paper very valuable for both practitioners in the hospitality industry around the globe as well as for academic researchers working in this area. Originality/value: This work is unique in nature because the authors did find any scholarly work addressing such an important issue. Use of real customer data and thematic analysis - a widely used qualitative analytic method for a scholarly study - in the hospitality field, enhances its value and contributes to the field by opening up avenues for further scholarly explorations and investigations. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Werner M.,Auckland University of Technology | Gehrke N.,NORDAKADEMIE
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing | Year: 2015

The relevance of business intelligence increases with the growing amount of recorded data. The research on business intelligence has led to a mature set of methods and tools that are used in many application areas, but they are almost absent in the auditing industry. Public accountants face the challenge to audit increasingly complex business processes that process huge amounts of transaction data. Process mining can be used as a business intelligence approach in the context of process audits to exploit this data. We introduce a process mining algorithm to improve such audits. Key requirements for this purpose are the reliability of the mining results, the integration of a data flow perspective and the ability to inspect data from the point of origin to the final output on the financial accounts. The presented algorithm integrates the control flow and data flow perspective. It operates on different abstraction levels to enable the auditor to follow the audit trail. The algorithm creates precise and fitting process models to prevent false negative and false positive audit results, accepts specific unlabeled event logs as input, and considers data relationships for inferring the control flow. It was evaluated by using extensive real world data. © 2008-2012 IEEE.

Foo G.H.B.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2016

This paper presents a robust field weakening method for the direct torque controlled (DTC) synchronous reluctance motors (RSMs). The proposed method ensures a smooth and stable transition between the maximum torque per ampere and field weakening including the maximum torque per flux regions. In addition, it is also robust to the variation in the machine dq-axes inductances in the field weakening region. The proposed algorithm is amalgamated with a duty ratio regulation based DTC to achieve high performance torque and flux control in the field weakening region. The effectiveness of the RSM drive is verified by both simulations and experiments. © 1996-2012 IEEE.

Elliott R.,University of Strathclyde | Sales C.M.D.,University of Evora | Rodgers B.,University of Queensland | Rodgers B.,Auckland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Psychological Assessment | Year: 2016

We present a range of evidence for the reliability and validity of data generated by the Personal Questionnaire (PQ), a client-generated individualized outcome measure, using 5 data sets from 3 countries. Overall pretherapy mean internal consistency (alpha) across clients was .80, and within-client alphas averaged .77; clients typically had 1 or 2 items that did not vary with the other items. Analyses of temporal structure indicated high levels of between-clients variance (58%), moderate pretherapy test-retest correlation (r = .57), and high session-to-session Lag-1 autocorrelation (82). Scores on the PQ provided clear evidence of convergence with a range of outcome measures (within-client r = .41). Mean pre-post effects were large (d = 1.25). The results support a revised caseness cutoff of 3.25 and a reliable change index interval of 1.67. We conclude that PQ data meet criteria for evidence-based, norm-referenced measurement of client psychological distress for supporting psychotherapy practice and research. © 2015 American Psychological Association.

Bollen J.C.,University of Exeter | Dean S.G.,University of Exeter | Siegert R.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Howe T.E.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Goodwin V.A.,University of Exeter
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Background: Adherence is an important factor contributing to the effectiveness of exercise-based rehabilitation. However, there appears to be a lack of reliable, validated measures to assess self-reported adherence to prescribed but unsupervised home-based rehabilitation exercises. Objectives: A systematic review was conducted to establish what measures were available and to evaluate their psychometric properties. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO CINAHL ( June 2013) and the Cochrane library were searched (September 2013). Reference lists from articles meeting the inclusion criteria were checked to ensure all relevant papers were included. Study selection: To be included articles had to be available in English; use a self-report measure of adherence in relation to a prescribed but unsupervised home-based exercise or physical rehabilitation programme; involve participants over the age of 18. All health conditions and clinical populations were included. Data extraction: Descriptive data reported were collated on a data extraction sheet. The measures were evaluated in terms of eight psychometric quality criteria. Results: 58 studies were included, reporting 61 different measures including 29 questionnaires, 29 logs, two visual analogue scales and one tally counter. Only two measures scored positively for one psychometric property (content validity). The majority of measures had no reported validity or reliability testing. Conclusions: The results expose a gap in the literature for well-developed measures that capture self-reported adherence to prescribed but unsupervised home-based rehabilitation exercises.

Stoner L.,Massey University | Faulkner J.,Massey University | Lowe A.,Auckland University of Technology | Lambrick D.M.,Massey University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis | Year: 2014

Pulse wave analysis(PWA) is widely used to investigate systemic arterial stiffness. The augmentation index(AIx), the primary outcome derived from PWA, is influenced by the mean arterial pressure(MAP), age, gender and heart rate(HR). Gender- and age-specific reference values have been devised, and it is recommended that the MAP be used as a statistical covariate. The AIx is also commonly statistically adjusted to a HR of 75 b·min-1; however, this approach may be physiologically and statistically inappropriate. First, there appears to be an important physiological chronic interaction between HR and arterial stiffness. Second, the method used to correct to HR assumes that the relationship with AIx is uniform across populations. A more appropriate practice may be to include HR as an independent predictor or covariate; this approach is particularly recommended for longitudinal studies, in which changes in HR may help to explain changes in arterial stiffness.

Cormie P.,Edith Cowan University | McGuigan M.R.,New Zealand Academy of Sport North Island | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Newton R.U.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2010

PURPOSE: To determine whether ballistic power training and strength training result in specific changes in stretch-shorten cycle (SSC) function during the eccentric (ECC) phase and, if so, whether these changes are influenced by the individual's strength level. METHODS: Thirty-two male subjects were divided into four groups: stronger power training group (SP, n = 8, squat one-repetition maximum-to-body mass ratio (1RM/BM) = 1.97 ± 0.08), weaker power training group (WP, n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.32 ± 0.14), weaker strength training group (WS, n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.28 ± 0.17), or control group (C, n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.37 ± 0.13). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk. The SP and WP groups performed maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM, and the WS group performed back squats at 75%-90% 1RM. Maximal strength, jump performance, musculotendinous stiffness, and neural activation were assessed before training and after 5 and 10 wk of training. RESULTS: Both power and strength training elicited significant changes in a multitude of ECC variables that were significantly associated with improvements in concentric (CON) performance. Enhancements in CON performance were theorized to be driven by the development of a strategy to better use the ECC phase during jumping (i.e., greater unloading allowed for increased negative acceleration and thus velocity during the countermovement and improved musculotendinous stiffness resulted in an enhanced ability to translate the momentum developed during the ECC phase into force). Although a significant improvement in maximal strength resulted in changes to SSC function during the ECC phase, the initial strength level did not significantly affect the ECC variables before training or the magnitude of adaptations in individuals exposed to ballistic power training. CONCLUSIONS: Training-induced alterations in SSC function during the ECC phase contributes to improvements in jump performance after both ballistic power training and heavy strength training. © 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Cormie P.,Edith Cowan University | McGuigan M.R.,New Zealand Academy of Sport North Island | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Newton R.U.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2010

Purpose: To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Methods: Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Results: Both experimental groups showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvements in jump and sprint performances after training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% ± 9.3%, PT = 17.6% ± 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% ± 1.9%, PT = 3.6% ± 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% ± 11.3%, PT = 4.5% ± 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P ≤ 0.05) changes in the force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Conclusions: Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength, makes strength training a more effective training modality for relatively weak individuals. © 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Thomas A.,Aberystwyth University | Tod D.A.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Edwards C.J.,University of Worcester | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

This study examined the mediating role of drive for muscularity and social physique anxiety (SPA) in the perceived muscular male ideal physique and muscle dysmorphia relationship in weight training men. Men (N = 146, mean ± SD; age, 22.8 ± 5.0 years; weight, 82.0 ± 11.1 kg; height, 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass index, 25.1 ± 3.0) who participated in weight training completed validated questionnaires measuring drive for muscularity, SPA, perceived muscular male ideal physique, global muscle dysmorphia, and several characteristics of muscle dysmorphia (exercise dependence, diet manipulation, concerns about size/symmetry, physique protection behavior, and supplementation). Perceived ideal physique was an independent predictor of muscle dysmorphia measures except physique protection (coefficients = 0.113-0.149, p ≤ 0.05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted muscle dysmorphia characteristics (except physique protection and diet) through the indirect drive for muscularity pathway (coefficients = 0.055-0.116, p ≤ 0.05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted size/symmetry concerns and physique protection through the indirect drive for muscularity and SPA pathway (coefficients = 0.080-0.025, p ≤ 0.05). These results extend current research by providing insights into the way correlates of muscle dysmorphia interact to predict the condition. The results also highlight signs (e.g., anxiety about muscularity) that strength and conditioning coaches can use to identify at-risk people who may benefit from being referred for psychological assistance © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Sarkar N.I.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies | Year: 2013

Motivating students to learn Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) wireless networking to undergraduate students is often difficult because many students find the subject rather technical and abstract when presented in traditional lecture format. This paper focuses on the teaching and learning aspects of Wi-Fi networking using limited hardware resources. It provides a walk-through tutorial on setting up Wi-Fi networks using wireless laptops and access points. Students can easily set up and configure Wi-Fi networks using relatively few computing resources to learn networking concepts more effectively. By measuring the key performance metrics such as network throughput and response times, students are able to gain a deeper understanding of Wi-Fi network performance and related issues. The effectiveness of these Wi-Fi practical learning activities has been evaluated both formally by students and informally in discussion within the teaching team. This paper describes the overall effectiveness of teaching and learning Wi-Fi network fundamentals using limited resources. © 2013, IGI Global.

Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2015

The current development of the third generation of artificial neural networks-the spiking neural networks (SNN) [1, 5, 9] along with the technological development of highly parallel neuromorphic hardware systems of millions of artificial spiking neurons as processing elements [2, 3], makes it possible to model big and fast data in a fast on-line manner, enabling large-scale problem solving across domain areas including building better predictive systems. The latter topic is covered in this talk. The talk first presents some principles of deep learning inspired by the human brain, such as automated feature selection, ‘chain fire’, polychronisation. These principles are implemented in a recent evolving SNN (eSNN) architecture called NeuCube [4] and its software development system that is made available from: www. kedri. aut.ac. nz/neucube/. These principles allow for an eSNN system to predict events and outcomes, so that once the eSNN is trained on whole spatio-temporal patterns, it can be made to spike early, when only a part of a new pattern is presented as input data. The talk presents a methodology for the design and implementation of NeuCubebased eSNN systems for deep learning and early and accurate outcome prediction from large-scale spatio-/spectro temporal data, referred here as spatiotemporal data machines (STDM). A STDM has modules for: preliminary data analysis, data encoding, pattern learning, classification, regression, prediction and knowledge discovery. This is illustrated on early event prediction tasks using benchmark large spatio/spectro-temporal data with different spatial/temporal characteristics, such as: EEG data for brain computer interfaces; personalised and climate date for stroke occurrence prediction and for the prediction of ecological and seismic events [6–8]. The talk discusses implementation on highly parallel neuromorphic hardware platforms such as the Manchester SpiNNaker [2] and the ETH Zurich chip [3, 10]. The STDM are not only significantly more accurate and faster than traditional machine learning methods and systems, but they lead to a significantly better understanding of the data and the processes that generated it. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Millet G.Y.,Edith Cowan University | Millet G.Y.,Jean Monnet University | Millet G.Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Muthalib M.,Edith Cowan University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

To test the hypothesis that hypoxia centrally affects performance independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue, we conducted two experiments under complete vascular occlusion of the exercising muscle under different systemic O 2 environmental conditions. In experiment 1, 12 subjects performed repeated submaximal isometric contractions of the elbow flexor to exhaustion (RCTE) with inspired O 2 fraction fixed at 9% (severe hypoxia, SevHyp), 14% (moderate hypoxia, ModHyp), 21% (normoxia, Norm), or 30% (hyperoxia, Hyper). The number of contractions (performance), muscle (biceps brachii), and prefrontal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters and high-frequency paired-pulse (PS100) evoked responses to electrical muscle stimulation were monitored. In experiment 2, 10 subjects performed another RCTE in SevHyp and Norm conditions in which the number of contractions, biceps brachii electromyography responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M wave), and transcranial magnetic stimulation responses (motor-evoked potentials, MEP, and cortical silent period, CSP) were recorded. Performance during RCTE was significantly reduced by 10-15% in SevHyp (arterial O 2 saturation, SpO 2 =∼75%) compared with ModHyp (SpO 2 = ∼90%) or Norm/Hyper (SpO 2 > 97%). Performance reduction in SevHyp occurred despite similar 1) metabolic (muscle NIRS parameters) and functional (changes in PS100 and M wave) muscle states and 2) MEP and CSP responses, suggesting comparable corticospinal excitability and spinal and cortical inhibition between SevHyp and Norm. It is concluded that, in SevHyp, performance and central drive can be altered independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue. It is concluded that submaximal performance in SevHyp is partly reduced by a mechanism related directly to brain oxygenation. Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Lu J.,University of Auckland | Lu J.,Auckland University of Technology
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Triethylenetetramine (TETA), a CuII-selective chelator, is commonly used for the treatment of Wilson's disease. Recently, it has been shown that TETA can be used in the treatment of cancer because it possesses telomerase inhibiting and anti-angiogenesis properties. Although TETA has been used in the treatment of Wilson's disease for decades, a comprehensive review on TETA pharmacology does not exist. TETA is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of 8 to 30%. It is widely distributed in tissues with relatively high concentrations measured in liver, heart, and kidney. It is mainly metabolized via acetylation, and two major acetylated metabolites exist in human serum and urine. It is mainly excreted in urine as the unchanged parent drug and two acetylated metabolites. It has a relatively short half-life (2 to 4 hours) in humans. The most recent discoveries in TETA pharmacology show that the major pharmacokinetic parameters are not associated with the acetylation phenotype of N-acetyltransferase 2, the traditionally regarded drug acetylation enzyme, and the TETA-metabolizing enzyme is actually spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase. This review also covers the current preclinical and clinical application of TETA. A much needed overview and up-to-date information on TETA pharmacology is provided for clinicians or cancer researchers who intend to embark on cancer clinical trials using TETA or its close structural analogs. ©2010 AACR.

Buxton R.T.,University of Otago | Jones C.,Landcare Research | Moller H.,Science and Capability Group | Towns D.R.,University of Otago | Towns D.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Conservation Biology | Year: 2014

Eradication of introduced mammalian predators from islands has become increasingly common, with over 800 successful projects around the world. Historically, introduced predators extirpated or reduced the size of many seabird populations, changing the dynamics of entire island ecosystems. Although the primary outcome of many eradication projects is the restoration of affected seabird populations, natural population responses are rarely documented and mechanisms are poorly understood. We used a generic model of seabird colony growth to identify key predictor variables relevant to recovery or recolonization. We used generalized linear mixed models to test the importance of these variables in driving seabird population responses after predator eradication on islands around New Zealand. The most influential variable affecting recolonization of seabirds around New Zealand was the distance to a source population, with few cases of recolonization without a source population ≤25 km away. Colony growth was most affected by metapopulation status; there was little colony growth in species with a declining status. These characteristics may facilitate the prioritization of newly predator-free islands for active management. Although we found some evidence documenting natural recovery, generally this topic was understudied. Our results suggest that in order to guide management strategies, more effort should be allocated to monitoring wildlife response after eradication. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

Kunnemeyer R.,University of Waikato | Anderson T.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Duke M.,University of Waikato | Carson J.K.,University of Waikato
Solar Energy | Year: 2014

The idea of concentrating solar energy to increase the output of photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors is an area that has received significant attention. In this study, a design model for a V-trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal solar collector was theoretically analysed and validated with experimental data. The results showed that the V-trough offered improved electrical yields from both concentrating radiation onto the photovoltaic cells and also by actively cooling them. Also, it was shown that the V-trough could be made of a durable (long life) stainless steel, rather than the more reflective aluminium, while still offering a 25% increase in incident radiation over a typical year. However it was noted that modifications would be needed to improve cooling and to increase the thermal efficiency by reducing heat losses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Buxton M.,Auckland University of Technology
Ubiquitous Learning | Year: 2012

This paper will discuss the potential of augmented and alternate reality mobile games to create new learning opportunities by bridging the gaps between worlds: the dominant materialist-reductionist world of day to day mainstream educational practice, and 'alternative' educational pedagogies and ways of knowing. It is argued that by combining these mixed reality game forms with a pedagogical framework that supports meta-reflective and systemic thinking; creativity and imagination; innovation and flexibility it may be possible to foster more resilient, inclusive, 21st century learning communities. It may also be possible to assist a more diverse range of students to more actively, and authentically, participate in their rapidly evolving political, social, economic and technological landscapes. © Common Ground, Maggie Buxton, All Rights Reserved.

Dhakal R.,University of Queensland | Seale R.B.,University of Queensland | Seale R.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Deeth H.C.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is a common contaminant of milk and milk products. Strains of this species isolated from dairy products can be differentiated into three major groups, namely, G, F1, and F2, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis; however, little is known about the genomic differences between these groups and the identity of the fragments that make up their RAPD profiles. In this work we obtained high-quality draft genomes of representative strains from each of the three RAPD groups (designated strain G-1, strain F1-1, and strain F2-1) and compared them to each other and to B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Whole-genome comparison and multilocus sequence typing revealed that strain G-1 contains significant sequence variability and belongs to a lineage distinct from the group F strains. Strain G-1 was found to contain genes coding for a type I restriction modification system, urease production, and bacitracin synthesis, as well as the 8-kbp plasmid pFL7, and these genes were not present in strains F1-1 and F2-1. In agreement with this, all isolates of group G, but no group F isolates, were found to possess urease activity and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus. Identification of RAPD band sequences revealed that differences in the RAPD profiles were due to differences in gene lengths, 3' ends of predicted primer binding sites, or gene presence or absence. This work provides a greater understanding of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences observed within the B. licheniformis species. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Dascombe B.,University of Newcastle | Laursen P.,New Zealand Academy of Sport | Laursen P.,Edith Cowan University | Laursen P.,Auckland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Sport Science | Year: 2013

While the effect of lower body compression garments on performance and physiological responses are well documented, no studies have examined the effect of upper body compression garments (UBCG) on upper-body dominant exercise. This study examined the effects of wearing UBCG on performance and physiological responses during simulated flat-water kayaking. Five male (mean values±s: 21.8±2.8 years; 83.5±9.2 kg; 63.0±5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) and two female (mean values±s: 25.0±4.2 years; 71.4±2.7 kg; 51.0±4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) elite flat-water kayakers completed a six-step incremental test followed by a four-minute maximal performance test (4minPT) in both UBCG and control (no shirt or sports training bra) conditions in a randomized counter-balanced order. Heart rate and oxygen consumption (O2) as well as performance measures (power, distance covered, stroke rate) were recorded during the tests, and blood lactate was measured immediately after each incremental step and three minutes following the 4minPT. Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of blood flow and oxygenation of the flexor carpi radialis were monitored continuously for all tests. No significant differences between the UBCG and control conditions were evident for any performance, cardiorespiratory or oxygenation measure across the incremental step test and 4minPT. It was concluded that wearing UBCG did not provide any significant physiological or performance benefits during simulated flat-water kayaking. © 2013 Copyright European College of Sport Science.

Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Neural Networks | Year: 2010

Spiking neural networks (SNN) are promising artificial neural network (ANN) models as they utilise information representation as trains of spikes, that adds new dimensions of time, frequency and phase to the structure and the functionality of ANN. The current SNN models though are deterministic, that restricts their applications for large scale engineering and cognitive modelling of stochastic processes. This paper proposes a novel probabilistic spiking neuron model (pSNM) and suggests ways of building pSNN for a wide range of applications including classification, string pattern recognition and associative memory. It also extends previously published computational neurogenetic models. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology | Schliebs R.,University of Leipzig | Kojima H.,Tamagawa University
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development | Year: 2011

The paper proposes a novel research framework for building probabilistic computational neurogenetic models (pCNGM). The pCNGM is a multilevel modeling framework inspired by the multilevel information processes in the brain. The framework comprises a set of several dynamic models, namely low (molecular) level models, a more abstract dynamic model of a protein regulatory network (PRN) and a probabilistic spiking neural network model (pSNN), all linked together. Genes/proteins from the PRN control parameters of the pSNN and the spiking activity of the pSNN provides feedback to the PRN model. The overall spatio-temporal pattern of spiking activity of the pSNN is interpreted as the highest level state of the pCNGM. The paper demonstrates that this framework can be used for modeling both artificial cognitive systems and brain processes. In the former application, the pCNGM utilises parameters that correspond to sensory elements and neuromodulators. In the latter application a pCNGM uses data obtained from relevant genes/proteins to model their dynamic interaction that matches data related to brain development, higher-level brain function or disorder in different scenarios. An exemplar case study on Alzheimer's Disease is presented. Future applications of pCNGM are discussed. © 2009 IEEE.

Ramezani M.,Auckland University of Technology | Schmid S.R.,University of Notre Dame
Journal of Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2015

Abstract For a number of reasons, magnesium is being used increasingly often in applications where weight savings are desired. However, magnesium is difficult to form, so that warm or hot forming are generally necessary. Lubricants are recognized as essential in these processes, but the lubricants used to date for magnesium forming have environmental drawbacks. This paper evaluates the tribological behavior and rheology of four types of bio-based metal working fluids. Using an elastohydrodynamic lubrication apparatus, their traction behavior was measured and their piezoviscous behavior was determined by applying the well-known Hamrock-Dowson equation to measured film thickness profiles. The results showed that the investigated bio-lubricants have good ability to generate lubricant films in forming of magnesium. Traction tests showed low friction values, indicating the investigated bio-lubricants are suitable for metal forming applications where effective lubrication is desired. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Bacic B.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Open skill sports such as tennis have a large number of swing execution techniques. This study presents a novel approach to event detection and motion pattern indexing of forehand swings captured from fixed location multi-camera represented as a 3D motion data set of multi-time series sampled at 50 Hz. The achieved results utilising Echo State Network (ESN) demonstrate 100% recognition of tennis forehands from previously unseen test data without ball impact information. In contrast to traditional, heuristic and feature extraction-based algorithmic approaches in exergames and augmented coaching technologies, the proposed ESN paradigm represents a viable and generic approach for future work in temporal and spatial detection and automated analysis of region of interest in human motion data processing. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Tang J.,Tsinghua University | Zhang Y.,Tsinghua University | Sun J.,IBM | Rao J.,Nokia Inc. | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing | Year: 2012

Marketing strategies without emotion will not work. Emotion stimulates the mind 3,000 times quicker than rational thought. Such emotion invokes either a positive or a negative response and physical expressions. Understanding the underlying dynamics of users' emotions can efficiently help companies formulate marketing strategies and support after-sale services. While prior work has focused mainly on qualitative aspects, in this paper we present our research on quantitative analysis of how an individual's emotional state can be inferred from her historic emotion log and how this person's emotional state influences (or is influenced by) her friends in the social network. We statistically study the dynamics of individual's emotions and discover several interesting as well as important patterns. Based on this discovery, we propose an approach referred to as MoodCast to learn to infer individuals' emotional states. In both mobile-based social network and online virtual network, we verify the effectiveness of our proposed approach. © 2012 IEEE.

Cormie P.,Edith Cowan University | McGuigan M.R.,New Zealand Academy of Sport North Island | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Newton R.U.,Edith Cowan University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and intermuscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Abbott M.W.,Auckland University of Technology | Gray R.J.,Research and Evaluation Unit
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objective: To describe survey findings which measure broader gambling harms and provide benchmark data to evaluate an awareness and education program to minimise harm; part of NZ's public health approach to problem gambling. To assess whether previously reported ethnic and socio-economic disparities are evident when researching broader gambling harms. Methods: An in-home, nationwide survey captured data from a multi-stage, random probability sample of 1,774 adults and 199 15-17-year-olds. Oversampling Maori (NZ's indigenous people), Pacific and Asian peoples, and people in areas of deprivation, allowed analysis by ethnicity and socio-economic status. Results: Data show high participation levels; around 8 out of 10 people took part in at least one gambling activity in the previous 12 months. Type and frequency of activities was used to define four groups: infrequent gamblers (60.9%); frequent, non-continuous gamblers (17.6%); frequent, continuous gamblers (4%); and non-gamblers (17.5%). Self-reported knowledge of the signs of gambling harm was high. Arguments about gambling and people going without/unpaid bills provided two indicators of broader gambling harm. Around one-sixth of New Zealanders experienced each of these harms. Impacts were greatest for low-income groups, Maori, and Pacific peoples. Conclusions: The proportion of New Zealander's experiencing broader gambling harms is much higher than the prevalence for problem gambling. Consistent with other research, results show the flow-on impacts of problem gambling-on family, friends and communities. Implications: Measures can be developed to benchmark the wider harms of gambling and evaluate public health programs addressing harm at population and subpopulation levels. © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

Klusemann M.J.,Australian Institute of Sport | Pyne D.B.,Australian Institute of Sport | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Drinkwater E.J.,Charles Sturt University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

Competition-specific conditioning for tournament basketball games is challenging, as the demands of tournament formats are not well characterized. Purpose: To compare the physical, physiological, and tactical demands of seasonal and tournament basketball competition and determine the pattern of changes within an international tournament. Methods: Eight elite junior male basketball players (age 17.8 ± 0.2 y, height 1.93 ± 0.07 m, mass 85 ± 3 kg; mean ± SD) were monitored in 6 seasonal games played over 4 mo in an Australian second-division national league and in 7 games of an international under-18 tournament played over 8 days. Movement patterns and tactical elements were coded from video and heart rates recorded by telemetry. Results: The frequency of running, sprinting, and shuffling movements in seasonal games was higher than in tournament games by 8-15% (99% confidence limits ± ~8%). Within the tournament, jogging and low- to medium-intensity shuffling decreased by 15-20% (± ∼14%) over the 7 games, while running, sprinting, and high-intensity shuffling increased 11-81% (± ∼25%). There were unclear differences in mean and peak heart rates. The total number of possessions was higher in seasonal than in tournament games by 8% (± 10%). Conclusions: Coaches should consider a stronger emphasis on strength and power training in their conditioning programs to account for the higher activity of seasonal games. For tournament competition, strategies that build a sufficient aerobic capacity and neuromuscular resilience to maintain high-intensity movements need to be employed. A focus on half-court tactics accounts for the lower number of possessions in tournaments. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Schoenfeld B.J.,City University of New York | Contreras B.,Auckland University of Technology
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2014

Cellular swelling, often referred to as "the pump," has been shown to mediate increases in muscle protein synthesis and decreased protein degradation. This paper will explore the potential hypertrophic benefits associated with the pump and discuss practical implications for resistance training program design. Copyright © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Forsyth M.B.,New Zealand Center for Conservation Medicine | Morris A.J.,Diagnostic Medlab | Sinclair D.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Pritchard C.P.,New Zealand Center for Conservation Medicine
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2012

Investigation was undertaken to assess the occurrence of zoonotic infection among staff at Auckland Zoological Park, New Zealand, in 1991, 2002 and 2010. Serial cross-sectional health surveys in 1991, 2002 and 2010 comprising a health questionnaire, and serological, immunological and microbiological analysis for a range of potential zoonotic infections were performed. Laboratory results for zoo animals were also reviewed for 2004-2010 to assess the occurrence of potential zoonotic infections. Veterinary clinic, animal handler, grounds, maintenance and administrative staff participated in the surveys, with 49, 42 and 46 participants in the 1991, 2002 and 2010 surveys, respectively (29% of total zoo staff in 2010). A small number of staff reported work-related infections, including erysipelas (1), giardiasis (1) and campylobacteriosis (1). The seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus and Toxoplasma gondii closely reflected those in the Auckland community. No carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected, and most of those with anti-HBV antibodies had been vaccinated. Few staff had serological evidence of past leptospiral infection. Three veterinary clinic staff had raised Chlamydophila psittaci antibodies, all <1:160 indicating past exposure. Two staff (in 1991) had asymptomatic carriage of Giardia lamblia and one person (in 2010) had a dermatophyte infection. After 1991, positive tests indicating exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis were <10%, comparable to the general New Zealand population. Zoo animals had infections with potential zoonotic agents, including G. lamblia, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and T. gondii, although the occurrence was low. Zoonotic agents pose an occupational risk to zoo workers. While there was evidence of some zoonotic transmission at Auckland Zoo, this was uncommon and risks appear to be adequately managed under current policies and procedures. Nevertheless, ongoing assessment of risk factors is needed as environmental, human and animal disease and management factors change. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically in conjunction with disease monitoring results for both animals and staff to minimise zoonotic transmission. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Tan K.W.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Tan K.W.,University of Auckland | Killeen D.P.,University of Otago | Li Y.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Polyacetylenes of the falcarinol type are present in vegetables such as carrots and parsley. They display interesting bioactivities and hold potential as health-promoting and therapeutic agents. In this study, falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarindiol 3-acetate and falcarindiol 3,8-diacetate were examined for their modulation on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an efflux transporter important for xenobiotic absorption and disposition, and multidrug resistance in cancer. Falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol 3-acetate were extracted from carrots and falcarindiol 3,8-diacetate prepared from falcarindiol. Their modulatory effects on ABCG2 were studied using three methods - mitoxantrone accumulation, vesicular transport, and ATPase assay. The polyacetylenes inhibited mitoxantrone (an ABCG2 substrate) efflux in ABCG2-overexpressing HEK293 cells. The inhibitory effect was confirmed in the vesicular transport assay, in which concentration-dependent inhibition of methotrexate (an ABCG2 substrate) uptake into ABCG2-overexpressing Sf9 membrane vesicles was observed (IC50=19.7-41.7 μM). The polyacetylenes also inhibited baseline and sulfasalazine-stimulated vanadate-sensitive ATPase activities in ABCG2-overexpressing Sf9 membrane vesicles (IC50=19.3- 79.3 μM). This is the first report of an inhibitory effect of polyacetylenes on ABCG2. These results indicate a prospective use of polyacetylenes as multidrug resistance reversal agents, a possible role of ABCG2 in the absorption and disposition of polyacetylenes, and potential food-drug interactions between polyacetylene-rich foods and ABCG2 substrate drugs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Makhalanyane T.P.,University of the Western Cape | Makhalanyane T.P.,University of Pretoria | Valverde A.,University of the Western Cape | Valverde A.,University of Pretoria | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology Reports | Year: 2013

Hypoliths, photosynthetic microbial assemblages found underneath translucent rocks, are widely distributed within the western region of the Namib Desert and other similar environments. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to assess the bacterial community structure of hypoliths and surrounding soil (below and adjacent to the hypolithic rock) at a fine scale (10m radius). Multivariate analysis of T-RFs showed that hypolithic and soil communities were structurally distinct. T-RFLP-derived operational taxonomic units were linked to 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Applying the ecological concept of 'indicator species', six and nine indicator lineages were identified for hypoliths and soil, respectively. Hypolithic communities were dominated by cyanobacteria affiliated to Pleurocapsales, whereas actinobacteria were prevalent in the soil. These results are consistent with the concept of species sorting and suggest that the bottom of the quartz rocks provides conditions suitable for the development of discrete and demonstrably different microbial assemblages. However, we found strong evidence for neutral assembly processes, as almost 90% of the taxa present in the hypoliths were also detected in the soil. These results suggest that hypolithons do not develop independently from microbial communities found in the surrounding soil, but selectively recruit from local populations. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bader M.K.-F.,University of Basel | Bader M.K.-F.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

Rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2 is not only changing the climate system but may also affect the biosphere directly through stimulation of plant growth and ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Although forest ecosystems play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, experimental information on forest responses to rising CO2 is scarce, due to the sheer size of trees. Here, we present a synthesis of the only study world-wide where a diverse set of mature broadleaved trees growing in a natural forest has been exposed to future atmospheric CO2 levels (c. 550 ppm) by free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE). We show that litter production, leaf traits and radial growth across the studied hardwood species remained unaffected by elevated CO2 over 8 years. CO2 enrichment reduced tree water consumption resulting in detectable soil moisture savings. Soil air CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon both increased suggesting enhanced below-ground activity. Carbon release to the rhizosphere and/or higher soil moisture primed nitrification and nitrate leaching under elevated CO2; however, the export of dissolved organic carbon remained unaltered. Synthesis. Our findings provide no evidence for carbon-limitation in five central European hardwood trees at current ambient CO2 concentrations. The results of this long-term study challenge the idea of a universal CO2 fertilization effect on forests, as commonly assumed in climate-carbon cycle models. Synthesis. Our findings provide no evidence for carbon-limitation in in the studied trees in a central European hardwood forest at current ambient CO2 concentrations. The results of this long-term study challenge the idea of a universal CO2 fertilization effect on forests, as commonly assumed in climate-carbon cycle models. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Holzapfel S.A.,Science and Technical Group | Dodgson J.,71 C Waiwera Street | Rohan M.,Auckland University of Technology
Plant Ecology | Year: 2015

The conservation and translocation of threatened holoparasitic flowering plants provide added challenges due to their complete host dependency and often large knowledge gaps of their autecology. Here, we present the first successful, quantified field trial to establish from seed populations of dactylanthus (Dactylanthus taylorii, Mystropetalaceae), a threatened New Zealand endemic root-holoparasitic angiosperm. Establishment was monitored at four sites at Waipapa, Pureora Forest Park. The impact of two different sowing methods (broad- and central-sown), canopy state (as a proxy for soil moisture levels) and three dominant host species were tested. Establishment of dactylanthus was confirmed in 22 out of 24 plots 10 years after sowing, with earliest emergence after 4 years. Average and maximum inflorescence numbers per plot were similar to those of protected wild populations. The only open-canopy site performed worse in comparison with a closed-canopy site sharing the same dominant host species; differences in root availability and survival of the desiccation-sensitive seeds were regarded as the most likely explanations. Host species dominance had a significant impact on inflorescence numbers, indicating host preference in the species despite a wide host range. In contrast to longer-established wild populations, most of which are male-biased, female inflorescences strongly outnumbered males, considered as evidence of environmental sex determination and sex-switching of individuals. Findings from this study have increased our knowledge of the biology of dactylanthus, confirmed translocation as an effective tool in the conservation of the species and should be applicable for the protection of threatened parasitic plants species elsewhere in the world. © 2015 The Author(s)

Moir T.J.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing | Year: 2014

A method is provided for scalar systems, which uses FFTs and provides spectral factorization directly from the periodogram. The method is block recursive, providing better estimates as time progresses with more data available. Although spectral factorization is a mature technique, the current methods available are generally too slow to cope with acoustic problems of the scale discussed here. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Sinfield D.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Visual Design | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to look at the possibilities of how a graphic designer can be a social commentator and artist at work as opposed to a creator of stylistic commands given by a third party or client. However, this study places how a graphic designer undertakes the role of interviewer, social storyteller and producer, looking into the narratives of exploited workers and expressing these through the process of serigraphic printing that has been associated with the workers rights movements of the early twentieth century. This paper will explain the processes involved in producing these visual texts along with the workers transcript texts. © Common Ground, Blanca Castaldo Suau, Federico Fernández Díez, Josep Maria Monguet Fierro, All Rights Reserved.

Xu H.,University of Auckland | Paxton J.,University of Auckland | Lim J.,University of Auckland | Li Y.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2014

Purpose The objective of this study was to develop high-content gemcitabine PEGylated liposomes to reverse gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic tumour cells. The mechanism of drug loading into liposomes was also investigated. Methods To increase the drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL), a novel passive loading approach named Small Volume Incubation method (SVI) was developed and compared to the reverse phase evaporation (REV) and remote loading methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cell lines. Results The EE for remote loading was 12.3 ± 0.3%, much lower than expected and a burst release was observed with the resultant liposomes. Using the optimized SVI method, increased EE (37 ± 1%) and DL (4%, w/w) were obtained. The liposomes (200 ± 5 nm) showed minimal drug leakage, good stability, and significant improvement in cytotoxicity to the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines. Conclusions Remote loading was not suitable for loading gemcitabine into liposomes. pKa > 4.6 for basic drugs and intra-liposomal precipitation of loaded compounds were suggested as an additional requirement to the current criteria for remote loading using ammonium sulphate gradient (pKa < 11). High DL is essential for liposomes to reverse gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cell lines. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Thomas-Anttila K.,Auckland University of Technology
British Journal of Psychotherapy | Year: 2015

In this article I explore the issues surrounding confidentiality and consent in the writing of psychotherapy case reports. An important theme is the challenge of protecting a patient's privacy while furthering knowledge in the field through publication. I discuss some of the complexities as well as the relevance of present day requirements for informed consent, including a consideration of the provisions within the Declaration of Helsinki (1964, last revised 2013). To illustrate the difficulties inherent in writing about our work I give examples of three cases: Freud's patient Sergei Pankejeff (the 'Wolf Man'), Gloria (the patient in the 'Gloria Films'), and a contemporary patient, 'Jeremy', whose therapist published an account of her work with him. The writing of case material is complex and resists easy solutions; there can be no 'one-size-fits-all' approach but instead the therapist writer's careful consideration on a case by case basis of his or her motivations for writing, what the patient is really consenting to, whether patient consent can ever be truly informed, and how writing and publishing a case might impact on the safety and well-being of the patient (including others connected to the patient), as well as on the therapeutic relationship itself. © 2015 BPF and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Roth G.A.,University of Washington | Huffman M.D.,Northwestern University | Moran A.E.,Columbia University | Feigin V.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2015

There is a global commitment to reduce premature cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) 25% by 2025. CVD mortality rates have declined dramatically over the past 2 decades, yet the number of life years lost to premature CVD deaths is increasing in low-and middle-income regions. Ischemic heart disease and stroke remain the leading causes of premature death in the world; however, there is wide regional variation in these patterns. Some regions, led by Central Asia, face particularly high rates of premature death from ischemic heart disease. Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia suffer disproportionately from death from stroke. The purpose of the present report is to (1) describe global trends and regional variation in premature mortality attributable to CVD, (2) review past and current approaches to the measurement of these trends, and (3) describe the limitations of existing models of epidemiological transitions for explaining the observed distribution and trends of CVD mortality. We describe extensive variation both between and within regions even while CVD remains a dominant cause of death. Policies and health interventions will need to be tailored and scaled for a broad range of local conditions to achieve global goals for the improvement of cardiovascular health. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | Leuzinger S.,ETH Zurich | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | Manusch C.,ETH Zurich | And 2 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim: Despite increasing evidence for plant growth often being limited by sink (meristem) activity rather than source (photosynthesis) activity, all currently available dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulate plant growth via source-limited processes. For a given climatic region, this may lead to an overestimation of carbon stock per unit surface area, particularly if a model fails to correctly predict forest cover. Our aim is to improve the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM by replacing the source-limited (SoL) tree growth algorithm by a sink-limited (SiL) one. Location: Our analysis focuses on the cold tree line at high latitudes and altitudes. We study two altitudinal transects in the Swiss Alps and the northern tree line. Methods: We limit annual net primary productivity of the LPJ DGVM by an algorithm based on the annual sum of growing degree-days (GDD), assuming that maximum plant growth is reached asymptotically with increasing GDD. Results: Comparing simulation results with observational data, we show that the locations of both the northern and the alpine tree line are estimated more accurately when using a SiL algorithm than when using the commonly employed SoL algorithm. Also, simulated carbon stocks decrease in a more realistic manner towards the tree line when the SiL algorithm is used. This has far-reaching implications for estimating and projecting present and future carbon stocks in temperature-limited ecosystems. Main conclusions: In the range of 60-80°N over Europe and Asia, carbon stored in vegetation is estimated to be c. 50% higher in the LPJ standard version (LPJ-SoL) compared with LPJ-SiL, resulting in a global difference in estimated biomass of 25 Pg (c. 5% of the global terrestrial standing biomass). Similarly, the simulated elevation of the upper tree line in the European Alps differs by c. 400m between the two model versions, thus implying an additional overestimation of carbon stored in mountain forests around the world. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gillman L.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Wright S.D.,University of Auckland
Diversity | Year: 2013

The "integrated evolutionary speed hypothesis" proposes that the rate of genetic evolution influences all major biogeographical patterns of diversity including those associated with temperature, water availability, productivity, spatial heterogeneity and area. Consistent with this theory, rates of genetic evolution correspond with patterns of diversity and diversification. Here we review the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain these biogeographic patterns in rates of genetic evolution. Tests of several proposed mechanisms have produced equivocal results, whereas others such as those invoking annual metabolic activity, or a "Red Queen" effect, remain unexplored. However, rates of genetic evolution have been associated with both productivity mediated rates of germ cell division and active metabolic rates and these explanations therefore justify further empirical investigation. © 2013 by the authors.

Mensah G.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Roth G.A.,University of Washington | Sampson U.K.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Moran A.E.,Columbia University | And 4 more authors.
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa | Year: 2015

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in developed countries for most of the last century. Most CVD deaths, however, occur in low- and middle-income, developing countries (LMICs) and there is great concern that CVD mortality and burden are rapidly increasing in LMICs as a result of population growth, ageing and health transitions. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where all countries are part of the LMICs, the pattern, magnitude and trends in CVD deaths remain incompletely understood, which limits formulation of data-driven regional and national health policies. Objective: The aim was to estimate the number of deaths, death rates, and their trends for CVD causes of death in SSA, by age and gender for 1990 and 2013. Methods: Age- and gender-specific mortality rates for CVD were estimated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 methods with some refinements made by the GBD 2013 study to improve accuracy. Cause of death was estimated as in the GBD 2010 study and updated with a verbal autopsy literature review and cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) estimation for causes with sufficient information. For all quantities reported, 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were also computed. Results: In 2013, CVD caused nearly one million deaths in SSA, constituting 38.3% of non-communicable disease deaths and 11.3% of deaths from all causes in that region. SSA contributed 5.5% of global CVD deaths. There were more deaths in women (512 269) than in men (445 445) and more deaths from stroke (409 840) than ischaemic heart disease (258 939). Compared to 1990, the number of CVD deaths in SSA increased 81% in 2013. Deaths for all component CVDs also increased, ranging from a 7% increase in incidence of rheumatic heart disease to a 196% increase in atrial fibrillation. The age-standardised mortality rate (per 100 000) in 1990 was 327.6 (CI: 306.2-351.7) and 330.2 (CI: 312.9-360.0) in 2013, representing only a 1% increase in more than two decades. Conclusions: In SSA, CVDs are neither epidemic nor among the leading causes of death. However, a significant increase in the number of deaths from CVDs has occurred since 1990, largely as a result of population growth, ageing and epidemiological transition. Contrary to what has been observed in other world regions, the age-adjusted mortality rate for CVD has not declined. Another important difference in CVD deaths in SSA is the predominance of stroke as the leading cause of death. Attention to aggressive efforts in cardiovascular health promotion and CVD prevention, treatment and control in both men and women are warranted. Additionally, investments to improve directly enumerated epidemiological data for refining the quantitation of risk exposures, death certification and burden of disease assessment will be crucial.

Palmer J.S.,Massey University | Flint S.H.,Massey University | Schmid J.,Massey University | Brooks J.D.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to investigate the attachment mechanisms that enable the thermophile Anoxybacillus flavithermus (B12) to attach to stainless-steel surfaces. Passing a B12 culture through a column of stainless-steel chips, collecting the first cells to pass through, re-culturing, and repeating the process six times, resulted in the isolation of a mutant, labeled X7, with tenfold reduced ability to attach to stainless steel as well as a reduced ability to attach to plastic. A comparison of bacterial cell-surface properties indicated that X7 was less hydrophobic than its parental strain B12. Cell-surface charge measurements also suggest that X7 had a lower net-negative surface charge. Disruption of extracellular polysaccharides and DNA appeared to have no effect on the attachment process. Removal of surface proteins caused a reduction in attachment of both B12 and X7, suggesting surface protein involvement in attachment. © 2010 Society for Industrial Microbiology.

Barraclough C.,Auckland University of Technology
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine | Year: 2015

Introduction Cyanide, due to its toxicity and prevalence in a variety of industries, is a suitable agent for terrorists or disaffected persons to use as a weapon of terror. New Zealand’s National Poisons Centre lists five cyanide antidotes. This review aimed to identify whether there is an ideal pre-hospital drug treatment for acute cyanide poisoning. Methods Literature less than 10 years old was selected after a keyword search. The articles were reviewed for specific positive and negative properties of each antidote. Results Thirty-nine articles were reviewed of which four were excluded. Results varied, with hydroxocobalamin scoring highly on effectiveness, with limited negative effects. It also demonstrated positive haemodynamic effects, suitability in cases involving trauma, carbon monoxide (CO), smoke inhalation casualties and was safe for pre-hospital use. Sodium nitrite, followed by dicobalt edetate had the next highest scores for efficacy. However, both scored negatively for their effects on blood, causing hypotension and toxicity, and they are unsuitable for trauma, CO or smoke inhalation casualties. Sodium thiosulphate, with a moderate level of efficiency, remained most effective when co-administered with other antidotes. 4-dimethylaminophenol and amyl nitrite rated the lowest, with negative effects similar to sodium nitrite. Adrenaline was tested as an antidote in one study where two novel antidotes both demonstrated promising results. Conclusion Hydroxocobalamin had the highest success rate and its safety profile make it the most suitable pre-hospital drug treatment for acute cyanide poisoning. © 2015, Paramedics Australasia. All rights reserved.

Litchfield A.T.,Auckland University of Technology
17th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2011, AMCIS 2011 | Year: 2011

Under the influence of Web 2.0 Work (purposeful directed action) is democratised moving it away from productionist metaphysics. Web 2.0 symbolises a cultural phenomenon summarised as a collection of emerging technologies and methodologies that, in the enterprise, provides for a shift in the asymmetric distribution of power such that the technological human has access to mechanisms and processes that allow greater participation in formative decision-making. The technological enterprise, through fostering Web 2.0 technologies, is able to offer the infrastructure the technological human can use to build its own social networks. This provides an opportunity for employee to invest emotionally in the purposes and intentions of the enterprise.

Pinder A.D.J.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Boocock M.G.,UK Health and Safety Laboratory | Boocock M.G.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics | Year: 2014

It is known that maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) decreases as the frequency of lifting increases. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between lifting frequency and the MAWL, and to generate models for predicting the mean MAWLs for males and females from frequency of lifting. Published experimental studies that have reported the MAWL at different lifting frequencies were identified and regression methods were used to evaluate the relationship between the frequency of lifting and the MAWL. The best fitting models were logarithmic but they accounted for less than 50% of the variance. This reflects the heterogeneity of the experiments included. Normalising the MAWL to the MAWL at one lift per minute improved the predictive power of the models, accounting for more than 80% of the variance. Linear and power models for predicting work rate in kg/min showed even higher levels of accuracy. Relevance to industry: The paper presents simple mathematical models that can be used to predict the MAWL or the rate of handling weight at a specific frequency. Therefore, they can be used as job design or evaluation tools. © 2012.

Rush E.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Katre P.,Persistent Systems | Yajnik C.S.,Kamalnayan Bajaj Diabetology Research Center
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Savila F.,Auckland University of Technology | Rush E.,Center for Child Health
New Zealand Medical Journal | Year: 2014

The government’s 5-year strategy for improving Pacific people’s health and wellbeing, ‘Ala Mo’ui Pathways to Pacific Health and Wellbeing 2010–2014, emphasised disease prevention and improvements in health systems as priority outcomes. Actions that would contribute to disease prevention included reducing barriers to health in structural mechanisms (such as better access to healthy housing) and improving health service systems. However, after 4 years since its release, not only have important structural barriers remained but so have the poor health outcomes of Pacific peoples in New Zealand. © NZMA.

Williams V.,University of Reading | Bruton A.,University of Southampton | Ellis-Hill C.,University of Southampton | McPherson K.,Auckland University of Technology
Primary Care Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore, using qualitative research methods, how pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes affect the experience of activity and breathlessness of people with COPD. Methods: A qualitative, interview-based approach was employed. Participants were interviewed pre- and post-PR. Data were analysed using systematic strategies informed by grounded theory methods. Results: Nine participants (three female) took part. A change in participants' perception of breathlessness and lessening of fear of activity were the main themes identified. PR appeared to impact on the experience of physical social activities, allowing participants to overcome feelings of social isolation. Conclusions: Prior to PR, participants associated activities with breathlessness and panic; post PR, participants reported reduced fear and felt able to increase their activities. These findings add to our understanding of the impact of PR on individuals' experience of activity and may contribute to improved programmes by addressing patients' needs. © 2010 Primary Care Respiratory Society UK. All rights reserved.

Kerr J.,University of California at San Diego | Marshall S.J.,University of California at San Diego | Godbole S.,University of California at San Diego | Chen J.,University of California at San Diego | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Studies have shown relationships between important health outcomes and sedentary behavior, independent of physical activity. There are known errors in tools employed to assess sedentary behavior. Studies of accelerometers have been limited to laboratory environments. Purpose: To assess a broad range of sedentary behaviors in free-living adults using accelerometers and a Microsoft SenseCam that can provide an objective observation of sedentary behaviors through first person-view images. Methods: Participants were 40 university employees who wore a SenseCam and Actigraph accelerometer for 3-5 days. Images were coded for sitting and standing posture and 12 activity types. Data were merged and aggregated to a 60-second epoch. Accelerometer counts per minute (cpm) of <100 were compared with coded behaviors. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed. Data were collected in June and July 2011 and analyzed in April 2012. Results: TV viewing, other screen use, and administrative activities were correctly classified by the 100-cpm cutpoint. However, standing behaviors also fell under this threshold, and driving behaviors exceeded it. Multiple behaviors occurred simultaneously. A nearly 30-minute per day difference was found in sedentary behavior estimates based on the accelerometer versus the SenseCam. Conclusions: Researchers should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the 100-cpm accelerometer cutpoint for identifying sedentary behavior. The SenseCam may be a useful tool in free-living conditions to better understand health behaviors such as sitting. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Xu Z.,Changzhou Institute of Technology | Shin B.-S.,Nanyang Technological University | Klette R.,Auckland University of Technology
Computer Vision and Image Understanding | Year: 2015

Abstract Line segment detection is a fundamental procedure in computer vision, pattern recognition, or image analysis applications. This paper proposes a statistical method based on the Hough transform for line segment detection by considering quantization error, image noise, pixel disturbance, and peak spreading, also taking the choice of the coordinate origin into account. A random variable is defined in each column in a peak region. Statistical means and statistical variances are calculated; the statistical non-zero cells are analyzed and computed. The normal angle is determined by minimizing the function which fits the statistical variances; the normal distance is calculated by interpolating the function which fits the statistical means. Endpoint coordinates of a detected line segment are determined by fitting a sine curve (rather than searching for the first and last non-zero voting cells, and solving equations containing coordinates of such cells). Experimental results on simulated data and real world images validate the performance of the proposed method for line segment detection. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Spence D.,Auckland University of Technology
Nursing praxis in New Zealand inc | Year: 2012

The primary goal of undergraduate nursing education is the preparation of graduates able to function as competent beginning clinicians. Avariety of academic-service partnerships are being used to support the clinical preparation of undergraduate nurses but, in today's demanding and fiscally challenged health and education environments, debate continues about how bestto provide students with quality learning in the clinical setting. This article reports the qualitative findings of a collaborative study undertaken to monitor implementation of a new model of clinical education for undergraduate nursing students. Three partners: a District Health Board (DHB) and two universities have developed, and are refining, a clinical education model based on the inclusion of student nurses in team nursing. In response to the question "How well is the student integration model working?" the qualitative findings, from a DHB and university staff perspective, suggest that students are better integrated within the nursing team. Registered nurses from academic and clinical backgrounds are sharing reponsibility for students' learning but there is a clear need to further develop relationships, skills and processes in order to maximise the student development. The survey results, which include the student perspective, have and are being reported separately.

Babakov V.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Modelling and Simulation, AfricaMS 2014 | Year: 2014

The problem of the penetration a rigid body into a plastic medium is a classical problem of the mechanics of solids. The study of the penetration process is a difficult mathematical problem that requires complicated computer simulations. The article contains a relatively simple mathematical solution for the penetration of a plane punch into a plastic medium. Key point of the investigation is application of upper bound theorem for ideal plastic medium. It can be considered as a first approach of a strict theoretical solution. The comparison of the new solution, shown here, and classical results obtained by L.Prandtl and V. Sokolovskii confirms the acceptance of such approach to solution of the penetration problem. The solution can be used in engineering practice and for teaching purposes.

Disabato D.J.,George Mason University | Goodman F.R.,George Mason University | Kashdan T.B.,George Mason University | Short J.L.,George Mason University | Jarden A.,Auckland University of Technology
Psychological Assessment | Year: 2016

A large international sample was used to test whether hedonia (the experience of positive emotional states and satisfaction of desires) and eudaimonia (the presence of meaning and development of one's potentials) represent 1 overarching well-being construct or 2 related dimensions. A latent correlation of .96 presents negligible evidence for the discriminant validity between Diener's (1984) subjective well-being model of hedonia and Ryff's (1989) psychological well-being model of eudaimonia. When compared with known correlates of well-being (e.g., curiosity, gratitude), eudaimonia and hedonia showed very similar relationships, save goal-directed will and ways (i.e., hope), a meaning orientation to happiness, and grit. Identical analyses in subsamples of 7 geographical world regions revealed similar results around the globe. A single overarching construct more accurately reflects hedonia and eudaimonia when measured as self-reported subjective and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, measures of eudaimonia may contain aspects of meaningful goal-directedness unique from hedonia. © 2015 American Psychological Association.

Deng Z.,University of Auckland | Stommel M.,Auckland University of Technology | Xu W.,University of Auckland
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2016

This paper presents a soft XY machine table inspired by the locomotion of the caterpillar. The proposed table is capable of manipulating objects in three degrees of freedom through the deformation on the soft surface. The softness of the surface enables the table to handle delicate objects such as food products and industry components without damaging them. A novel object manipulation method is inspired by the proleg movement seen in the caterpillar's crawling gait. A prototype of the table's actuation system has been designed and fabricated. Our experimental results prove that the table is able to move an object in both translational and rotational direction. This validates the manipulation concept developed and shows that the challenging task of transporting flat objects is accomplished. A representation method for surface deformation is developed to aid the modeling and control of the physical system in the future. © 1996-2012 IEEE.

Seet B.-C.,Auckland University of Technology | Goh T.-T.,Victoria University of Wellington
Electronic Library | Year: 2012

Purpose -The aim of this research is to identify users' perceived affordances and explore how they influence the acceptance of an e-reader device collaborative learning system. Design/methodology/approach -The paper reports on two studies conducted to identify and explore perceived affordances. The first study enabled four users to experience a collaborative problem-solving task to elicit perceived affordances. The second study developed and used a survey instrument based on a modified technology acceptance model with 54 participants to investigate the influences of the affordances on users' acceptance using the partial least square technique. Findings -Five major affordance factors were found to be significantly influencing users' acceptance of the proposed system. These affordance factors are: mobility affordance, support affordance, connectivity affordance, immediacy affordance, and collaborative affordance. Surprisingly, sustainability affordance was found to have limited influence on the acceptance of the proposed system. Research limitations/implications -The findings can be applied to other e-reader devices with features similar to iLiad such as Sony PRS, Kobo, Nook, PocketBook and Viewsonic. Prototyping is a critical design process which aims to elicit user experiences. The research implies that the prototype system is capable of generating perceived affordances that are useful for e-reader device development in order to enhance acceptance. The convenience sample used in the survey is biased towards male participants. As male and female users perceive information and communications technologies (ICT) differently, caution should be taken when applying the findings to the general population. Practical implications -Practitioners should focus on utilising the support affordance of the system and identifying clear learning goals with the help of collaborative affordance as the learning pedagogy. System designers should focus on creating a good range of visible support affordances that are intuitive, while enhancing or complementing the collaborative learning affordances. The design of an integrated chat application is important as it lays the foundation for ensuring that collaborative learning with e-reader devices is possible. Originality/value -E-reader devices have not been studied extensively as collaborative learning systems. This research is believed to be the first to integrate and explore the use of an e-reader device in a collaborative learning environment. This study introduces the concept of composite affordance with a modified technology acceptance model for investigating users' acceptance of an e-reader device as a collaborative learning system. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Marshall S.E.,Auckland University of Technology | Archibald T.W.,University of Edinburgh
Procedia CIRP | Year: 2015

Increasing legislative and societal pressures are requiring manufacturers to operate more sustainably and to take responsibility for the fate of their goods after they have been used by consumers. A hybrid remanufacturing system, in which newly produced and remanufactured used goods are sold on separate markets but also act substitutes for each other, is described and modelled using a semi-Markov decision process. The model provides an optimal policy, which specifies production, remanufacturing and substitution decisions. The model is used to explore the properties of this hybrid remanufacturing system, and in particular, the managerial implications associated with upward and downward substitution. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

Luo D.,Guangdong University of Technology | Sun Y.,Guangdong University of Technology | Zhuang J.,Guangdong University of Technology | Hosseini H.G.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Computational Information Systems | Year: 2013

One of the differences between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and its ordinary counterpart is the composition of products. The ingredients of TCM are complex mixtures of natural products or extracts with various active constituents while in ordinary medicine, all of the active ingredients are single compounds and can easily be analyzed. Therefore, the classification of TCM with complex mixtures is not well adapted with the classical discriminative techniques which apply to ordinary medicine. Quality assessment of TCM is an important factor for analyzing those complex matrices and gives comprehensive quantitative data about the global ingredients. Electronic nose (E-nose) can be used for quality assessment and classification of TCM. The aim of study is to classify four groups of hundred-grass-oil (HGO), one of the popular TCM, from different production batches using a portable E-nose (PEN3). Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to investigate the classification ability of PEN3. The results of PCA analysis showed a good separation among four groups of HGO. Loadings analysis was used to optimize the number of sensors that show a higher influence on the distribution of the PCA plot. A better classification result is obtained by LDA analysis. Copyright © 2013 Binary Information Press.

Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | Leuzinger S.,ETH Zurich | Hattenschwiler S.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology
Oecologia | Year: 2013

Over the past 25 years, countless experiments have been conducted on the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on various plants and ecosystems. While this research was motivated to better understand and predict how rising CO2 will affect the structure and function of ecosystems in the future, it also shed light on some general, CO2-research independent, aspects in ecological research. Interestingly, it is these general aspects that continue to create confusion and lead to misinterpretation. Here, we focus on seven interrelated key issues including (1) the confusion between fluxes and pools, (2) the stoichiometric aspects of growth and biomass production, (3) resource allocation within organisms, (4) data scaling and the choice of a reference metric, (5) the consideration of time and timing (experimental duration, ontogenetic shifts), (6) confounding and second-order (indirect or feedback) effects, and (7) the key role of biodiversity. The principles deriving from addressing these issues relate strongly to each other. Their concurrent consideration requires experimenters and modellers to likewise maintain a broad, holistic perspective. In this synthesis, we attempt to show how appropriate consideration of these principles can greatly enhance the assessment of the validity, plausibility and generality of experimental and modelling results. We conclude that neglecting to adequately address these key issues in ecological research may lead to overestimations of measured responses and/or simplistic interpretations. Our examples mostly originate from research on plant responses to elevated atmospheric CO2, but are also applicable to other areas of ecological research. We provide a checklist for the planning of ecological field experiments and the interpretation of their results that may help in avoiding common pitfalls. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhang X.,University of New South Wales | Foo G.H.B.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2016

Direct torque control (DTC) is known to be a promising candidate for interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives. It provides fast dynamic response and good immunity to parameter variations. However, except for its merits, DTC also suffers from two major problems of variable switching frequency and large torque ripples. Research proposals have been published to solve these problems. Nonetheless, most of the proposals present very complex control algorithms. This paper proposes a constant switching frequency-based DTC algorithm for IPMSM drives. It consists of only one PI regulator and one triangular-wave carrier. The proposed algorithm reduces the torque ripples to a noticeable extent. In-depth analysis and design guidelines of the proposed controller are given. Simulation and experiment results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2016 IEEE.

McKay C.,University of Western Ontario | Prapavessis H.,University of Western Ontario | McNair P.,Auckland University of Technology
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2013

Objective: To compare the Lower Limb Tasks Questionnaire (LLTQ) with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in terms of agreement, responsiveness, and convergence. Design: Cross-sectional with an exploratory repeated-measures subsample analysis. Setting: Community-based seniors' centers and arthritis clinics. Participants: Individuals with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (N=76) participated, with a subsample of 18 participants contributing to the pre- and postarthroplasty subanalysis. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Bland and Altman plots of agreement with 95% limits of agreement, statistical responsiveness, and standardized response mean (SRM) were calculated for LLTQ and WOMAC subscales. Both t tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to examine changes in pre- and postarthroplasty self-reported function, 50-ft walk speed, stair ascent/descent speed, and isometric quadriceps strength. Results: The agreement (bias) of the LLTQ activities of daily living (ADL) subscale when compared with the WOMAC physical function (PF) subscale was 1%±10% (mean ± SD), and the 95% limits of agreement were -19% to +22%. The statistical responsiveness of the WOMAC-PF and LLTQ ADL was 1.17 and -.63, respectively. The SRMs for these scales were.90 and -.61, respectively. The WOMAC-PF scores showed a notable improvement over the first 6 weeks postarthroplasty, while LLTQ ADL scores were unchanged. The objective measures of function were all significantly worse at 6 weeks. Conclusions: The LLTQ demonstrated adequate agreement with the WOMAC and acceptable responsiveness for use in place of the WOMAC in nonspecialized clinics. The LLTQ may more accurately represent functional status after total knee arthroplasty, but further study in larger samples is recommended. © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Buchan J.,Auckland University of Technology
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2014

It is well documented that customers and software development teams need to share and refine understanding of the requirements throughout the software development lifecycle. The development of this shared understanding is complex and error-prone however. Techniques and tools to support the development of a shared understanding of requirements (SUR) should be based on a clear conceptualization of the phenomenon, with a basis on relevant theory and analysis of observed practice. This study contributes to this with a detailed conceptualization of SUR development as sequence of group-level state transitions based on specializing the Team Mental Model construct. Furthermore it proposes a novel group-level cognitive model as the main result of an analysis of data collected from the observation of an Agile software development team over a period of several months. The initial high-level application of the model shows it has promise for providing new insights into supporting SUR development. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Mildner M.,University of Basel | Bader M.K.-F.,University of Basel | Bader M.K.-F.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | And 3 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2014

There is evidence of continued stimulation of foliage photosynthesis in trees exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations; however, this is mostly without a proportional growth response. Consequently, we lack information on the fate of this extra carbon (C) acquired. By a steady application of a 13CO2 label in a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment, we traced the fate of C in 37-m-tall, ca. 110-year-old Picea abies trees in a natural forest in Switzerland. Hence, we are not reporting tree responses to elevated CO2 (which would require equally 13C labeled controls), but are providing insights into assimilate processing in such trees. Sunlit needles and branchlets grow almost exclusively from current assimilates, whereas shaded parts of the crowns also rely on stored C. Only 2.5 years after FACE initiation, tree rings contained 100 % new C. Stem-respiratory CO2 averaged 50 % of new C over the entire FACE period. Fine roots and mycorrhizal fungi contained 49-56 and 26-43 % new C, respectively, after 2.5 years. The isotopic signals in soil CO2 arrived 12 days after the onset of FACE, yet it contained only ca. 15 % new C thereafter. We conclude that new C first feeds into fast turnover C pools in the canopy and becomes increasingly mixed with older C sources as one moves away (downward) from the crown. We speculate that enhanced C turnover (its metabolic cost) along the phloem path, as evidenced by basipetal isotope signal depletion, explains part of the 'missing carbon' in trees that assimilated more C under elevated CO2. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wong C.-K.,University of Otago | Gao W.,Auckland University of Technology | Stewart R.A.H.,Green City | Benatar J.,Green City | And 3 more authors.
European Heart Journal | Year: 2010

Aim This study evaluated the prognostic implications of aVR ST elevation during ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and resultsThe Hirulog and Early Reperfusion/Occlusion-2 study randomized 17 073 patients with acute ST elevation AMI within 6 h of symptom onset to receive either bivalirudin or heparin, in addition to streptokinase and aspirin. The treatments had no effect on the primary endpoint of 30-day mortality. Electrocardiographic recordings were performed at randomization and at 60 min after commencing streptokinase. aVR ST elevation ≥1 mm was associated with higher 30-day mortality in 15 315 patients with normal intraventricular conduction regardless of AMI location (14.7 vs. 11.2 for anterior AMI, P = 0.0045 and 16.0 vs. 6.4 for inferior AMI, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for summed ST elevation and ST depression in other leads, associations with higher mortality were found with aVR ST elevation of ≥1.5 mm for anterior [odds ratio 1.69 (95 CI 1.16 to 2.45)] and of ≥1 mm for inferior AMI [odds ratio 2.41 (95 CI 1.76 to 3.30)]. There was a significant interaction between aVR ST elevation and infarct location. Thirty-day mortality was similar with anterior and inferior AMI when aVR ST elevation was present (11.5 vs. 13.2, respectively, P = 0.51 with 1 mm and 23.5 vs. 22.5 respectively, P = 0.84 with ≥ 1.5 mm ST elevation). After fibrinolytic therapy, resolution of ST elevation in aVR to <1 mm was associated with lower mortality, while new ST elevation ≥1 mm was associated with higher mortality. Conclusion aVR ST elevation is an important adverse prognostic sign in AMI. © 2010 The Author.

Daniels M.,Uppsala University | Cajander A.,Uppsala University | Pears A.,Uppsala University | Clear T.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2010

Globalization presents engineering educators with new challenges as they face the need for graduates who can function comfortably in an increasingly distributed team context which crosses country and cultural boundaries. Scaffolding learners to acquire professional attributes which transcend the solely technical places stress on traditional curriculum models. This paper analyses an Open Ended Group Project Framework (OEGP) situated in an action research program applied within the IT in Society course at Uppsala University. The approach results in conscious evolution of the course as an integral element of its design. It enables flexible planned educational change informed by a combination of learning theories and stakeholder input. In this paper we discuss the role of the research program in addressing the educational challenges we faced assisting students to develop global collaboration skills. The implications of combining this course with one at a partner institution in the USA and developing a global collaboration are also addressed. The paper concludes by summarizing the benefits of adopting an integrated action research and OEGP framework to support flexible course delivery in a global professional engineering context. © 2010 TEMPUS Publications.

Tunnage B.,Auckland University of Technology | Swain A.,University of Otago
New Zealand Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Ambulance paramedics administering emergency care to patients are delivering a health service as defined in the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act, 2003. Paramedics practice a wide range of skills without direct supervision and these can potentially put the public at risk if the paramedic is not competent. Paramedic practice is also rapidly expanding beyond the traditional ambulance role. However, this emerging profession falls outside the Act and paramedics remain unregistered. In this paper we state the case for extending regulation to these frontline healthcare professionals. © NZMA.

Morton R.P.,Counties Manukau Health | Morton R.P.,University of Auckland | Vandal A.C.,Auckland University of Technology
Clinical Otolaryngology | Year: 2015

Objectives: To examine potential factors that may predict development of postoperative haematoma following thyroid surgery, with particular attention to postoperative systolic blood pressure. Design: Retrospective, observational case-control study of patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Setting: Secondary General Hospital. Participants: Patients attending Counties Manukau District Health Board (CMDHB) between 2002 and 2012. Main Outcome Measures: Post-operative Haematoma formation that required re-exploration of the wound. Results: The overall rate of postoperative haematoma was 2.57% (16/621). Three patients bled immediately (i.e. after wound closure but while still on the operating table); 10 patients (1.6%) bled in the early postoperative period; and three others bled 24h or more after surgery. The principal independent risk factor for postoperative haemorrhage that remained after multivariable regression was postoperative systolic blood pressure level. There was a 39% increase in risk of bleeding for every 10 points rise of highest blood pressure recordings in our patient population (OR 1.39; 95% CI=1.09-1.8). Conclusions: This study identifies postoperative hypertension as significantly related to development of early postoperative haematoma. Cause for late post-thyroidectomy bleeding remains speculative. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Barker-Collo S.,University of Auckland | Feigin V.,Auckland University of Technology | Lawes C.,The New School | Senior H.,University of Auckland | Parag V.,The New School
Neuroepidemiology | Year: 2010

Background: Attention deficits are common after stroke, yet their natural course is undefined. This paper examines the course of recovery of attention up to 6 months after stroke. Also examined was the relationship of attention deficits to hemisphere of lesion and to wider outcomes (e.g. quality of life) 6 months after stroke. Methods: After stroke, 43 individuals completed attention tests (Trails A/B, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, Bells Test, Integrated Auditory Visual Continuous Performance Test) at baseline (within 4 weeks after stroke), 6 weeks and 6 months after stroke. Results: At baseline, 25-60% of attention test scores showed impairment. The sample was significantly disabled (Modified Rankin Scale, MRS), had poor quality of life (36-item short-form questionnaire of the Medical Outcomes Study, SF-36) and significant cognitive difficulties (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). Visual alternating attention, auditory/visual sustained and alternating attention improved significantly across each time frame. Hemisphere of lesion was not significantly related to baseline attention or to degree of improvement (p > 0.05). However, it was noted that while left-hemisphere stroke was associated with improved Trails A performance at each assessment, right-hemisphere lesions improved from baseline to 6 weeks but declined from 6 weeks to 6 months. Improved physical outcomes (e.g. MRS) at 6 months were predicted from less severe stroke, while an improved SF-36 mental component score was best predicted from age. Cognitive ability was predicted from Trails A attention. While left-hemisphere stroke was associated with improved Trails A performance at each assessment, right-hemisphere lesions improved from baseline to 6 weeks but declined from 6 weeks to 6 months. Conclusions: The findings suggest that attention deficits, particularly with more complex forms of attention, are common acutely after stroke and that while they improve over time, they have a significant impact on wider aspects of functioning. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Dassanayake R.S.,Kent State University | Cabelli D.E.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Brasch N.E.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Although now recognized to be an important reactive nitrogen species in biological systems that modifies the structures of proteins, DNA and lipids, there are few studies on the reactivity of •NO2, including the reactions between •NO2 and transition metal complexes. We report kinetic studies on the reactions of •NO2 with two forms of vitamin B12 - cob(II)alamin and nitrocobalamin. UV-visible spectroscopy and HPLC analysis of the product solution show that •NO2 cleanly oxidizes the metal center of cob(II)alamin to form nitrocobalamin, with a second-order rate constant of (3.5 ± 0.3) × 108 M-1 s-1 (pH 7.0 and 9.0, room temperature, I = 0.20 M). The stoichiometry of the reaction is 1:1. No reaction is detected by UV-visible spectroscopy and HPLC analysis of the product solution when nitrocobalamin is exposed to up to 2.0 mol equiv. •NO2. © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Baig M.M.,Auckland University of Technology
Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference | Year: 2011

In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in patient monitoring and medical data analysis using decision support systems, smart alarm monitoring, expert systems and many other computer aided protocols. The main goal of this study was to enhance the developed diagnostic alarm system for detecting critical events during anaesthesia. The proposed diagnostic alarm system is called Fuzzy logic monitoring system-2 (FLMS-2). The performance of the system was validated through a series of off-line tests. When detecting hypovolaemia a substantial level of agreement was observed between FLMS-2 and the human expert and it is shown that system has a better performance with sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 90% and predictability of 72%.

Sheldon K.M.,University of Missouri | Jose P.E.,Victoria University of Wellington | Kashdan T.B.,George Mason University | Jarden A.,Auckland University of Technology
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin | Year: 2015

In a three-wave, year-long, large-sample dataset (N = 755), 10 candidate “personality strengths” (Grit, Gratitude, Curiosity, Savoring, Control Beliefs, Meaning in Life–Presence, Strengths Use, and Engagement, Pleasure, and Meaning-Based Orientations Toward Happiness) were compared as predictors of 6-month increases in goal attainment, and as moderators of goal attainment effects upon boosted subjective well-being (SWB). Seeking internal replication, we tested our models twice, both during T1-T2 and during T2-T3. We also examined whether any Personality × Attainment moderator effects upon change in SWB at T2 still persisted at T3. Grit was the only candidate strength that predicted increased goal attainment from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3, and Curiosity was the only candidate strength that moderated attainment effects on well-being from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3. T2 Goal attainment effects on SWB were best sustained at T3 when Meaning Orientation increased from T1 to T2. Implications for identifying keystone constructs in personality (and positive) psychology are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

Montgomery P.G.,St Kilda Football Club | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

Australian Football is an intense team sport played over ∼120 min on a weekly basis. To determine the effects of game and training load on muscle soreness and the time frame of soreness dissipation, 64 elite Australian Football players (age 23.8 ± 1.8 y, height 183.9 ± 3.8 cm, weight 83.2 ± 5.0 kg; mean ± SD) recorded perceptions of muscle soreness, game intensity, and training intensity on scales of 1-10 on most mornings for up to 3 competition seasons. Playing and training times were also recorded in minutes. Data were analyzed with a mixed linear model, and magnitudes of effects on soreness were evaluated by standardization. All effects had acceptably low uncertainty. Game and training-session loads were 790 ± 182 and 229 ± 98 intensity-minutes (mean ± SD), respectively. General muscle soreness was 4.6 ± 1.1 units on d 1 postgame and fell to 1.9 ± 1.0 by d 6. There was a small increase in general muscle soreness (0.22 ± 0.07-0.50 ± 0.13 units) in the 3 d after high-load games relative to low-load games. Other soreness responses showed similar timelines and magnitudes of change. Training sessions made only small contributions to soreness over the 3 d after each session. Practitioners should be aware of these responses when planning weekly training and recovery programs, as it appears that game-related soreness dissipates after 3 d regardless of game load and increased training loads in the following week produce only small increases in soreness. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Cormack S.J.,Australian Catholic University | Mooney M.G.,Australian Institute of Sport | Morgan W.,Adelaide Crows Football Club | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

Purpose: To determine the impact of neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) assessed from variables obtained during a countermovement jump on exercise intensity measured with triaxial accelerometers (load per minute [LPM]) and the association between LPM and measures of running activity in elite Australian Football. Methods: Seventeen elite Australian Football players performed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and provided a baseline measure of NMF (flight time: contraction time [FT:CT]) from a countermove-ment jump before the season. Weekly samples of FT:CT, coaches' rating of performance (votes), LPM, and percent contribution of the 3 vectors from the accelerometers in addition to high-speed-running meters per minute at >15 km/h and total distance relative to playing time (m/min) from matches were collected. Samples were divided into fatigued and nonfatigued groups based on reductions in FT:CT. Percent contributions of vectors to LPM were assessed to determine the likelihood of a meaningful difference between fatigued and nonfatigued groups. Pearson correlations were calculated to determine relationships between accelerometer vectors and running variables, votes, and Yo-Yo IR2 score. Results: Fatigue reduced the contribution of the vertical vector by (mean ± 90% CI)-5.8% ± 6.1% (86% likely) and the number of practically important correlations. Conclusions: NMF affects the contribution of individual vectors to total LPM, with a likely tendency toward more running at low speed and less acceleration. Fatigue appears to limit the influence of the aerobic and anaerobic qualities assessed via the Yo-Yo IR2 test on LPM and seems implicated in pacing. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Subedi H.,Kent State University | Brasch N.E.,Auckland University of Technology
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2015

Although it is well established that nitrosyl hydride (nitroxyl, HNO) reduces transition metals including transition-metal centers of porphyrins and metalloproteins, oxidation of a metal center by HNO has yet to be reported. Kinetic and mechanistic studies on the CoII vitamin B12 form, cob(II)alamin [Cbl(II)], with the widely used HNO donor Angeli's salt (AS) have been carried out. The stoichiometry of the reaction is Cbl(II)/AS = 1:2, and AS decomposition to give HNO and nitrite is the rate-determining step. Separate studies on the reaction between cob(I)alamin [Cbl(I)-] and AS and experiments in the presence of excess nitrite or the efficient cob(III)alamin trapping agent cyanide support a mechanism in which HNO reduces Cbl(II) to Cbl(I)-, being itself oxidized to NO·. A second molecule of HNO then oxidizes Cbl(I)- back to Cbl(II), which reacts rapidly with NO· to form nitroxylcobalamin [nitrosylcobalamin, NO--Cbl(III), NOCbl]. Kinetic studies on the reaction between cob(II)alamin [Cbl(II)] and Angeli's salt (AS) show that AS decomposition to give HNO is the rate-determining step. A mechanism is proposed involving a cob(I)alamin [Cbl(I)-] intermediate that is oxidized back to Cbl(II) by a second HNO molecule. Separate studies on the reaction of Cbl(I)- with AS support this mechanism. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Nana A.,Australian Institute of Sport | Slater G.J.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Burke L.M.,Australian Institute of Sport
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2012

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is becoming a popular tool to measure body composition, owing to its ease of operation and comprehensive analysis. However, some people, especially athletes, are taller and/or broader than the active scanning area of the DXA bed and must be scanned in sections. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of DXA measures of whole-body composition summed from 2 or 3 partial scans. Physically active young adults (15 women, 15 men) underwent 1 whole-body and 4 partial DXA scans in a single testing session under standardized conditions. The partial scanning areas were head, whole body from the bottom of the chin down, and right and left sides of the body. Body-composition estimates from whole body were compared with estimates from summed partial scans to simulate different techniques to accommodate tall and/or broad subjects relative to the whole-body scan. Magnitudes of differences in the estimates were assessed by standardization. In simulating tall subjects, summation of partial scans that included the head scan overestimated whole-body composition by ∼3 kg of lean mass and ∼1 kg of fat mass, with substantial technical error of measurement. In simulating broad subjects, summation of right and left body scans produced no substantial differences in body composition than those of the whole-body scan. Summing partial DXA scans provides accurate body-composition estimates for broad subjects, but other strategies are needed to accommodate tall subjects. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Nicholls D.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

Background: There are still many practitioners, academics and researchers who are bemused by the principles and practices of qualitative research. In the third and final article in this three part series, I look at sampling in qualitative studies, methods of data collection and analysis.Content: Building on the previous two articles, I highlight the importance of rigour and explore some of the different criteria used by researchers to demonstrate that their research is trustworthy. I include a brief discussion of some of the more recent trends in mixed-method or post-positivist research.Conclusions: Qualitative research is different in many ways to quantitative, and it cannot be approached with the same mind-set. It seeks to explore different aspects to quantitative research, focusing on the individual experience, rather than conclusions that can be drawn from large groups. Because of these differences, the two approaches to research should not be seen as alternatives, but complementary. © MA Healthcare Limited 2014.

Croteau K.,University of Southern Maine | Schofield G.,Auckland University of Technology | Towle G.,University of Southern Maine | Suresh V.,University of Southern Maine
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2011

Background: It is speculated that rural Kenyan children are more physically active than those in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine pedometer-measured physical activity levels of western Kenyan youth. Methods: Participants in this study were children in Levels 3 and 5 who attended a private primary school. The sample (n = 72) consisted of 43 girls and 29 boys (average age = 9.8 ± 1.1, range = 8-12 years). Age, gender, tribe, and height and weight measures were collected. Weight status category was determined according to CDC guidelines. Participants wore a sealed Yamax pedometer for 4 weekdays during the measurement period. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and 2-way ANOVA (age × gender). Results: The total sample averaged 14558 ± 3993 daily steps. There was no significant effect for age [F(4,68) = 1.682, P = .102] nor significant age × gender interaction [F(4,68)=1.956, P = .117]. There was a significant effect for gender [F(1,68) = 4.791, P = .033], with boys (16262 ± 4698) significantly more active than girls (13463 ± 3051). Conclusions: The observed daily steps are higher than those observed in the U.S., similar to samples in other developed countries, but lower than Amish youth. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Anderson T.,Auckland University of Technology | Luther M.,Deakin University
Architectural Science Review | Year: 2012

In many highly glazed buildings, the thermal comfort of the occupants will tend to be related to the incoming solar energy and the heat transfer behaviour of the glazing. In this study, several glazing systems were designed using the software tools VISION 3 (University of Waterloo 1992) and WINDOW-6 (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2011), with a view to improving thermal environment of occupants near the glazed wall of a commercial office. The systems were fabricated and experimentally tested to validate the software modelling results. Subsequently, the glazing systems were retro-fitted to the office and tested in situ for a summer month. Results of this testing, in the form of Fangers predicted mean vote (PMV) and the predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD), are presented, and some options for improving the thermal environment in this near-faade zone are discussed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kloss G.K.,Auckland University of Technology
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2013

In science and engineering the problem of "sanity" in data management is quite common. Particularly, if partners within a project are geographically distributed, and require access to this data. These partners would ideally like to access or store data using a local server, while still retaining remote access. Furthermore, data does not "live alone," but has a "partner": Metadata. Currently available solutions cater for different needs, and do not fully address the problems in our own environment. Particularly, seamless integration within a Grid infrastructure is essential. For these reasons, the presented MataNui data server infrastructure offers full storage of files along with arbitrarily extensive meta-data for each stored item. The server can replicate its content between geographically distributed locations, making each usable for full read/write access, enabling researchers to use the one closest to their own network. Files are accessible through GridFTP as the predominant protocol for Grid Computing. For full access to meta-data and server side search queries a (RESTful) Web Service is provided. The current implementation features very high performance in data throughput on storage, retrieval and query operations. Through the Web Service front end it is straight forward to integrate it with scientific workflow environments or scientific data management applications. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Crewther B.T.,Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand HortResearch | Crewther B.T.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Cook C.J.,Imperial College London | Lowe T.E.,Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand HortResearch | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Crewther, BT, Cook, CJ, Lowe, TE, Weatherby, RP, and Gill, N. The effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 25(1): 32-39, 2011 - This study examined the effects of shortcycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. Thirty male rugby players performed an upperbody power and lower-body strength (UPLS) and/or a lowerbody power and upper-body strength (LPUS) workout using a crossover design (sprint vs. control). A 40-second upper-body or lower-body cycle sprint was performed before the UPLS and LPUS workouts, respectively, with the control sessions performed without the sprints. Bench throw (BT) power and box squat (BS) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength were assessed in the UPLS workout, and squat jump (SJ) power and bench press (BP) 1RM strength were assessed in the LPUS workout. Saliva was collected across each workout and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). The cycle sprints improved BS (2.6 ± 6 1.2%) and BP (2.8 6 ± 1.0%) 1RM but did not affect BT and SJ power. The lower-body cycle sprint produced a favorable environment for the BS by elevating Sal-T concentrations. The upper-body cycle sprint had no hormonal effect, but the workout differences (%) in Sal-T (r = -0.59) and Sal-C (r = 0.42) concentrations correlated to the BP, along with the Sal-T/C ratio (r = -0.49 to -0.66). In conclusion, the cycle sprints improved the BP and BS 1RM strength of elite rugby players but not power output in the current format. The improvements noted may be explained, in part, by the changes in absolute or relative hormone concentrations. These findings have practical implications for prescribing warm-up and training exercises. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Teo W.,Edith Cowan University | McGuigan M.R.,New Zealand Academy of Sport North Island | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Newton M.J.,Edith Cowan University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

The study investigated the effects of circadian rhythm of cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) on maximal force production (Fpeak) and power output (Ppeak). Twenty male university students (mean age = 23.8 ± 3.6 years, height = 177.5 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 11.2 kg) performed 4 time-of-day testing sessions consisting of countermovement jumps (CMJs), squat jumps (SJ), isometric midthigh pulls (IMTPs), and a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat. Saliva samples were collected at 0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 hours to assess T and C levels on each testing day. Session rate-of-perceived exertion (RPE) scores were collected after each session. The results showed that Fpeak and Ppeak presented a clear circadian rhythm in CMJ and IMTP but not in SJ. One repetition maximum squat did not display a clear circadian rhythm. Session RPE scores collected at 0800 and 2000 hours were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than those obtained at 1200 and 1600 hours. Salivary T and C displayed a clear circadian rhythm with highest values at 0800 hours and lowest at 2000 hours; however, no significant correlation was found between T and C with Fpeak and Ppeak. A very strong correlation was found between Taural with Fpeak of CMJ and IMTP and Ppeak of CMJ (r = 0.86, r = 0.84 and r = 0.8, p ≤ 0.001). The study showed the existence of a circadian rhythm in Fpeak and P peak in CMJ and IMTP. The evidence suggests that strength and power training or testing should be scheduled later during the day. The use of Taural seemed to be a more effective indicator of physical performance than hormonal measures, and the use of session RPE should also be closely monitored because it may present a circadian rhythm. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Towns D.R.,Science and Technical Group | Towns D.R.,Auckland University of Technology | West C.J.,Science and Technical Group | Broome K.G.,Science and Technical Group
Wildlife Research | Year: 2013

Context Invasive mammals have been removed from at least 100 offshore islands around New Zealand, covering a total area of around 45000ha. Aims To review the outcomes of eradications, the statutory and social environment in which the eradications were conducted, and the lessons provided for future work. Methods Native species to benefit from the eradications were identified, as were the reasons for the eradications and the agencies responsible. Examples are provided using case studies. Key results Three loosely linked work streams were revealed: research into efficient baits and baiting methods, threatened species-led projects nested within priorities for species recovery and supported by legislation, and community-led projects instigated by restoration societies. At least 180 populations of 14 species of invasive mammals were removed. Numerous species of native plants, invertebrates and more than 70 species of terrestrial vertebrates are recovering or are likely to recover as a result of the eradications. Partnerships have been formed with Māori and innovative projects developed with community groups. Conclusions Eradications of invasive mammals are aggressive conservation actions that can have wide benefits for biodiversity but can also be controversial, technically demanding and expensive. Implications Eradications are multi-scale problems. If they are to gain public acceptance, evidence is needed in support. This evidence can include understanding the detrimental effects of invasive species, the likely responses of native biodiversity, and the benefits ensuing from their recovery. However, the way this evidence is gained and communicated will also require deep understanding of nuances in regional political and cultural environments. © 2013 CSIRO.

Gillman L.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Wright S.D.,University of Auckland
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2014

There are a few patterns in nature that are striking even to casual observers. These include patterns of species richness associated with latitude, elevation, rainfall and area. Current thinking suggests that a number of primary mechanisms determine richness variation and that these differ depending on the type of pattern and the biome to which they apply. Prominent among the many hypotheses that attempt to explain the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) are those based either on climate or on historical factors such as past biome area. Climate-based and historically-based hypotheses have been regarded as competing alternatives, but there is growing acknowledgement that both are important. The evolutionary speed hypothesis (ESH) is one of several climate-based hypotheses. According to this hypothesis the LDG is generated by thermally mediated asymmetries in evolutionary speed and diversification. Here we identify five relationships predicted by the ESH and survey the literature for empirical evidence for and against these relationships. We find these five relationships are supported by a number of empirical studies. However, there are gaps in this evidence that require further work and, because the relationship between temperature and species richness is negative when water is limited, a modification to the ESH is necessary. Additionally, we suggest that diversity patterns associated with area, temperature and water availability might all be influenced by a common mechanism associated with biologically available energy and its influence on the tempo of evolution. Rates of genetic evolution might also be influenced by spatial heterogeneity and rates of biotic and abiotic environmental change, potentially introducing positive feedbacks between diversification and genetic evolution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hancock M.J.,University of Sydney | Maher C.G.,University of Sydney | Laslett M.,Auckland University of Technology | Hay E.,Keele University | Koes B.,Erasmus Medical Center
European Spine Journal | Year: 2011

Purpose Over 20 years ago the term non-specific low back pain became popular to convey the limitations of our knowledge of the pathological source of most people's low back pain. Knowledge of underlying pathology has advanced little since then, despite limited improvements in outcomes for patients with low back pain. Methods This paper discusses potential misunderstandings related to diagnostic studies in the field of low back pain and argues that future diagnostic studies should include and investigate pathological sources of low back pain. Results Six potential misunderstandings are discussed. (1) Until diagnosis is shown to improve outcomes it is not worth investigating; (2) without a gold standard it is not possible to investigate diagnosis of low back pain; (3) the presence of pathology in some people without low back pain means it is not important; (4) dismissal of the ability to diagnose low back pain in clinical guidelines is supported by the same level of evidence as recommendations for therapy; (5) suggesting use of a diagnostic test in research is misinterpreted as endorsing its use in current clinical practice; (6) we seem to have forgotten the 'bio' in biopsychosocial low back pain. Conclusions We believe the misunderstandings presented in this paper partly explain the lack of investigation into pathology as an important component of the low back pain experience. A better understanding of the biological component of low back pain in relation, and in addition, to psychosocial factors is important for a more rational approach to management of low back pain. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Nordez A.,University of Nantes | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Casari P.,University of Nantes | Cornu C.,University of Nantes
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2010

The findings of previous research indicate that the passive torque-angle curve may be different according to whether individuals have undertaken cyclic or static stretching. To date, no authors have compared these curves in the same subjects. We hypothesised that static stretching would lead to a constant change in range of motion across torque levels with the shape of the curve being unchanged, while cyclic stretching would change the shape of the curve. To test this hypothesis, eight subjects performed five passive knee extension/flexion cycles on a Biodex® dynamometer at 5° s-1 to 80% of their maximal range of motion before and after a static stretching protocol. The difference in angle between pre and post stretching torque-angle curves was calculated at 11 levels of torque from 0% to 100% of the maximal torque with a 10% increment. The mean change in angle across these 11 torque levels was then calculated. The findings showed that after static stretching a relatively constant mean change of 5.2° was noted across torque levels. In contrast, after cyclic stretching the angle change depended upon the torque level with greater change observed toward the start of the range of motion. The findings indicated that different mechanisms were operating depending upon the type of stretching procedure performed. Changes in muscle resting length and thixotropy were thought to be responsible. © 2009 Sports Medicine Australia.

Shymanska A.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Computational Electronics | Year: 2015

Electron-optical devices with microchannel amplification have many advantages, except poor noise characteristics. In order to increase gain and reduce a noise factor a layer with increased secondary emission is deposited on the top of a contact conducting layer at the entrance of channels. Effects, arising in the channel amplifier with the high-efficiency emitter, are investigated in this work using the computational method, developed by the author. A computational method for simulation of stochastic processes of an electron multiplication is based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations and the theorems of serial and parallel amplification stages proposed by the author. The method provides a high calculation accuracy with minimal cost of computations. The computational model is used to investigate the effect on the noise factor of the incidence angle of the input electron beam, nonuniformity of the emitter surface, the depth and secondary emission yield of the high-efficiency emitter. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Elkin C.,ETH Zurich | Gutierrez A.G.,ETH Zurich | Leuzinger S.,ETH Zurich | Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013

Limiting the increase in global average temperature to 2 °C is the objective of international efforts aimed at avoiding dangerous climate impacts. However, the regional response of terrestrial ecosystems and the services that they provide under such a scenario are largely unknown. We focus on mountain forests in the European Alps and evaluate how a range of ecosystem services (ES) are projected to be impacted in a 2 °C warmer world, using four novel regional climate scenarios. We employ three complementary forest models to assess a wide range of ES in two climatically contrasting case study regions. Within each climate scenario we evaluate if and when ES will deviate beyond status quo boundaries that are based on current system variability. Our results suggest that the sensitivity of mountain forest ES to a 2 °C warmer world depends heavily on the current climatic conditions of a region, the strong elevation gradients within a region, and the specific ES in question. Our simulations project that large negative impacts will occur at low and intermediate elevations in initially warm-dry regions, where relatively small climatic shifts result in negative drought-related impacts on forest ES. In contrast, at higher elevations, and in regions that are initially cool-wet, forest ES will be comparatively resistant to a 2 °C warmer world. We also found considerable variation in the vulnerability of forest ES to climate change, with some services such as protection against rockfall and avalanches being sensitive to 2 °C global climate change, but other services such as carbon storage being reasonably resistant. Although our results indicate a heterogeneous response of mountain forest ES to climate change, the projected substantial reduction of some forest ES in dry regions suggests that a 2 °C increase in global mean temperature cannot be seen as a universally 'safe' boundary for the maintenance of mountain forest ES. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Dainotti A.,University of Naples Federico II | Ammann R.,Auckland University of Technology | Aben E.,RIPE NCC | Claffy K.C.,University of California at San Diego
Computer Communication Review | Year: 2012

Unsolicited one-way Internet traffic, also called Internet background radiation (IBR), has been used for years to study malicious activity on the Internet, including worms, DoS attacks, and scanning address space looking for vulnerabilities to exploit. We show how such traffic can also be used to analyze macroscopic Internet events that are unrelated to malware. We examine two phenomena: country-level censorship of Internet communications described in recent work [17], and natural disasters (two recent earthquakes). We introduce a new metric of local IBR activity based on the number of unique IP addresses per hour contributing to IBR. The advantage of this metric is that it is not affected by bursts of traffic from a few hosts. Although we have only scratched the surface, we are convinced that IBR traffic is an important building block for comprehensive monitoring, analysis, and possibly even detection of events unrelated to the IBR itself. In particular, IBR offers the opportunity to monitor the impact of events such as natural disasters on network infrastructure, and in particular reveals a view of events that is complementary to many existing measurement platforms based on (BGP) control-plane views or targeted active ICMP probing.

Kloss G.K.,Auckland University of Technology
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

Observing colour robustly in images captured with off-the-shelf cameras can be a challenge. Particularly if the observation is conducted over a long time, while encountering light changes. Factors playing into using this colour information directly for quantitative reasoning: unknown processing in the camera's firm ware, unpredictable variations in illumination conditions, and colour descriptors possibly not comparable with those of other devices. The research presented outlines an approach based on standard compliant colour management as specified by the International Colour Consortium (ICC). Initially, a device is characterised, resulting in an ICC profile for the starting conditions. Software tracks the changes of a number of coloured objects in the scene. With these changes a colour corrective transformation is fused into the ICC profile, compensating for the colour shift induced over time. An ICC profile transformation yields device independent CIE LAB colour space information. This paper describes background and process of the colour correction - including profile adaptation without process interruption - along with validation experiments conducted. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Tang J.,Tsinghua University | Fong A.,Auckland University of Technology
Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics | Year: 2013

Popularity of online social networks provides the chance to make sentiment analysis on every user instead of every document or sentence. And relations between users on social media sites often indicate correlation (negation) between users' opinions. In this work, we study how user's opinion spread in social networks. We employ the data from Tencent.com, the largest social network of China to empirically study the problem. Our work focuses on six different topics including policy, products, brand, sports, movie and politician. We study the distributions of peoples' opinions on different topics and how users' opinions are influenced by those he is following. We propose a graphical model to capture the essence of social network as well as an algorithm to perform semi-supervised learning. The learning algorithm can be used to accurately predict users' sentiment in the social network. © 2013 IEEE.

Clear T.,Auckland University of Technology
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2015

This presentation reflects on method and practice in Computer Science Education Research, through introducing the process of conducting a Systematic Literature Review. While Systematic Literature Reviews are an established research method within the Software Engineering discipline, they are a relatively unfamiliar research approach within Computer Science Education. Yet research disciplines can be strengthened by borrowing and adapting methods from other fields. I reflect on the rationale and underlying philosophy behind Systematic Reviews, and the implications for conducting a rigorous study and the quality of the resulting outputs. This chronicle of the journey of an ITiCSE working group, outlines the process we adopted and reflects on the methodological and logistical challenges we had to overcome in producing a review titled Challenges and Recommendations for the Design and Conduct of Global Software Engineering Courses. I conclude by discussing how systematic literature reviews can be adapted to an undergraduate teaching setting.

Goldie X.,University of Auckland | Gillman L.,Auckland University of Technology | Crisp M.,Australian National University | Wright S.,University of Auckland
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The covariation of biodiversity with climate is a fundamental pattern in nature. However, despite the ubiquity of this relationship, a consensus on the ultimate cause remains elusive. The evolutionary speed hypothesis posits direct mechanistic links between ambient temperature, the tempo of micro-evolution and, ultimately, species richness. Previous research has demonstrated faster rates of molecular evolution in warmer climates for a broad range of poikilothermic and homeothermic organisms, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. In terrestrial systems, species richness increases with both temperature and water availability and the interaction of those terms: productivity. However, the influence of water availability as an independent variable on micro-evolutionary processes has not been examined previously. Here, using methodology that limits the potentially confounding role of cladogenetic and demographic processes, we report, to our knowledge, the first evidence that woody plants living in the arid Australian Outback are evolving more slowly than related species growing at similar latitudes in moist habitats on the mesic continental margins. These results support a modified evolutionary speed explanation for the relationship between the water-energy balance and plant diversity patterns. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Mendiguchia J.,Rehab and Performance Center | Samozino P.,University of Savoy | Martinez-Ruiz E.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University | Brughelli M.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

The objectives of this study were to examine the consequences of an acute hamstring injury on performance and mechanical properties of sprint-running at the time of returning to sports and after the subsequent ~2 months of regular soccer training after return. 28 semi-professional male soccer players, 14 with a recent history of unilateral hamstring injury and 14 without prior injury, participated in the study. All players performed two 50-m maximal sprints when cleared to return to play (Test 1), and 11 injured players performed the same sprint test about 2 months after returning to play (Test 2). Sprint performance (i.e., speed) was measured via a radar gun and used to derive linear horizontal force-velocity relationships from which the following variables obtained: theoretical maximal velocity (V0), horizontal force (FH0) and horizontal power (Pmax). Upon returning to sports the injured players were moderately slower compared to the uninjured players. FH0and Pmax were also substantially lower in the injured players. At Test 2, the injured players showed a very likely increase in FH0and Pmax concomitant with improvements in early acceleration performance. Practitioners should consider assessing and training horizontal force production during sprint running after acute hamstring injuries in soccer players before they return to sports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

Kandampully J.,Ohio State University | Keating B.W.,University of Canberra | Kim B.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Mattila A.S.,University Park | Solnet D.,University of Queensland
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly | Year: 2014

This study applies a Delphi analysis regarding the level of integration of service topics in the hospitality literature, as found in 539 service-related papers published in four hospitality journals from 1998 to 2012. The journals in question are Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, International Journal of Hospitality Management, and Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. The number of service-related studies account for 16 percent of the total pool of articles in the four journals over the fifteen-year period, and the analysis records an increase in the number of service-based articles published over this period. Since then, the number of articles dealing with service-related phenomena has ebbed somewhat. Theory-testing papers dominated the hospitality literature during the study period, accounting for more than half of the papers, while theory-building papers accounted for a quarter of all papers, and around 15 percent had a conceptual purpose. The most popular topic for papers in this sample was service experience, followed by operations management, human resource management, and accounting. © The Author(s) 2014.

Nana A.,Australian Institute of Sport | Nana A.,RMIT University | Slater G.J.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Burke L.M.,Australian Institute of Sport
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

Purpose: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is rapidly becoming more accessible and popular as a technique to monitor body composition, especially in athletic populations. This study investigates the reliability of DXA in measuring body composition of active individuals, specifically to ascertain biological variability associated with two different types of exercise under free-living conditions in active individuals. Methods: Well-trained individuals (27 strength-trained male subjects, 14 female cyclists, and 14 male cyclists) underwent three whole-body DXA scans over a 1-d period: in the morning after an overnight fast, approximately 5 min later after repositioning on the scanning bed, and shortly after a self-chosen exercise session (resistance training or cycling). Subjects were allowed to consume food and fluid ad libitum before and during exercise as per their usual practices. Magnitude of typical (standard) errors of measurement and changes in the mean of DXA measures were assessed by standardization. Results: Exercise and its related practices of fluid and food intake are associated with changes in the mean estimates of total and regional body composition that range from trivial to small but substantial. An exercise session also increases the typical error of measurement of these characteristics by approximately 10%. Conclusion: The easiest and most practical way to minimize the biological noise associated with undertaking a DXA scan is to have subjects fasted and rested before measurement. Until sufficient data on the smallest important effect are available, both biological and technical noises should be minimized so that any small but potentially real changes can be confidently detected. © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Wang G.Y.,Auckland University of Technology | Kydd R.,University of Auckland | Wouldes T.A.,University of Auckland | Jensen M.,University of Auckland | Russell B.R.,University of Auckland
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2015

Objective: This study investigated the electrophysiological activity associated with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods: The resting EEG spectrum of beta (14.5-30. Hz), alpha (8-13. Hz), theta (4-7.5. Hz) and delta (1.5-3.5. Hz) rhythm were measured in 32 patients undertaking chronic MMT, 17 opiate users and 25 healthy volunteers. Differences in the EEG components of each group were evaluated using a repeated measures Analyses of Variance (ANOVA). Post-hoc comparisons were Bonferroni corrected. Results: Our results show that either patients undertaking MMT or active opiate users exhibited a significant increase in the power of beta and theta bands relative to healthy control subjects. However, the spectral power of patients undertaking MMT fell between that of current opiate users and healthy control subjects on many regional EEG measures. There was an inverse correlation between the power of beta or theta bands and cognitive performance. Conclusion: The abnormal neural electrical activity present in those still using illicit opiates might be reduced following MMT. Significance: The present findings provide further support for MMT of opiate dependence and demonstrates potentially positive effects of substitution treatment on brain function. © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Skilling P.,Auckland University of Technology | McLay J.,University of Auckland
Journal of Social Policy | Year: 2015

The high level of academic, public and policy attention paid to the deservingness of the poor and (especially) of welfare recipients contrasts with the scant attention paid to the deservingness - or otherwise - of the rich. This discrepancy reflects socially dominant - but contestable - ideas about equality of opportunity and the role of individual merit within market systems. In this journal, Karen Rowlingson, Stewart Connor and Michael Orton have noted that wealth and riches have remained invisible as policy 'problems'. This invisibility is socially important, in that policy efforts to address current, socially damaging, levels of economic inequality require attention to the deservingness of the rich, as well as of the poor. This article draws on recent survey data from New Zealand to provide new insights into public attitudes to the rich. It finds that the New Zealand public view the rich as more individually deserving of their outcomes than the poor are deserving of social assistance, and that attitudes towards the rich are related to redistributive sentiments at least as strongly as attitudes towards the poor. In concluding, the article reflects on the limitations of existing data sources and makes suggestions for future research. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

Moghanian H.,Islamic Azad University at Dezful | Mobinikhaledi A.,Arak University | Blackman A.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Sarough-Farahani E.,Arak University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Sulfanilic acid-functionalized silica-coated nano-Fe3O 4 particles (MNPs-PhSO3H) have been prepared as a reusable heterogeneous acid catalyst using a facile process. The catalytic performance of this novel material has been studied in the synthesis of 1-amido- and 1-aminoalkyl-2-naphthol derivatives via a one-pot three-component condensation reaction of aldehydes, 2-naphthol, and amides/urea/amines in good to excellent yields, under solvent-free classical heating conditions. The catalyst was easily separated from the reaction mixture with the assistance of an external magnetic field and reused for several consecutive runs without significant loss of its catalytic efficiency. Results obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sample magnetometery (VSM) show that the synthesized magnetic nanocomposites are superparamagnetic with a size range of 15-30 nm. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Bini R.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Dagnese F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano | Year: 2012

Noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces have been designed to optimize variables related to cycling performance (e.g. peak crank torque and efficiency), with conflicting results in terms of performance. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to review the theoretical background of noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces and their effects on biomechanical, physiological and performance variables. Reducing internal work, crank peak torque, and time spent at the top and bottom dead centres (12 o'clock and 6 o'clock positions, respectively) were among the various targets of noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interface design. Changes in joint kinematics without effects on muscle activation were observed when cyclists were assessed using noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces. Conflicting results for economy/efficiency explain the unclear effects of noncircular chainrings on cycling performance and the positive effects of some novel pedal to crank interfaces on cycling economy/efficiency.

Siegel R.,Edith Cowan University | Mate J.,Edith Cowan University | Watson G.,Edith Cowan University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of a small bolus of ice slurry (1.25 g kg -1) could attenuate the reduction in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque output during a 2-min sustained task following exercise-induced hyperthermia. On two separate occasions, 10 males (age: 24 ± 3 years, {VO 2: 49.8 ± 4.7 ml kg -1 min -1) ran to exhaustion at their first ventilatory threshold in a hot environment (34.1 ± 0.1°C, 49.5 ± 3.6% RH). Prior to and after exercise, subjects performed a 2-min sustained MVC of the right elbow flexors in a thermoneutral environment (24.6 ± 0.8°C, 37.2 ± 4.5% RH). The post exercise MVC was performed immediately following the ingestion of either 1.25 g kg -1 of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE) or warm fluid (40°C; CON), in a counterbalanced and randomised order. Run time to exhaustion (42.4 ± 9.5 vs. 41.7 ± 8.7 min; p = 0.530), and rectal (39.08 ± 0.30 vs. 39.08 ± 0.30°C; p = 0.934) and skin temperatures (35.26 ± 0.65 vs. 35.28 ± 0.67°C; p = 0.922) and heart rate (189 ± 5 vs. 189 ± 6 beats min -1; p = 0.830) at the end of the run were similar between trials. Torque output during the post-exercise 2-min sustained MVC was significantly higher (p = 0.001) following ICE (30.75 ± 16.40 Nm) compared with CON (28.69 ± 14.88 Nm). These results suggest that ice slurry ingestion attenuated the effects of exercise-induced hyperthermia on MVC, possibly via internal thermoreceptive and/or temperature-related sensory mechanisms. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Chepulis L.M.,Waiariki Institute of Technology | Mearns G.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Nursing Education | Year: 2015

Background: Obesity is prevalent in health care workers, but it is unknown whether a lack of nutritional knowledge contributes to this. This study measured the nutrition knowledge of undergraduate nursing students to identify knowledge gaps that could be addressed through nutrition teaching in an updated undergraduate nursing curriculum. Method: Undergraduate nursing students (N = 197) completed a nutrition knowledge survey with questions on demographics, body composition, nutrition labels, food packaging claims, and healthy food-purchasing choices. Results: Mean overall nutritional knowledge scores were low, but overall scores were higher for students who had received nutrition teaching (60.5% versus 52.5%; F[1, 187] = 7.2, p < 0.001). Improvements in nutrition knowledge were consistent across all ethnic groups, and no effects of age were observed. Conclusion: To sufficiently prepare nurses for their public health role in obesity prevention, more nutrition education is needed in undergraduate nursing education programs, with emphasis on ethnic-specific educational requirements. © SLACK Incorporated.

Luck M.,Auckland University of Technology
Coastal Management | Year: 2016

With the continuing growth of the tourism industry over recent decades, has come a change in tourist behavior from the traditional stereotypical 3-S tourist (sun, sand, sex) to an increasingly sophisticated and demanding tourist. These “new” tourists like to learn about history, nature, and wildlife, and they expect an educational component on wildlife tours. This study investigated swim-with-dolphin tours in Kaikoura, New Zealand with regard to the educational content and the overall anatomy of these tours, using data from observations on a total of 32 tours during December 2011. The resulting data were then compared with the data from Hrycik and Forestell's study, which investigated the content of questions asked by passengers on whale-watching tours in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Results of the on-tour observations indicate that the surveyed tours display a structured approach to interpretation, which is customized to the specific tour anatomy of a “swim-with” tour, and varies in some parts significantly from “watch-only” tour interpretation. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Ijpma G.,Institute of Biomedical Technologies | Al-Jumaily A.M.,Institute of Biomedical Technologies | Cairns S.P.,Auckland University of Technology | Sieck G.C.,Mayo Medical School
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Length adaptation in airway smooth muscle (ASM) is attributed to reorganization of the cytoskeleton, and in particular the contractile elements. However, a constantly changing lung volume with tidal breathing (hence changing ASM length) is likely to restrict full adaptation of ASM for force generation. There is likely to be continuous length adaptation of ASM between states of incomplete or partial length adaption. We propose a new model that assimilates findings on myosin filament polymerization/ depolymerization, partial length adaptation, isometric force, and shortening velocity to describe this continuous length adaptation process. In this model, the ASM adapts to an optimal force-generating capacity in a repeating cycle of events. Initially the myosin filament, shortened by prior length changes, associates with two longer actin filaments. The actin filaments are located adjacent to the myosin filaments, such that all myosin heads overlap with actin to permit maximal cross-bridge cycling. Since in this model the actin filaments are usually longer than myosin filaments, the excess length of the actin filament is located randomly with respect to the myosin filament. Once activated, the myosin filament elongates by polymerization along the actin filaments, with the growth limited by the overlap of the actin filaments. During relaxation, the myosin filaments dissociate from the actin filaments, and then the cycle repeats. This process causes a gradual adaptation of force and instantaneous adaptation of shortening velocity. Good agreement is found between model simulations and the experimental data depicting the relationship between force development, myosin filament density, or shortening velocity and length. © 2011 by the American Physiological Society.

Chung H.,Auckland University of Technology
20th International Congress on Sound and Vibration 2013, ICSV 2013 | Year: 2013

The dynamics of thin elastic plates have been studied using various theoretical and experimental methods. In the context of acoustics, the primary interest is in the sound propagation from one side of the plate to the other. This paper shows how to compute the vibration of rectangular single- and double-plates that have inhomogeneous material properties. One of the inhomogeneities is the elasticity modulus of the plates, which is continuously and smoothly varying over the plates. The elasticity modulus is simulated as a random function with a pre-assigned probability density at any given position on the plate and power spectral density over the plate. The method of simulating such random functions is adopted from the theories of signal processing. In the case of the double-plate, the inhomogeneities in the junctions between the plate and the reinforcement beams are also considered. The behaviour of the plates is numerically analysed using the root-mean-square velocity and the transmission loss factor. The vibration field of the plates is represented using the Fourier series by taking advantage of the rectangular shape. Furthermore the random functions are represented by the series of cosine functions with random phases, wavelengths and amplitudes. As a result, the computation of the solution does not require discretization of the object, and thus the computational cost is low compare to typical finite element methods. Effects of the random inhomogeneities are compared to those of the deterministic inhomogeneities. Several probability density functions for the elasticity are also tried. In addition to numerical simulations, theoretical studies on the single-plate are presented using the analytical formulas for the Fourier coefficients.

Xie B.,East China Normal University | Lv B.Y.,East China Normal University | Hu C.,East China Normal University | Liang S.B.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Landfill leachate pollutants were treated in a biofilter filled with a mixture of aged refuse and slag, and the performance was compared with those reactors filled solely with either medium. Cultural counting method showed that bioreactor filled with slag had the highest amount of nitrifying bacteria, while polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method showed that reactor filled with both media had the highest bacterial community diversity. Particle size distributions measurement showed that slag contained less fine particles than aged refuse, which provided better permeability. The reactor containing both media exhibited a high efficiency in removal of pollutants, and a higher resistance to shock loading and low temperature compared with single-medium reactors. It also overcame both the poor permeability of aged refuse filling and the low bacteria diversity of slag. The study shows that a mixture of aged refuse and slag as a new biofilter medium for leachate pollutant removal is technically viable. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sonkong K.,Khon Kaen University | Chaiklieng S.,Khon Kaen University | Neave P.,Auckland University of Technology | Suggaravetsiri P.,Khon Kaen University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Malaria is a major health problem in Thailand, especially in areas adjacent to the borders of Myanmar. Delay in seeking treatment is an important factor in the development of severe complications, death and the transmission of the disease. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting delays in seeking treatment of malaria patients. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in 456 malaria patients along the Thailand-Myanmar border. Patients were selected by stratified sampling from 11 malaria clinics and five public hospitals in Tak Province, Thailand. Data were collected by the use of a structured interview questionnaire and from patient's medical records. Results: The majority of patients were categorized with an ethnicity of 'hill tribe' (65.8%), followed by Thai (34.2%). Seventy-nine per cent of patients delayed seeking treatment. A simple logistic regression identified significant factors affecting delays in seeking treatment: people of "hill tribe" ethnicity; plasmodium species; self-treatment; visiting sub-district health promotion hospital/malaria post before visiting a malaria clinic or public hospital; and low to medium social support. After being subjected to multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with the delay were "hill tribe" ethnicity (ORadj = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.34-4.04); infection with P.vivax (ORadj=2.02, 95% CI: 1.19-3.41; self-treatment (ORadj= 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04-2.85); and receiving a low degree of social support (ORadj = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24-5.35). Conclusions: Emphasis should be placed on need for early diagnosis and treatment in malaria patients as well as on ensuring the first facility for detection and treatment of malaria is a malaria clinic or public hospital, and the promotion of social support. These are especially important issues for the health of hill tribe people. © 2015 Sonkong et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Chung H.,Auckland University of Technology | Emms G.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Fox C.,University of Otago
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2014

This paper shows how to use a mathematical model to predict the vibration of lightweight timber-framed floor/ceiling systems (LTFSs) caused by mechanical excitation. The LTFS considered here is made up of an upper layer (including the floor), cavity space with timber joists and the ceiling. These components are joined by timber battens, ceiling furring channels and ceiling clips, which are also included in the model. The vibration in the structure is caused by a localized excitation on the top surface and the resulting vibration level of the ceiling surface will be analysed. The cavity space is filled with fibre infill for damping the sound transmitting through the cavity. A unique feature of the design and the model is the sand-sawdust mixture in the upper layer. The theoretical model and the experimental measurements show that the sand-sawdust dampens the vibration in the frequency range between 10 and 200 Hz. The model uses the classical theories of elastic plates, beams and room acoustics together with the Fourier expansion method for solving the system of partial differential equations. The damping by the sand-sawdust and the fibre infill are found by comparing the numerical simulations against the experimental measurements. This paper will show that the simple linear frequency dependent loss factors can be used in the model to predict the low-frequency vibrations of LTFSs. © S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA.

Braid H.E.,University of Guelph | Braid H.E.,Auckland University of Technology | Deeds J.,Us Fda Center For Food Safety And Applied Nutrition | DeGrasse S.L.,Us Fda Center For Food Safety And Applied Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2012

In fall of 2009, several mass strandings of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) occurred on Vancouver Island (49°7′60N 125°54′0W). Morphological dissections coupled with DNA barcoding of stomach contents revealed Sardinops sagax (Pacific sardine) and Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring) as their primary prey. Plastic nurdles, fishing line, bull kelp, eelgrass, and a guillemot feather were also discovered. The primary prey, Pacific sardines and Pacific herring, are known to bioaccumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs); additionally, both PSTs and domoic acid (DA) have been implicated in other mass strandings. Therefore, stomach contents, and other tissues when possible, were tested for PSTs and DA. Testing revealed DA concentrations below regulatory guidance levels for human consumption, yet PSTs were well in excess. Though we cannot conclude that PSTs were the definitive cause of the strandings, our findings are the first report of PSTs in D. gigas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Rotimi J.O.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Ramanayaka C.D.D.,University of Witwatersrand
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems | Year: 2015

This study reviews relevant literature to identify the drawbacks of traditional planning algorithms related to technical rationality. It also evaluates the suitability of construction project strategies, to bring reflective practice into construction project planning by using an archival analysis approach. The archival analysis used qualitative data provided by the Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB), UK, for 66 construction projects that are recognised as being successfully delivered. The information was sorted and analysed via NVivo and content analysis, respectively. The findings show that the characteristics of reflective practice are predominant in the problems and strategic solutions mentioned in the CIOB qualitative information. This study emphasises that the two paradigms are not isolated, but associated through three distinct relationships. Recommendations are given for practitioners to use reflective practice, along with technical rationality to strategically solve problems encountered in construction project implementation. Finally, future studies are suggested to minimise the limitations of this qualitative study by integrating quantitative methodologies, to empirically determine the right combination of the two paradigms in the context of construction project implementation. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Su X.,University of Wollongong | Zhang M.,University of Wollongong | Mu Y.,University of Wollongong | Bai Q.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Computer and System Sciences | Year: 2013

In service-oriented computing applications, service consumers and providers need to evaluate the trust levels of potential partners before engaging in interactions. The accuracy of trust evaluation greatly affects the success rate of the interaction. Trust evaluation is a challenging problem in open and dynamic environment as there is no central mediator to manage standardized evaluation criteria or reputation records. In this paper, a novel trust model, called the priority-based trust model, is presented. The model derives the trustworthiness of a service provider from designated referees and its historical performance. In addition, consumers can specify their preferred priorities which will affect the result of trust evaluations. The experimental results show that the proposed model has better performance than other trust models, especially in open and dynamic environments. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Nisbet A.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings of the 11th Australian Information Security Management Conference, ISM 2013 | Year: 2014

This research examines the current level of security in wireless networks in New Zealand. A comprehensive wardrive covering the length of the country was made in January 2013 to ensure accurate comparisons from two previous wardrives as well as comparisons between the four main cities and the suburbs can be made. With 16 years since the introduction of the original IEEE 802.11 wireless standard having passed, an examination is made of the current state of wireless security of networks throughout New Zealand and the Auckland suburbs, and where possible compares these results with similar studies undertaken in 2004 and 2011. Additionally, comparisons are made with growth of numbers of access points, security standards implementations and channel selections. This study looks at whether wireless network security has reached the levels hoped for in 1999 when security was built in to the IEEE 802.11a and 802.11b standards and concludes that whilst vastly improved, there is still some way to go. Finally, some recommendations are made as to what still needs to be addressed to ensure efficient and secure communications with wireless networks.