Auckland, New Zealand
Auckland, New Zealand

The Auckland University of Technology is a university in New Zealand. It was formed on 1 January 2000 when the Auckland Institute of Technology was granted university status. Its primary campus is on Wellesley Street in Auckland's Central business district . AUT has three secondary campuses: North Shore, South, and the Millennium Institute of Sport and Health . For branding purposes, since 2010 the Auckland University of Technology refers to itself as AUT University. Wikipedia.

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Ramezani M.,Auckland University of Technology | Flores-Johnson E.,University of Sydney | Shen L.,University of Sydney | Neitzert T.,Auckland University of Technology
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2017

Ti-6Al-4V alloy is one of the most important engineering alloys, combining attractive properties with inherent workability. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of strain rate on the compressive mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V alloy manufactured by a selective laser melting process. The mechanical tests were performed by means of a compression split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus under high strain rate ranging from 1400 s-1to 4500 s-1. The true stressstrain curves obtained from static and dynamic compressive tests show strain rate sensitivity from quasi-static (peak strength 1300MPa) to high strain rate (peak 1500 MPa). Within the high strain rate range tested, the strain rate sensitivity is not remarkable. The fractographic analysis shows a relatively smooth and smeared fractured surface along with a dimple like structure. The observation of elongated dimples confirms the operation of a dynamic shear failure mechanism for the additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V parts. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Valadbeigi A.,University of Auckland | Zarnani P.,Auckland University of Technology | Quenneville P.,University of Auckland
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

A new resilient slip friction joint for framed hybrid structures is introduced. The proposed connection has a self-centring behaviour in addition to damping characteristic. This innovative Resilient Slip Friction (RSF) joint is placed at the beam to column connections. The RSF joint provides energy dissipation and reduces members demand. Therefore, the members remain undamaged during seismic excitations. The RSF joint component testing is conducted demonstrating its damping and restoring characteristics. The result is used to specify characteristics of RSF connections for a building. The ductility factor of the building is determined by nonlinear static analysis. Time history analysis is also performed to investigate the response of the structure equipped with RSF joints. The seismic response of structures in terms of base shear, top floor displacement, and maximum top floor acceleration is evaluated.

Zarnani P.,Auckland University of Technology | Valadbeigi A.,University of Auckland | Quenneville P.,University of Auckland
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

Damage in recent major earthquakes has resulted in engineers' effort on the development of techniques which not only provide life-safety, but also aim to minimise damage so that buildings could be reoccupied quickly with minimal business interruption and repair costs. In this paper, an innovative Resilient Slip Friction (RSF) joint (patent filed) is introduced which provides an advanced engineering solution for seismic damage avoidance design of new and retrofitted buildings (low- to high-rise) either in timber, steel, concrete or hybrid of any. Design procedures have been developed for capacity prediction of different possible configuration of this new joint either symmetric, asymmetric, or combined. The results from joint component testing demonstrate the capacity of this novel joint system for dissipating earthquake energy as well as self-centring to minimize the damage and the residual drift of the structure after a severe event. The comparison between the predictions and test results validates the accuracy of the predictive model developed. In addition to Translational RSF joints, other potential variations such as Rotational and 2D to 4D are also presented to be used for specific applications. The presented joint also has the capacity to be instrumented to be used as a reliable connection system for the structural health monitoring purposes.

Zarnani P.,Auckland University of Technology | Quenneville P.,University of Auckland
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

The introduction of Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) as an engineered timber product has played a significant role in the considerable progress of timber construction in recent years. Extensive research has been conducted in Europe and more recently in Canada to evaluate the fastening capacity of different types of fasteners in CLT. While ductile capacities calculated using the yield limit equations are quite reliable for fastener resistance in connections, however, they do not take into account the possible brittle failure modes of the connection which could be the governing failure mode in multi-fastener joints. Therefore, a stiffness-based design approach which has already been developed by the authors and verified in LVL, glulam and lumber has been adapted to determine the block-tear out resistance of connections in CLT by considering the effect of perpendicular layers. The comparison between the test results on riveted connections conducted at the University of Auckland (UoA) and at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the predictions using the new model and the one developed for uniformly layered timber products show that the proposed model provides higher predictive accuracy and can be used as a design provision to control the brittle failure of wood in CLT connections.

Field B.I.,Auckland University of Technology | Reed K.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

The recovery model in mental health was the result of a number of coinciding events that include economic issues, social movements and consumer rights. This led to a new approach to mental health treatment. However the economic issues led to a new political agenda arising. Neo liberalism saw the decline in mental health consumers gaining empowerment and an equal share for the responsibility of their own treatment. This paper looks at a number of reasons why this model was introduced, the history behind it being introduced and why it has been largely ineffective in becoming a dominant model within mental health practice. © 2016 ADG, SA. All Rights Reserved.

Tarzia L.,University of Melbourne | Valpied J.,University of Melbourne | Koziol-McLain J.,Auckland University of Technology | Glass N.,Johns Hopkins University | Hegarty K.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2017

The use of Web-based methods to deliver and evaluate interventions is growing in popularity, particularly in a health care context. They have shown particular promise in responding to sensitive or stigmatized issues such as mental health and sexually transmitted infections. In the field of domestic violence (DV), however, the idea of delivering and evaluating interventions via the Web is still relatively new. Little is known about how to successfully navigate several challenges encountered by the researchers while working in this area. This paper uses the case study of I-DECIDE, a Web-based healthy relationship tool and safety decision aid for women experiencing DV, developed in Australia. The I-DECIDE website has recently been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial, and we outline some of the methodological and ethical challenges encountered during recruitment, retention, and evaluation. We suggest that with careful consideration of these issues, randomized controlled trials can be safely conducted via the Web in this sensitive area.

Kaur D.,Auckland University of Technology | Lie T.T.,Auckland University of Technology | Nair N.K.C.,University of Auckland | Valles B.,Genesis Energy
IEEE International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, ICSET | Year: 2017

The stochastic nature of the wind and the highly non linear transform from wind speed to electrical energy makes it more difficult to determine how to dispatch the power in order to guarantee both operational cost reduction and power system security. From a network constraint perspective for the economic dispatch problem one of the factors to be accounted for is voltage security, which impacts both active and/or reactive power dispatch. In this paper, an Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) using Graph Theory has been proposed to overcome the above-mentioned problem. Graph Theory has been used since it becomes very useful in cases of fault detection and isolation or to shed unbalanced nodes in case of excessive or insufficient supply. Simulation studies on the modified IEEE-14 Bus System have been conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2016 IEEE.

Qureshi J.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Lie T.T.,Auckland University of Technology | Hasan R.,Power and Polymers Ltd
IEEE International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, ICSET | Year: 2017

Power industry has restructured in last decades and now it has become a commodity rather than a utility with the maximization of profit as its main purpose. Peak ripples in the electricity demand curve could disturb the economic generation. In developing countries, Electric Supply Companies are unable to meet the existing power demand due to unfeasible and unjustified fuel burning. Therefore, they are left with load shedding as the only Demand side solution. It is a well-known fact that the Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Lighting could be used to conserve electricity. However, LED could also be used as an energy management technique without affecting the comfort level of consumer. Electricity demand and supply curves could be correlated up to 93% through this option. Argument is supported by correlation analysis of estimated daily demand and supply curves of Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC). Estimated curves are developed through LED lighting energy conservation analysis on KESC summer and winter demand curves. Finally, from global perspective, LED lighting is not only a remedy for removal of peaks and ripples in demand curve but also a feasible solution for global climate problems through energy conservation and low carbon emissions. © 2016 IEEE.

Kunchala J.,Auckland University of Technology | Yu J.,Auckland University of Technology | Yongchareon S.,Auckland University of Technology | Han Y.,North China University of Technology
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2017

Research on transforming traditional activity-centric processes into the newly emerged artifact-centric processes has gained an increasing interest in recent years. This transformation lead to the emergence of several approaches to transforming standalone activity-centric business processes, while neglecting the inter-organizational processes consisting of multiple collaborating processes having message flows among them. In this paper, we propose an approach for transforming activity-centric collaborating processes into the artifact-centric processes. The proposed approach consists of two phases: the first phase is to merge the collaborating processes into an integrated process and the second phase is to synthesize the artifact lifecycles from the resulting integrated process. The feasibility of this approach has been studied with an inter-organizational e-business process scenario. © 2017 ACM.

Hecimovich M.D.,University of Northern Iowa | Hecimovich M.D.,Murdoch University | King D.,Auckland University of Technology | King D.,Hutt Valley District Health Board
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2017

Aim: For junior-level Australian Rules Football there is a paucity of head injury and concussion surveillance data; thus, the primary aim was to document head injury and concussion incidence in participants aged 9–17 years with a secondary aim to identify the mechanism-of-injury. Methods: A prospective cohort study in which a designated representative for each of the 41 teams recorded on a weekly basis the number of head injuries suspected of being a concussion, diagnosed concussions and the mechanism-of-injury during competition games over the course of a 12-game season. For analysis three groups were formed – number of Player-Seasons, Athlete-Exposures, head injury and concussion incidence per 1000 Athlete-Exposures – and were calculated. Narrative data was categorised. Results: There was 13 reported head injuries resulting in seven concussions in the sample population (n = 976). The incidence rates for head injury and concussion were 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.5–1.7) and 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.2–1.0) per 1000 Athlete-Exposures. There were four head injuries resulting in two concussions in the 12–13-year-old group and nine head injuries and five concussions in the 14–17-year-old group. Two categories emerged for mechanism-of-injury: player-to-surface and player-to-player, with 9 of the 13 head injuries resulting from player-to-player contact. Conclusions: The incidence rates were similar in the two older groups and lower in comparison with American football and rugby. The data collected have advanced our knowledge of head injury incidence and established baseline data which to compare in future years and may assist in development of preventative measures. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians)

Cink R.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Song Y.,University of Northern Colorado
Chemistry Education Research and Practice | Year: 2016

This multiple case study investigated how college students with diverse ethno-linguistic backgrounds used chemistry vocabulary as a way to look at their discursive identities and cultural border crossings during first semester general chemistry laboratories. The data were collected in two major forms: video-taped laboratory observations and audio-recorded interviews. All transcribed data from videos and interviews were analyzed qualitatively, using the constant comparative method. Our results indicate that (1) participants explained the laboratories using vocabulary emphasized in both lecture and the laboratory; (2) participants were able to appropriate the scientific meanings of Dual Meaning Vocabulary (DMV) and Cross Meaning Vocabulary (CMV) into their discursive identities; (3) participants' prior English learning experiences and the classroom culture shaped their appropriation of scientific vocabulary and (4) participants' appropriation of chemistry language was deeply related to how they incorporated scientific culture into their everyday culture. These themes are discussed in depth using the cultural anthropological theoretical framework, the discursive identity lens, and a tiered definition of scientific vocabulary. Implications of this study are also discussed in terms of instruction and future research. © 2017 Royal Society of Chemistry.

Cao G.,Massey University | Lai E.M.K.,Auckland University of Technology | Alam F.,Massey University
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2017

Model predictive control (MPC) of an unknown system that is modelled by Gaussian process (GP) techniques is studied. Using GP, the variances computed during the modelling and inference processes allow us to take model uncertainty into account. The main issue in using MPC to control systems modelled by GP is the propagation of such uncertainties within the control horizon. In this study, two approaches to solve this problem, called GPMPC1 and GPMPC2, are proposed. With GPMPC1, the original stochastic model predictive control (SMPC) problem is relaxed to a deterministic non-linear MPC based on a basic linearised GP local model. The resulting optimisation problem, though non-convex, can be solved by the sequential quadratic programming. By incorporating the model variance into the state vector, an extended local model is derived. This model allows us to relax the non-convex MPC problem to a convex one which can be solved by an active-set method efficiently. The performance of both approaches is demonstrated by applying them to two trajectory tracking problems. Results show that both GPMPC1 and GPMPC2 produce effective controls but GPMPC2 is much more efficient computationally. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2016.

Mohan D.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhang X.,University of Sydney | Foo G.H.B.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2017

This paper presents a novel duty cycle-based direct torque control (DDTC) strategy for a three-level neutral point clamped inverter fed interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. DDTC methods proposed in the literature for three-level inverter fed DTC (3L-DTC) are complicated, parameter dependent, and pay little attention to inverter inherent switching constraints. In this paper, a simple yet robust duty ratio calculation method, which respects the inverter switching constraints, is proposed. Additionally, a novel switching strategy is adopted to minimize the effects of flux drooping phenomena seen in 3L-DTC drives during low-speed operations. The proposed 3L-DTC method is efficient in reducing both torque and flux ripples while operating at low switching frequencies. Therefore, it is suitable for medium-high power ac drives. Experimental results on a scaled down test rig and comparative analysis are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. © 2017 IEEE.

Sharan R.V.,Auckland University of Technology | Moir T.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Information Sciences | Year: 2017

Support vector machines (SVMs) have seen an increased usage in applications of acoustic event classification since its rise to popularity about two decades ago. However, in recent years, deep learning methods, such as deep neural networks (DNNs), have shown to outperform a number of classification methods in various pattern recognition problems. This work starts by comparing the classification performance of DNNs against SVMs with a number of feature representations which fall into two categories: cepstral features and time-frequency image features. Unlike related work, the classification performance of the two classifiers is also compared with feature vector combination and the training and evaluation times of the classifiers and features are also compared. The performance is evaluated on an audio surveillance database containing 10 sound classes, each class having multiple subclasses, with the addition of noise at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The experimental results shows that DNNs have a better overall classification performance than SVMs with both individual and combined features and the classification accuracy with DNNs is particularly better at low SNRs. The evaluation time of the DNN classifier was also determined to be the fastest but with a slow training time. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Nicholls D.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation | Year: 2017

Background: There are still many practitioners, academics and researchers who are bemused by the principles and practices of qualitative research. The second paper in this three part series on qualitative research explores the important question of research methodologies. Content: Focusing on four of the more common methodologies—phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and discourse analysis—the article shows how each represents a distinctively different view of reality (a feature of qualitative research that was unpacked in the first article in the series). Conclusions: These methodologies are then used to highlight some of the fundamental methodological differences between quantitative and qualitative research. Having set down these principles, I move on, in the third article, to discuss qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. © MA Healthcare Ltd.

Maunder E.,Auckland University of Technology | Laursen P.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Kilding A.E.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2017

Purpose: To compare the physiological and performance effects of ad libitum cold-fluid (CF) and ice-slurry (IS) ingestion on cycling time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Methods: Seven well-trained male triathletes and cyclists completed 2 maximal-effort 40-km cycling TTs in hot (35°C) and humid (60% relative humidity) conditions. In randomized order, participants ingested CF or IS (initial temperatures 4°C and -1°C, respectively) ad libitum during exercise. At each 5-km interval, time elapsed, power output, rectal and skin temperature, heart rate, and perceptual measures were recorded. The actual CF and IS temperatures during the 40-km TT were determined post hoc. Results: Performance time (2.5% ± 2.6%, ES = 0.27) and mean power (-2.2% ± 3.2%, ES = -0.15) were likely worse in the IS trial. Differences in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular measures were largely unclear between trials, while feeling state was worse in the later stages of the IS trial (ES = -0.31 to -0.95). Fluid-ingestion volume was very likely lower in the IS trial (-29.7% ± 19.4%, ES = -0.97). The temperatures of CF and IS increased by 0.37°C/min and 0.02°C/min, respectively, over the mean TT duration. Conclusions: Ad libitum ingestion of CF resulted in improved 40-km cycling TT performance compared with IS. Participants chose greater fluid-ingestion rates in the CF trial than in the IS trial and had improved feeling state. These findings suggest that ad libitum CF ingestion is preferable to IS during cycling TTs under conditions of environmental heat stress. © 2017 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Shepherd D.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2017

An article published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health indicated that, far from degrading health, noise from wind turbines may actually be associated with positive health outcomes. Such a finding is counter to that reported elsewhere for general and wind turbine noise. This Commentary sets out to explore alternative explanations of these differences. © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Bedford R.,Auckland University of Technology | Bedford C.,Independent Research Consultant | Wall J.,University of Adelaide | Young M.,University of Adelaide
Australian Geographer | Year: 2017

Circular migration was one of several enduring themes in Graeme Hugo’s highly productive research career. Although his specialist field was Asian population movement, during the 2000s he became increasingly interested in labour migration in the Pacific Islands. This paper reviews the development of two managed circular migration schemes targeting Pacific labour that emerged following the UN High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development in 2006. New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) scheme and Australia’s Seasonal Worker Program (SWP) have attracted international attention as the kind of ‘best practice’ temporary labour migration schemes that Hugo had in mind when he emphasised the positive contributions that circular forms of mobility could make to development in both source and destination countries. The two schemes have transformed mobility between the participating countries and have played a major role in the negotiations over a free-trade agreement between Pacific Forum countries, including Australia and New Zealand. Although the schemes have been in operation for almost 10 years, this paper argues that they are not becoming ‘business as usual’; they embody complex systems of relationships between multiple stakeholders that require ongoing management to ensure that they do not become traps for low-skilled, low-paid ‘permanent’ temporary workers. © 2017 Geographical Society of New South Wales Inc.

Cao J.,Auckland University of Technology | Tomita A.H.,University of Sao Paulo
Topology and its Applications | Year: 2015

In this paper, we continue the study of function spaces equipped with topologies of (strong) uniform convergence on bornologies initiated by Beer and Levi [3]. In particular, we investigate some topological properties these function spaces defined by topological games. In addition, we also give further characterizations of metrizability and completeness properties of these function spaces. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Dickson G.,Auckland University of Technology | Naylor M.,Auckland University of Technology | Phelps S.,Auckland University of Technology
Sport Management Review | Year: 2015

Studies of consumer attitudes towards ambush marketing are in conclusive and have not investigated whether those attitudes are industry specific. Rather than just refer to 'an organisation' (i.e. non-industry specific), an industry-specific approach specifies the organisation's core business activity. We propose that individuals expect a higher standard of advertising from banks as compared to beer companies and that this would be reflected in more negative attitudes towards banks that engage in questionable promotional practices. A demographically and geographically representative sample of New Zealanders (. n=. 514) was surveyed one week following the final match of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. Three items measuring consumer attitudes towards ambush marketing were adapted from the work of Portlock and Rose (2009). These three items were further adapted to specify bank or beer companies. The results indicate that most individuals perceive ambush marketing as unethical and a practice that organisations should not utilise. However, no evidence was found to support the proposition that individuals hold banks to a higher standard than beer companies in terms of ambush marketing. Demographic variables - age, gender and location - were not significantly associated with differing attitudes. © 2014 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand.

Gao T.,North China Electrical Power University | Gao T.,Auckland University of Technology | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Evolving Systems | Year: 2016

For the need of automatic and intelligent dairy cow farming, it is important to combine more information technologies with the surveillance system. Different gestures may provide different healthy status information of the cow, in order to timely detect the abnormal activity and reduce the workload of breeder, a system which imitates the cognition of human brain is proposed in this paper. First, AdaBoost method is used to detect the position of cow in the surveillance video sequence, and then the 3D Evolving Spiking Neural Network Model is training to recognize different gestures and classify the activity in the real-time video surveillance. Experiment shows the average accuracy of detection and classification of the proposed system is about 80 %, and the performance is robust in complex natural environment. The proposed method can be used as the base of whole alert system which can help breeders to discover abnormal activity and to prevent the diseases in advance, so as to improve the welfare of dairy cow and the quality of milk. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Enayatollahi R.,Auckland University of Technology | Nates R.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Anderson T.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2017

An experimental study was performed in order to characterise the heat and mass transfer processes, where an air stream passes through a sheet of falling water in a crossflow configuration. To achieve this, the hydrodynamics of a vertical liquid sheet in a ducted gaseous crossflow were studied. Four distinct flow regimes were identified (a stable sheet, a broken sheet, a flapping sheet and a lifted sheet) and mapped using Reynolds and Weber numbers. Subsequently, the Buckingham π theorem and a least squares analyses were employed leading to the proposal of two new dimensionless numbers referred to as the Prandtl Number of Evaporation and the Schmidt Number of Evaporation. These describe the heat and mass transfer in low temperature evaporation processes with crossflow interaction. Using these dimensionless numbers, empirical correlations for Sherwood and Nusselt numbers for the identified flow regimes were experimentally determined. These correlations were in a good agreement with their corresponding experimental values. It was found that flapping sheets have the strongest heat and mass transfer intensities whereas the weakest intensities were seen for the “stable” sheets. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Altaf S.,Auckland University of Technology | Soomro M.W.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Mehmood M.S.,Sajid Brothers Engineering Industries Pvt. Ltd.
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering | Year: 2017

In this paper, broken rotor bar (BRB) fault is investigated by utilizing the Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) method. In industrial environment, induction motor is very symmetrical, and it may have obvious electrical signal components at different fault frequencies due to their manufacturing errors, inappropriate motor installation, and other influencing factors. The misalignment experiments revealed that improper motor installation could lead to an unexpected frequency peak, which will affect the motor fault diagnosis process. Furthermore, manufacturing and operating noisy environment could also disturb the motor fault diagnosis process. This paper presents efficient supervised Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning technique that is able to identify fault type when situation of diagnosis is uncertain. Significant features are taken out from the electric current which are based on the different frequency points and associated amplitude values with fault type. The simulation results showed that the proposed technique was able to diagnose the target fault type. The ANN architecture worked well with selecting of significant number of feature data sets. It seemed that, to the results, accuracy in fault detection with features vector has been achieved through classification performance and confusion error percentage is acceptable between healthy and faulty condition of motor. © 2017 Saud Altaf et al.

Nicholls D.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation | Year: 2017

Background: In the third and final article in this three part series, I look at sampling in qualitative studies, methods of data collection and analysis. Content: Building on the previous two articles, I highlight the importance of rigour and explore some of the different criteria used by researchers to demonstrate that their research is trustworthy. I include a brief discussion of some of the more recent trends in mixed-method or post-positivist research. Conclusions: Qualitative research is different in many ways to quantitative, and it cannot be approached with the same mind-set. It seeks to explore different aspects to quantitative research, focusing on the individual experience, rather than conclusions that can be drawn from large groups. Because of these differences, the two approaches to research should not be seen as alternatives, but complementary. © MA Healthcare Ltd.

Calvert S.,Auckland University of Technology | Smythe E.,Auckland University of Technology | McKenzie-Green B.,Auckland University of Technology
Midwifery | Year: 2017

Objective to present a grounded theory research study explaining how New Zealand midwives maintain their ongoing competence to practise their profession. Design grounded theory, an interpretive emergent research methodology was used to examine the process of maintaining competence in midwifery practice. Setting New Zealand urban and rural practice settings. Participants twenty-six midwives from across New Zealand were interviewed and asked about maintaining their competence to practise. Five midwives were interviewed twice, to explore the emerging findings and as one method of member checking. Findings the grounded theory of ‘working towards being ready’ describes a continuous process in which midwives engage as they work to maintain practice competence. The component parts comprise professional positioning, identifying needs, strategizing solutions and reflecting on practice. The process is contextual, diverse and is influenced by the practice setting where the salient conditions of resourcing, availability and opportunity for engagement in activities are significant. Key conclusions across the midwifery profession, midwives in New Zealand are currently working under the generic umbrella of midwifery practice. Midwives work across a range of practice arenas in diverse ways focussed on providing safe care and require a range of professional development activities germane to their area of practice. When the midwife has access to professional development pertinent to their practice, women and the profession benefit. As there is diversity of practice, then mandated processes for ongoing competence need to have flexibility to reflect that diversity. Implications for practice midwives engage in development that allows them to remain current in practice and that enables them to provide appropriate care to women and their babies. As a consequence they can develop expertise in certain aspects of midwifery. Mandated processes that require engagement in activities aimed at demonstration of competence should be evaluated and tailored to ensure they meet the needs of the developing profession. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Van Straten W.,Swinburne University of Technology | Van Straten W.,Auckland University of Technology | Tiburzi C.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy | Tiburzi C.,Bielefeld University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2017

A statistical framework is presented for the study of the orthogonally polarized modes of radio pulsar emission via the covariances between the Stokes parameters. To accommodate the typically heavy-tailed distributions of single-pulse radio flux density, the fourth-order joint cumulants of the electric field are used to describe the superposition of modes with arbitrary probability distributions. The framework is used to consider the distinction between superposed and disjoint modes, with particular attention to the effects of integration over finite samples. If the interval over which the polarization state is estimated is longer than the timescale for switching between two or more disjoint modes of emission, then the modes are unresolved by the instrument. The resulting composite sample mean exhibits properties that have been attributed to mode superposition, such as depolarization. Because the distinction between disjoint modes and a composite sample of unresolved disjoint modes depends on the temporal resolution of the observing instrumentation, the arguments in favor of superposed modes of pulsar emission are revisited, and observational evidence for disjoint modes is described. In principle, the four-dimensional covariance matrix that describes the distribution of sample mean Stokes parameters can be used to distinguish between disjoint modes, superposed modes, and a composite sample of unresolved disjoint modes. More comprehensive and conclusive interpretation of the covariance matrix requires more detailed consideration of various relevant phenomena, including temporally correlated subpulse modulation (e.g., jitter), statistical dependence between modes (e.g., covariant intensities and partial coherence), and multipath propagation effects (e.g., scintillation and scattering). © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Ding N.,Auckland University of Technology | Prasad K.,Auckland University of Technology | Lie T.T.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles | Year: 2017

Electric vehicles (EV), as a promising way to reduce the greenhouse effect, have been researched extensively. With improvements in the areas of power electrics, energy storage and support, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) provides competitive driving range and fuel economy compared to the internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Operating with optimised control strategies or utilising the concept of the energy management system (EMS), the efficiency of the PHEV could be significantly improved. In this review paper, the operating process of the various types of EVs will be explained. Battery technology and supercapacitor technology will also be discussed as a possibility to increase the energy capacity of PHEV. Copyright © 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Nadeem M.,Auckland University of Technology | Zaman R.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Saleem I.,University of Central Punjab
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2017

Recent regulatory changes in Australia require listed companies to implement policies for increasing board diversity and corporate sustainability practices and to report thereon. In this study the impact of boardroom gender diversity on corporate sustainability practices is investigated, by applying a well-developed dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator to control for endogeneity, on a sample of all Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) listed firms over the period of 2010–2014. The study findings reveal a significant positive relationship between women's representation on boards and corporate sustainability practices. The findings remained robust when two alternative proxies for gender diversity (Blau Index, women dummy) were employed. The findings highlight that corporate sustainability practices with the presence of female directors on board remarkably increased between 2010, when ASX amended principles came into effect, and 2014. These findings are important for two aspects. The first is for firms’ management, the regulators and for policy implications in promoting gender diversity and corporate sustainability practices. Secondly the policy debate is informed by providing empirical evidence supporting a board diversity case for corporate sustainability performance. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Sinfield D.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Visual Design | Year: 2016

This paper considers the concept of palimpsest as a way of reading eroded signage and metaphorical relationships it might have to remembered places and experience. Exposed to the eroding forces of time, materiality and the elements, urban signs may tell stories that reach beyond their original meanings. As part of lived space, they also intersect with our lives, marking both the erased layers of commerce and the nature of recollected narrative. It is concerned with story telling though a reflection on signage typography as a form of palimpsest. It explores intersections between narratives of personal experience and these erosions in lived space. Using the potentials of spatio-temporal typography, one asks what is the potential of eroding typography on signs to enhance the evocative nature of re-collective storytelling. Accordingly, this paper seeks to communicate subjective experiences through a creative reflection upon typography as painted wall advertising, posters and billboards, through to the concept of typography in moving image. © Common Ground Publishing, David Sinfield, All Rights Reserved.

Chong J.L.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Olesen K.,University of Auckland
Australasian Journal of Information Systems | Year: 2017

In this research, we perform a meta-analysis to explain how organizations are deploying technologies to enforce organizational sustainability by meeting the goal of eco-effectiveness. Prior studies have studied the influences on the adoption of technologies using the Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) model that incorporate some aspects of technological, organizational or environmental factors. We collected prior research to test the factors of the TOE model to ascertain their relative impact and strength. Our meta-analysis found eight additional technological and organizational factors. We found strong support for IT infrastructure, perceived direct benefits, top management support, and competitive pressure. Moderate support for compatibility, technological readiness, perceived indirect benefits, knowledge (human resources), organizational size, attitudes towards innovation, learning culture, pressure from trade partners (industry characteristics) and regulatory support. Lastly, weak support was found for relative advantage, complexity, perceived risks and information learning culture. Only two dimensions, financial resources and environmental uncertainty failed to reach statistical significance. © 2017 Chong & Olesen.

Williams L.A.,University of Auckland | Giddings L.S.,Auckland University of Technology | Bellamy G.,A+ Network | Gott M.,University of Auckland
Palliative Medicine | Year: 2017

Background: Research indicates that women are the primary family caregivers for others at life's end and, because of ageing populations, will keep fulfilling this role as they age. Yet, little is known about how the gendered nature of caregiving contributes to older women's understandings of providing care. Aim: To explore how gender norms constructed older women's views about the appropriate roles of women and men in providing palliative and end-of-life care for family members. Design: Six focus groups were conducted with 39 community dwelling older adults (36 women and 3 men) using two vignettes to prompt discussion about experience of end of life caring and attitudes towards Advance Care Planning. This article reports on data gathered from female participants' reactions to Vignette 1 which prompted significant discussion regarding the intersection of gender and older women's caregiving experience. Setting/participants: A total of 36 women in the age ranges of '50-59 years' through to '90-99 years' from New Zealand. Results: Three themes regarding gender and caregiving were identified: the expectation women will care, women's duty to care and women's construction of men in relation to caregiving and illness. The women adhered to stereotypical gender norms that regard women as primary caregivers. There was little connection between the burden they associated with caregiving and this gender construction. Conclusion: The expectation that older women will provide end-of-life care even when experiencing considerable burden is an unacknowledged outcome of gender norms that construct women as caregivers. © The Author(s) 2016.

Radnor J.M.,Cardiff Metropolitan University | Lloyd R.S.,Cardiff Metropolitan University | Lloyd R.S.,Auckland University of Technology | Oliver J.L.,Cardiff Metropolitan University | Oliver J.L.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2017

Radnor, JM, Lloyd, RS, and Oliver, JL. Individual response to different forms of resistance training in school-aged boys. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 787-797, 2017 - The aim of this study was to examine individual responses to different forms of resistance training on measures of jumping and sprinting performance in school-aged boys. Eighty boys were categorized into 2 maturity groups (pre- or post-peak height velocity [PHV]) and randomly assigned to a plyometric training, resistance training, combined training, or control group. Intervention groups participated in training twice weekly for 6 weeks, with measures of acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height, and reactive strength index (RSI) collected preintervention and postintervention. In the pre-PHV cohort, plyometric training and combined training resulted in significantly more positive responders than the other 2 groups in both sprint variables (standardized residual values >1.96). In the post-PHV cohort, significantly more positive responders for acceleration and squat jump height resulted from traditional strength training and combined training groups, compared with other groups. Conversely, plyometric training and combined training resulted in a significantly greater number of positive responders than the other 2 groups for maximal velocity and RSI. Control participants rarely demonstrated meaningful changes in performance over the 6-week period. Irrespective of maturation, it would seem that combined training provides the greatest opportunity for most individuals to make short-term improvements in jump and sprint performance. Taking maturation into account, our data show that a plyometric training stimulus is important for individuals in the pre-PHV stage of development, whether as a stand-alone method or in combination with traditional strength training, when attempting to improve jumping and sprinting ability. However, individuals in the post-PHV stage require a more specific training stimulus depending on the performance variable that is being targeted for improvement. © 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Morgan C.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Interprofessional Care | Year: 2017

Graduates entering the healthcare workforce can expect to undertake interprofessional practices, requiring them to work at the intersection of knowledge and practice boundaries that have been built over years of socialisation in their respective professions. Yet, in complex health environments, where health challenges go beyond the knowledge and skills of any single profession, there is a growing concern that healthcare practitioners lack capability to collaborate with each other. This article presents the findings from a year-long hermeneutic phenomenological study of graduates’ temporal experiences of practice roles in their respective fields of healthcare and in collaboration with other professions. Research findings emerged through an inductive analytic process using thematic analysis techniques and provides an insight into graduates’ early professional practice in contemporary healthcare contexts and the development of their professional practice at the interface of professional boundaries. The 18 graduates from six health professions developed their professional practice in working contexts where intersecting professional boundaries resulted in strengthening professional identity in their chosen professions, through articulating distinct knowledge and skills to other professions during collaborative work. Concurrently they established flexible working relationships with members of other professions, resulting in expanding health perspectives and extending practice knowledge and skills beyond their distinct professions. The study provides new understanding of the relationship between areas of professionalism, identity, and collaborative practice in an evolving health workforce, through the experiences of graduates in their early work as registered health practitioners. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Byard K.,Auckland University of Technology | Shutler P.M.E.,Nanyang Technological University
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2017

A new type of coded aperture configuration that enables fast decoding of the coded aperture shadowgram data is presented. Based on the products of incidence vectors generated from the Singer difference sets, we call these Singer product apertures. For a range of aperture dimensions, we compare experimentally the performance of three decoding methods: standard decoding, induction decoding and direct vector decoding. In all cases the induction and direct vector methods are several orders of magnitude faster than the standard method, with direct vector decoding being significantly faster than induction decoding. For apertures of the same dimensions the increase in speed offered by direct vector decoding over induction decoding is better for lower throughput apertures. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Nicholls D.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation | Year: 2017

Background: Qualitative research has made great strides in recent years and it now makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and illness. But there are still many practitioners, academics and researchers who are totally bemused by its principles and practices. Content: In the first of a series of three articles exploring qualitative research philosophies, methodologies and methods, I attempt to unravel some of its complexities and peculiarities, in the hope that those readers new to qualitative research will study it further and consider using it in the future. This article deals with broad questions of philosophy—specifically, the fundamental difference between a quantitative and qualitative world view. Conclusions: This article explores the difference between a belief in a single objective reality and multiple realities, and relates these to quantitative and qualitative research methods. It also considers the role of theory, focusing on the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning. These concepts are the basis for the second article in the series on qualitative methodologies, to appear in the next issue. © MA Healthcare Ltd.

Boiarkina I.,University of Auckland | Depree N.,University of Auckland | Yu W.,University of Auckland | Wilson D.I.,Auckland University of Technology | Young B.R.,University of Auckland
Food Control | Year: 2017

Efficiently troubleshooting a fortification issue at an industrial milk powder plant is a complex undertaking given the myriad of possible causes. Multiple causes, even when simple, are not easy to diagnose, however every single cause needs to be addressed in order to consistently meet product quality specifications. This paper uses statistical modelling in the form of Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the probable causes for unexpected excessive product variation. This approach alone, refines but does not completely solve, the production issues, so a systematic approach was required to definitively solve other root causes. This two-step fault diagnosis approach ensured that all of the differing causes proposed by plant personnel could be addressed, and sound recommendations for good manufacturing operations could be made and adopted. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Singh H.,Auckland University of Technology | Diaz Andrade A.,Auckland University of Technology | Techatassanasoontorn A.A.,Auckland University of Technology
Information Technology for Development | Year: 2017

While information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) research examines the diverse range of topics, settings, and technologies, there has been a lack of attention on theorizing the process of information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled development. This paper draws on Bourdieu’s practice theory to provide a framework for doing so. This framework captures the multi-level, generative, and processual nature of ICT-enabled development, and illustrates that ICT-enabled development is an ongoing activity that is recreated, reinforced, and restricted by the interaction between the dispositions of the stakeholders involved and changes in the various forms of capital that are valued in a community. The utility of the framework is illustrated by using practice theory to re-analyze three ICT4D initiatives from the literature. © 2017 Commonwealth Secretariat

Shavanddasht M.,Allame Tabatabaee University | Schanzel H.A.,Auckland University of Technology
Anatolia | Year: 2017

The significant issue of parental influence on a child’s development is under researched in tourism. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether perceived parenting styles have an influence on adolescents’ tourism motivations. A self-administered survey was conducted with 100 adolescents who visited the National Museum of Iran in 2016. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Firstly, the adolescents perceived their parents influence on them as more authoritative than authoritarian or permissive. Secondly, the authoritarian parenting style was tied to less self-determined motivation including amotivation and external regulation; authoritative parenting was found to be related to intrinsic motivation. Finally, the permissive parenting style was a good predictor for introjected motivation. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Feigin V.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Norrving B.,Lund University | Mensah G.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Circulation Research | Year: 2017

On the basis of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2013 Study, this article provides an overview of the global, regional, and country-specific burden of stroke by sex and age groups, including trends in stroke burden from 1990 to 2013, and outlines recommended measures to reduce stroke burden. It shows that although stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years rates tend to decline from 1990 to 2013, the overall stroke burden in terms of absolute number of people affected by, or who remained disabled from, stroke has increased across the globe in both men and women of all ages. This provides a strong argument that "business as usual" for primary stroke prevention is not sufficiently effective. Although prevention of stroke is a complex medical and political issue, there is strong evidence that substantial prevention of stroke is feasible in practice. The need to scale-up the primary prevention actions is urgent. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

Afifi S.,Auckland University of Technology | GholamHosseini H.,Auckland University of Technology | Sinha R.,Auckland University of Technology
IECBES 2016 - IEEE-EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences | Year: 2016

Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are common machine learning tools with accurate classification. Hardware implementation of SVM classifiers for real-Time applications can improve their computing performance and reduce power consumption. This study aims to develop a real-Time embedded classifier to be implemented on a low-cost handheld device dedicated for early detection of melanoma. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, which is responsible for the majority of skin cancer related deaths. Therefore, the proposed device would be very beneficial in the primary care. In this paper, a hardware design is proposed to implement a linear binary SVM classifier in an FPGA targeting online melanoma classification. A recent hybrid Zynq platform is used for the implementation of the proposed system designed using the latest High Level Synthesis design methodology. The implemented system demonstrates high performance, low hardware resources utilization and low power consumption that meet vital embedded systems constraints. © 2016 IEEE.

Ge C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology | Liu Z.,Shanghai University | Yang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Information Sciences | Year: 2017

Limited by visual percepts elicited by existing visual prosthesis, it's necessary to enhance its functionality to fulfill some challenging tasks for the blind such as obstacle avoidance. This paper argues that spiking neural networks (SNN) are effective techniques for object recognition and introduces for the first time a SNN model for obstacle recognition to assist blind people wearing prosthetic vision devices by modelling and classifying spatio-temporal (ST) video data. The proposed methodology is based on a novel spiking neural network architecture, called NeuCube as a general framework for video data modelling in simulated prosthetic vision. As an integrated environment including spiking trains encoding, input variable mapping, unsupervised reservoir training and supervised classifier training, the NeuCube consists of a spiking neural network reservoir (SNNr) and a dynamic evolving spiking neural network classifier (deSNN). First, input data is captured by visual prosthesis, then ST feature extraction is utilized in the low-resolution prosthetic vision generated by prostheses. Finally such ST features are fed to the NeuCube to output classification result of obstacle analysis for an early warning system to be activated. Experiments on collected video data and comparison with other computational intelligence methods indicate promising results. This makes it possible to directly utilize available neuromorphic hardware chips, embedded in visual prostheses, to enhance significantly their functionality. The proposed NeuCube-based obstacle avoidance methodology provides useful guidance to the blind, thus offering a significant improvement of current prostheses and potentially benefiting future prosthesis wearers. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Zhao M.,Nanyang Technological University | Kumar A.,National University of Singapore | Chong P.H.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Lu R.,University of New Brunswick
IEEE Wireless Communications Letters | Year: 2017

Power conservation and reliable data delivery are two most critical issues in the design of routing protocols for wireless networks, especially for dense lossy networks. However, traditional routing protocols, which deliver packets along predetermined routing paths with unnecessarily high transmit power, cannot cope well with dynamic and lossy wireless mediums under excessive interference. In order to prolong the lifetime of networks and improve the reliability of networks, this letter proposes a reliable and energy-efficient opportunistic routing (REOR) protocol. REOR effectively utilizes path diversity by jointly selecting optimal transmit power and optimal forwarder set, which significantly postpones the death of nodes and ensures persistent network connectivity with dynamic workload sharing approach. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that REOR achieves up to 50% reliability improvement and 30% energy conservation compared to the benchmark, i.e., the IPv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks. © 2012 IEEE.

Ogier H.,Auckland University of Technology | Buchan J.,Auckland University of Technology
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2017

Diegetic (stock-on-shelf) user interfaces may offer advantages, such as increased player immersion, compared to non-diegetic (list-based) in-game store interfaces. One way to evaluate this hypothesis would be to have a single game store with both diegetic and non-diegetic interfaces so that comparative usability tests of the interfaces could be conducted. This work explores the feasibility of converting non-diegetic to diegetic stores in existing games, for the purpose of enabling this comparison. Feasibility is tested based on in-game spatial constraints. The proposed model is demonstrated and evaluated through its application to a commercially released game. This evaluation shows the model generates meaningful results and useful implications for diegetic in-game store design. Further work is suggested, including use of real-world store layout algorithms. © 2017 ACM.

Mahiddin N.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Sarkar N.I.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 18th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 14th IEEE International Conference on Smart City and 2nd IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Systems, HPCC/SmartCity/DSS 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper, we propose an improved MANET gateway selection scheme suitable for disaster recovery applications. Having an infrastructure less and decentralize features, MANET is well suited to bring the network back that has been collapse after a disaster. In this paper, we focus on improving throughput performance of MANET by designing a better gateway selection scheme. The key idea is to eliminate the congestion at each MANET gateway to improve the network performance. The main challenge is the mobility of nodes in disaster recovery environment. Simulation results show that the proposed gateway selection scheme can efficiently manage the traffic distribution at each gateway in order to maximize the network performance. © 2016 IEEE.

Hossain A.,Auckland University of Technology | Ray S.K.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Sinha R.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 18th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications, 14th IEEE International Conference on Smart City and 2nd IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Systems, HPCC/SmartCity/DSS 2016 | Year: 2016

Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, can cause severe destruction and create havoc in the society. Buildings and other structures may collapse during disaster incidents causing injuries and deaths to victims trapped under debris and rubble. Immediately after a natural disaster incident, it becomes extremely difficult for first responders and rescuers to find and save trapped victims. Often searches are carried out blindly in random locations, which delay the rescue of the victims. This paper presents a Smartphone-Assisted Victim Localization (SmartVL) method in which smartphones belonging to trapped victims and other people in disaster affected areas can self-detect the occurrence of a disaster incident by monitoring the radio environment and can self-switch to a disaster mode to transmit emergency help messages with their location coordinates to other smartphones nearby. To locate other neighbouring smartphones also operating in the disaster mode, each smartphone runs a rendezvous process. The SmartVL method can guide search and rescue operations and increase the possibility of saving lives. Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) network has been considered for this work. Simulation results have shown a significant rendezvous performance enhancement can be achieved when channel hopping sequence is constructed based on channel ranking. © 2016 IEEE.

Chehrehsa S.,Auckland University of Technology | Moir T.,Auckland University of Technology
ICALIP 2016 - 2016 International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing - Proceedings | Year: 2016

In single channel speech enhancement using Wiener filters, the accurate estimation of speech and noise periodograms forming the noisy speech periodogram is really important since it highly affects the performance. In some methods a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to model the Probability Density Function (PDF) of speech and noise periodograms and then a Maximum A-Posteriori criterion is applied on the PDFs to estimate these periodograms. These MAP methods exhibited very good enhancement results. A mathematical improvement on the extraction of the MAP estimation of the speech periodogram is introduced here. This improvement is based on the estimation of spectrum amplitude and then using it for periodogram estimation. Our method exhibits good performance results in comparison to other successful methods. © 2016 IEEE.

Perera R.,Auckland University of Technology | Nand P.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 28th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, ICTAI 2016 | Year: 2016

The consumption of Linked Data has dramatically increased with the increasing momentum towards semantic web. Linked data is essentially a very simplistic format for representation of knowledge in that all the knowledge is represented as triples which can be linked using one or more components from the triple. To date, most of the efforts has been towards either creating linked data by mining the web or making it available for users as a source of knowledgebase for knowledge engineering applications. In recent times there has been a growing need for these applications to interact with users in a natural language which required the transformation of the linked data knowledge into a natural language. The aim of the RealText project described in this paper, is to build a scalable framework to transform Linked Data into natural language by generating lexicalization patterns for triples. A lexicalization pattern is a syntactical pattern that will transform a given triple into a syntactically correct natural language sentence. Using DBpedia as the Linked Data resource, we have generated 283 accurate lexicalization patterns for a sample set of 25 ontology classes. We performed human evaluation on a test sub-sample with an inter-rater agreement of 0.86 and 0.80 for readability and accuracy respectively. This results showed that the lexicalization patterns generated language that are accurate, readable and emanates qualities of a human produced language. In a full automatic mode, it increased the accuracy by 91.2% compared to the Lemon lexicalization model. © 2016 IEEE.

Cochrane T.,Auckland University of Technology | Narayan V.,Auckland University of Technology | Antonczak L.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Interactive Learning Research | Year: 2016

Smartphones provide a powerful platform for augmented reality (AR). Using a smartphone's camera together with the built in GPS, compass, gyroscope, and touch screen enables the real world environment to be overlaid with contextual digital information. The creation of mobile AR environments is relatively simple, with the development of mobile AR browsers such as Wikitude and Layar that provide simple tools for user AR content creation and sharing. In this paper we illustrate how these tools can be used within collaborative educational contexts based upon five projects that we have implemented from 2011 to 2015. Throughout these five projects we explored how we could use a mash up of mobile social media to design collaborative learner-generated mobile AR projects in a variety of higher education curriculum contexts. Via a meta analysis of the five projects the paper develops a pragmatic framework for implementing mobile AR to facilitate learner-generated projects, with a particular focus upon enabling new pedagogical strategies.

Baig M.M.,Auckland University of Technology | Hosseini H.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Linden M.,Mälardalen University
IEEE Region 10 Annual International Conference, Proceedings/TENCON | Year: 2017

This research aims to design a self-organizing decision support system for early diagnosis of key physiological events. The proposed system consists of pre-processing, clustering and diagnostic system, based on self-organizing fuzzy logic modeling. The clustering technique was employed with empirical pattern analysis, particularly when the information available is incomplete or the data model is affected by vagueness, which is mostly the case with medical/clinical data. Clustering module can be viewed as unsupervised learning from a given dataset. This module partitions the patient vital signs to identify the key relationships, patterns and clusters among the medical data. Secondly, it uses self-organizing fuzzy logic modeling for early symptom and event detection. Based on the clustering outcome, when detecting abnormal signs, a high level of agreement was observed between system interpretation and human expert diagnosis of the physiological events and signs. © 2016 IEEE.

Botangen K.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Yu J.,Auckland University of Technology | Sheng M.,Macquarie University
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2017

Adaptability is a significant property which enables software systems to continuously provide the required functionality and achieve optimal performance. The recognised importance of adaptability makes its evaluation an essential task. However, the various adaptability dimensions and implementation mechanisms make adaptive strategies difficult to evaluate. In service oriented computing, several frameworks that extend the WS-BPEL, the de facto standard in composing distributed business applications, focus on enabling the adaptability of processes. We aim to evaluate the adaptability of processes specified from the extended-BPEL frameworks. In this paper, we propose metrics to measure the adaptability of an AO4BPEL process. The metrics is grounded in the perspective that a process is capable of dynamically adapting to changes in business requirements. This opens potential future work on evaluating the adaptability of processes specified from various aspect-oriented WS-BPEL frameworks. © 2017 ACM.

Sinha R.,Auckland University of Technology | Narula A.,Auckland University of Technology | Grundy J.,Deakin University
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2017

Mobile apps can integrate sensors and actuators in Internetof-Things systems to achieve novel and diverse functionalities. For instance, apps can implement self-management and monitoring functions to help patients manage a large number of health conditions within their (smart-) homes. However, each smart-home may contain a different and often dynamic sensor-actuator configuration and it is undesirable to write new code for every new installation or change. Statecharts present an appropriate formal and visual design model to design apps and support automatic code generation. However, these designs assume a specific and static sensor-actuator configuration. We propose parametric statecharts, an extension to statecharts that can be automatically customised to a dynamic smart-home's configuration. We develop a translator to convert parametric statecharts into standard statecharts customised to a given system configuration, and then a custom compiler to generate Android code. Experimental results confirm the exibility of the proposed approach. © 2017 ACM.

Usman A.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Gutierrez J.,Auckland University of Technology
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2016

Different wireless Peer-to-Peer (P2P) routing protocols rely on cooperative protocols of interaction among peers, yet, most of the surveyed provide little detail on how the peers can take into consideration the peers' reliability for improving routing efficiency in collaborative networks. Previous research has shown that in most of the trust and reputation evaluation schemes, the peers' rating behaviour can be improved to include the peers' attributes for understanding peers' reliability. This paper proposes a reliability based trust model for dynamic trust evaluation between the peers in P2P networks for collaborative routing. Since the peers' routing attributes vary dynamically, our proposed model must also accommodate the dynamic changes of peers' attributes and behaviour. We introduce peers' buffers as a scaling factor for peers' trust evaluation in the trust and reputation routing protocols. The comparison between reliability and non-reliability based trust models using simulation shows the improved performance of our proposed model in terms of delivery ratio and average message latency. © 2016 ACM.

Deng Z.,University of Auckland | Stommel M.,Auckland University of Technology | Xu W.,University of Auckland
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

Soft robotics is an expanding new research field. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on soft robotics including its research directions, key characteristics, materials, design and fabrication techniques. Although many biomimetic soft robots have been developed, a few of these have industrial applications. This article proposes a soft XY machine table for the purpose of object manipulation. The proposed table combines the concepts from three areas: soft robotics, object manipulation and industrial application. The surface of proposed table is entirely soft and embedded with inflatable air chambers. Surface deformation is generated by inflating these chambers. One object manipulation approach is to generate travelling waves on the deformable surface. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.

Shwe H.Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Jet T.K.,Nanyang Technological University | Chong P.H.J.,Auckland University of Technology
2016 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence, ICTC 2016 | Year: 2016

Smart City applications are addressed to city authorities, infrastructure and utilities managers, and city stakeholders wishing to use smart city solutions in order to increase the competitiveness, cohesion, and sustainability of the city. Facing with these massive, distributed, heterogeneous and complex state data, conventional data storage and management will encounter great difficulties. Conventional infrastructure uses centralized approach, expensive large-scale server, disk array storage hardware and relational database management system; which leads to poor system scalability, higher costs, and essentially, is difficult to adapt to the requirement of higher reliability on real-Time state data of the smart city applications. Accurate, fast, open, shared information system is the basis for the smart city applications. In this paper, we proposed a scalable distributed cloud data storage and management platform which provides reliable data storage and management of the vast amount of information in the smart city. © 2016 IEEE.

Beecham S.,Lero The Irish Software Research Center | Clear T.,Auckland University of Technology | Damian D.,University of Victoria | Barr J.,Ithaca College | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Software | Year: 2017

Pioneering educators discuss how they inject realism into global-software-engineering education. © 2017 IEEE.

Lewis M.W.,Massey University | Babbage D.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Leathem J.M.,Massey University
Brain Injury | Year: 2017

Objective: To develop an ecologically valid measure of executive functioning (i.e. Planning and Organization, Executive Memory, Initiation, Cognitive Shifting, Impulsivity, Sustained and Directed Attention, Error Detection, Error Correction and Time Management) during a functional chocolate brownie cooking task. Methods: In Study 1, the inter-rater reliability of a novel behavioural observation assessment method was assessed with 10 people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In Study 2, 27 people with TBI and 16 healthy controls completed the functional task along with other measures of executive functioning to assess validity. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients for six of the nine aspects of executive functioning ranged from .54 to 1.00. Percentage agreements for the remaining aspects ranged from 70% to 90%. Significant and non-significant, moderate, correlations were found between the functional cooking task and standard neuropsychological measures. The healthy control group performed better than the TBI group in six areas (d = 0.56 to 1.23). Conclusions: In this initial trial of a novel assessment method, adequate inter-rater reliability was found. The measure was associated with standard neuropsychological measures, and our healthy control group performed better than the TBI group. The measure appears to be an ecologically valid measure of executive functioning. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Whalley J.,Auckland University of Technology | Goldweber M.,Xavier University | Ogier H.,Auckland University of Technology
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2017

In this paper, we present an exploration of the values which students consider when selecting their capstone project. The five core values considered were difficulty, experience gained, social value, fun, and topic familiarity. Students were surveyed and asked to indicate the level of importance they placed on each of these core values. Difficulty and experience gained were found to be the values considered most important. Students who placed more emphasis on fun and very little on difficulty were found to be more likely to perform poorly on the project. Further work is suggested to refine the survey instrument used and to investigate the reasons behind student priorities. © 2017 ACM.

Lo S.,Auckland University of Technology | Cusack B.,Auckland University of Technology
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

Project Governance (PG) is often viewed as an unnecessary overhead and hence often integrated within the project framework. This paper presents the results of a study that claims that the level of a project success is influenced by the demarcation of the PG process from the core project management framework. Four case studies were chosen to be analysed based on the success rates and the varying levels of PG demarcation. The practitioners from the four companies working in different contextual setups were interviewed about their perceptions on the role of IT related PG and PM on the success of a project. The findings revealed that 'records management', 'run check lists regularly' and 'encourage project governance adoption' would benefit the performance of the projects. Analysis of the data showed that a PG framework helps add business value to a PM framework provided the roles of each framework is clearly defined and the inter-relationship is synchronised with the overall goals and objectives of the project.

Wimble M.,University of Michigan | Singh H.,Auckland University of Technology
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

Although research on the economic value of IT has predominantly focused on firm-level impacts, recent studies have begun incorporating industry-level variables to examine their impact on the value a firm obtains from its IT investments. This trend originated in the aim to offer better contextualized explanations for the differences in value firms obtained from their IT investments across different industries. We present a multi-level model of IT value, in which industry-level and firm-level factors jointly determine the value a firm obtains from its IT investments. By using a hierarchical linear model to examine industry to firm interactions we are able to control for violations of statistical assumptions that are likely to bias cross-level estimates obtained using conventional methods. Our analysis reveals that all of the industry factors we looked at had significant interaction effects with the link between firmlevel IT and performance. Specifically, industry concentration, industry growth, and industry outsourcing significantly impact firm-level IT value. More interestingly we find these industry-level IT impacts manifest not only as mean differences between industries, but also as significant interactions with firm-level effects. Initial results from this research-in-progress suggest a multilevel perspective could enrich our understanding of the relationship between IT and firm performance.

Singh H.,Auckland University of Technology
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

The increasing ubiquity of information systems in organizations has been accompanied by a rise in users adopting technology that is not officially mandated (often known as shadow IT). This study examines the emergence and consequences of such locally-driven but centrally-unintended adaptations of an organization's collection of IT assets. This phenomenon, referred to as "IS portfolio drift, can be costly: the expenditure on developing, purchasing and supporting the officially-mandated applications is squandered, while additional funds are needed to maintain the shadow systems. Decision quality could be reduced, because of uncertainty over data provenance. However, portfolio drift can also be beneficial: it reflects employees' innovativeness in adapting to environmental change or in using emerging technologies to enhance their performance. I use a practice theory perspective to highlight how portfolio drift is an ongoing, macro-level outcome of the micro-level actions of various agents. The process of governing an IS portfolio is influenced by the relative allocation of power in an organization, how this allocation came to be, and how it changes. Ten case studies are used to delineate a process theory of portfolio drift, and explain the situated practices that steer the portfolio-in-use to meet the goals of the agents involved.

Popovich N.,Auckland University of Technology | Singh R.,Auckland
Proceedings - 2016 3rd International Conference on Mathematics and Computers in Sciences and in Industry, MCSI 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper a mathematical model for the whole control system (vehicle, steering gear and controller) is presented. The system was subjected to a few different optimization methods: Ultimate Sensitivity Tuning Method, Systematic Tuning Method, as well as a cost function (integral of quadratic dynamic error). This criterion is used to minimize a fuel consumption. Selection of the controller is examined and defined. Optimal parameters have been investigated and analyzed. To analyze stability of the system analytical and graphical methods are used (Routh's criteria and Root-Locus). Simulation of the system is performed by using Simulink and Matlab. Non-linear elements are added to the system to protect the mechanical component from being damaged. The presence of external disturbance is pointed out. Further improvement of the model is suggested. ©2016 IEEE.

Jimenez-Reyes P.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University | Samozino P.,University of Savoy | Brughelli M.,Auckland University of Technology | Morin J.-B.,Auckland University of Technology | Morin J.-B.,University Cote dAzur
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2017

Ballistic performances are determined by both the maximal lower limb power output (Pmax) and their individual force-velocity (F-v) mechanical profile, especially the F-v imbalance (FVimb): difference between the athlete's actual and optimal profile. An optimized training should aim to increase Pmax and/or reduce FVimb. The aim of this study was to test whether an individualized training program based on the individual F-v profile would decrease subjects' individual FVimb and in turn improve vertical jump performance. FVimb was used as the reference to assign participants to different training intervention groups. Eighty four subjects were assigned to three groups: an "optimized" group divided into velocity-deficit, force-deficit, and well-balanced sub-groups based on subjects' FVimb, a "non-optimized" group for which the training program was not specifically based on FVimb and a control group. All subjects underwent a 9-week specific resistance training program. The programs were designed to reduce FVimb for the optimized groups (with specific programs for sub-groups based on individual FVimb values), while the non-optimized group followed a classical program exactly similar for all subjects. All subjects in the three optimized training sub-groups (velocity-deficit, force-deficit, and well-balanced) increased their jumping performance (12.7 ± 5.7% ES = 0.93 ± 0.09, 14.2 ± 7.3% ES = 1.00 ± 0.17, and 7.2 ± 4.5% ES = 0.70 ± 0.36, respectively) with jump height improvement for all subjects, whereas the results were much more variable and unclear in the non-optimized group. This greater change in jump height was associated with a markedly reduced FVimb for both force-deficit (57.9 ± 34.7% decrease in FVimb) and velocity-deficit (20.1 ± 4.3%) subjects, and unclear or small changes in Pmax (-0.40 ± 8.4% and + 10.5 ± 5.2%, respectively). An individualized training program specifically based on FVimb (gap between the actual and optimal F-v profiles of each individual) was more efficient at improving jumping performance (i.e., unloaded squat jump height) than a traditional resistance training common to all subjects regardless of their FVimb. Although improving both FVimb and Pmax has to be considered to improve ballistic performance, the present results showed that reducing FVimb without even increasing Pmax lead to clearly beneficial jump performance changes. Thus, FVimb could be considered as a potentially useful variable for prescribing optimal resistance training to improve ballistic performance. © 2017 Jiménez-Reyes, Samozino, Brughelli and Morin.

Brown S.J.,Auckland University of Technology | White S.,Auckland University of Technology | Power N.,Auckland University of Technology
Advances in physiology education | Year: 2017

Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped according to their first-year academic achievement using a two-step cluster analysis method and that grades achieved in the human anatomy and physiology courses would be strong predictors of overall achievement. One cohort that graduated in 2014 (n = 105) and one that graduated in 2015 (n = 94) were analyzed separately, and for both cohorts, two groups were identified, these being "high achievers" (HIGH) and "low achievers" (LOW). Consistently, the anatomy and physiology courses were the strongest predictors of group assignment, such that a good grade in these was much more likely to put a student into a high-achieving group. Students in the HIGH groups also scored higher in the Transition to Nursing course when compared with students in the LOW groups. The higher predictor importance of the anatomy and physiology courses suggested that if a first-year grade-point average was calculated for students, an increased weighting should be attributed to these courses. Identifying high-achieving students based on first-year academic scores may be a useful method to predict future academic performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

Lin X.,Auckland University of Technology | Seet B.-C.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems | Year: 2017

This paper presents a new design of a wearable plantar pressure monitoring system in the form of a smart sock for sensing abnormal relative pressure changes. One advantage of this approach is that with a battery-free design, this system can be powered solely by radio frequency (RF) energy harvested from a radio frequency identification (RFID) reader unit hosted on a smartphone of the wearer. At the same time, this RFID reader can read foot pressure values from an embedded sensor-tag in the sock. A pressure sensing matrix made of conductive fabric and flexible piezo-resistive material is integrated into the sock during the knitting process. Sensed foot pressures are digitized and stored in the memory of a sensor-tag, thus allowing relative foot pressure values to be tracked. The control unit of the smart sock is assembled on a flexible printed circuit board (FPC) that can be strapped to the lower limb and detached easily when it is not in use. Experiments show that the system can operate reliably in both tasks of RF energy harvesting and pressure measurement. © 2016 IEEE.

Le Mon J.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Baguley C.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Foo G.,Auckland University of Technology | Li T.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity | Year: 2017

The use of bulk high-temperature superconductor material has been proposed for various noncontact transportation systems. Commonly, such systems use permanent magnets to achieve levitation of a vehicle housing bulk superconductors, with motive force provided separately. Recent work has focused on using electromagnets to provide both the levitation and the motive force. Through energizing appropriately placed electromagnets in a correct pattern, straight line travel and rotation across a horizontal plane are possible. However, significant overshoot and instability can be incurred during motion events, leading to changes in the flux pinning state and misalignment of a vehicle. This paper proposes the design of a planar array of electromagnets and an energization pattern that achieves controlled rotation. Straight line travel is also achieved. Thus, using the proposed drive system, straight-line travel as well as rotation of a levitated vehicle across a horizontal plane is possible. Experimental verification is provided. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

Pereira M.,Auckland University of Technology | Ramezani M.,Auckland University of Technology | Pasang T.,Auckland University of Technology | Withy B.,Defence Technology Agency
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2017

Sandwich panels made of thin and stiff skins, connected by a thick and soft core are widely used in load-bearing components mainly due to their high strength to weight ratio. To improve the reliability in using sandwich beams, it is necessary to understand their responses under external mechanical and environmental stimuli. This paper investigates the construction of steelpolyurethane- steel sandwich panels and their mechanical properties. Key properties of a sandwich structure are the adhesion between the skins and the sandwich material, and the load transfer from the outer skin to the inner skin. Lap shear specimens were selected to give an indication of the bond strength of the polyurethane to steel, whilst three point bend test specimens were selected to indicate the degree of load transfer between the skins and the bending resistance provided by the sandwich structure. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Chen Z.W.,Auckland University of Technology | Phan M.A.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Darvish K.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Materials Science | Year: 2017

Modes of solidification during selective laser melting (SLM) of metallic alloys, including Co–Cr–Mo alloy, are still not fully understood. This understanding is important in SLM to achieve acceptable properties and part reliability. Using a typical SLM condition and Co–Cr–Mo alloys, microstructures of tracks were characterized in this study. As is commonly observed, solidification starts from epitaxial growth in the boundary of melt track. Cells were found to grow immediately from the melt boundary, without forming a planar zone. This is explained by the growth velocity being sufficiently high that planar growth condition is not favorable. Epitaxial growth has been found to have two possible crystallographic orientations of <100>: either a continuation of the same <100> orientation as in previous track or a change of 90° to another <100> orientation. The selection is in response to scan direction-dependent heat flux direction. The crystal growth direction in relation to heat flux direction also explains that a grain (a group of cells) after epitaxial growth could either stop or continue to the track surface. No equiaxed grains were observed, and this can be explained by the continuation of cellular growth in the whole track. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Teras M.,Curtin University Australia | Reiners T.,Curtin University Australia | Coldham G.,Curtin University Australia | Wood L.C.,Auckland University of Technology
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been under development for decades, but latest more affordable and increasingly available technologies have raised unprecedented interest in using VR for enhancing human capacities, also in higher education learning. This paper will report a summary of a three-year project in developing and studying the use of VR for safety training in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (SCM). The training environment, 'nDiVE', with its technological and learning design developments is presented. Also opportunities and challenges that have emerged during the project, in addition to future research and development opportunities are discussed. © 2016 Authors.!

Phillips J.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Hughes B.,University of Auckland | Ogeil R.P.,Monash University
Journal of Substance Use | Year: 2017

Background: Smartphone technology enables treatment providers to deliver targeted outpatient support “on site” in “real time,” but this will require a better understanding of peer networks and substance users’ acquisition of drugs. Objectives: This study sought to understand contextual factors associated with risky levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: A total of 280 participants answered an online survey, completed the AUDIT and indicated their numbers of regular drinking partners, and the number of times and places alcohol was normally consumed. Results: Hazardous drinkers had a greater number of drinking partners and drank alcohol at a greater number of times and locations. Alcohol dependence was associated with alcohol use in more times and places, but was not linked to the numbers of drinking partners. Models drawn from foraging literature were used to describe the data. Conclusions/Importance: Patterns of alcohol foraging could be described by power laws, and such power laws could be used to compare foraging for a range of substances. A consideration of foraging behavior may inform location-aware services targeting risky substance use. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Khalid N.A.,University Technology of MARA | Bai Q.,Auckland University of Technology | Al-Anbuky A.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Agents, ICA 2016 | Year: 2016

In this paper, we present an adaptive agent-based partner selection mechanism for routing packet in distributed wireless sensor networks. A wireless sensor network is modelled as a multi-agent system by concretely regards each sensor as an agent. Agents in the proposed approach are competitive where they need to cope with limited resources (i.e. available energy) in the network. Auction-based scheme (First-price auction) is adopted in the proposed approach in determining the winner, that is eligible to relay the packets. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via simulations and comparisons with some existing routing protocols including SPIN and LEACH. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed model can perform better in terms of packet loss. © 2016 IEEE.

Li W.,Auckland University of Technology | Bai Q.,Auckland University of Technology | Zhang M.,University of Wollongong
Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Agents, ICA 2016 | Year: 2016

Many studies have been conducted to analyse the influence diffusion in social networks, where the problem is normally modelled from a centralised perspective. In this paper, we propose an agent-based approach to model the bidirectional influence propagation in directed weighted networks in a distributed manner. In the proposed model, each user's personalised traits and individual's social context are taken into consideration on the basis of social theories. Moreover, the model can capture the dynamics in the environment as well. We claim that the proposed approach is more suitable for simulating the real-world complex influence propagation and predicting the evolution of entire network comparing with traditional approaches. © 2016 IEEE.

Huang L.,Auckland University of Technology | Huang J.,Auckland University of Technology | Xu J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
M2VIP 2016 - Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice | Year: 2016

This paper presents the results of simulation of several model based and model free attitude controllers of quad-rotor UAVs with an aim to find a simple and effective one suitable for the UAV developed in our lab. The backgrounds of the controllers are also described. © 2016 IEEE.

Chien H.-J.,Auckland University of Technology | Chuang C.-C.,National University of Kaohsiung | Chen C.-Y.,National University of Kaohsiung | Klette R.,Auckland University of Technology
International Conference Image and Vision Computing New Zealand | Year: 2017

Image feature-based ego-motion estimation has been dominating the development of visual odometry (VO) visual simultaneously localisation and mapping (V-SLAM) and structure-from-motion (SfM) for several years. The detection extraction or representation of image features play crucial roles when solving camera pose estimation problems in terms of accuracy and computational cost. In this paper we review three popular classes of image features namely SIFT SURF and ORB as well as the recently proposed A-KAZE features. These image features are evaluated using the KITTI benchmark dataset to conclude about reasons for deciding about the selection of a particular feature when implementing monocular visual odometry. © 2016 IEEE.

Nguyen M.,Auckland University of Technology | Yeap W.,Auckland University of Technology | Hooper S.,Auckland University of Technology
International Conference Image and Vision Computing New Zealand | Year: 2017

In this paper, we present a new type of trading card (called Stereo Cards) designed for a table-top Augmented Reality (AR) game environment. The main goal of Stereo Cards is to replace the current trading cards used in collectable card games such as Magic: The Gathering, YuGiOh, and Pokemon. The superior point of Stereo Cards is that they are computationally detectable and recognisable, e.g. they are numerically readable by computing devices equipped with conventional digital cameras or webcams. Therefore, Stereo Cards are not only suitable for collection purposes, but they are also ready for AR applications and games. In each card, we optically encode a unique error-correcting binary Golay code by pasting a series of stereo stripes over a portion of the original image. Even though some parts of the picture are lost, the Stereo Cards still maintain, on average, 75% of their original look. Further in this paper, we also describe a simple set-up of a table-top Stereo Cards game environment. From experiments conducted, our Stereo Cards are found to be relatively robust under various lighting conditions, and thus, could be useful in future trading card game tournaments. © 2016 IEEE.

Stommel M.,Auckland University of Technology | Henry S.M.,Auckland University of Technology | Williams E.,Auckland University of Technology
International Conference Image and Vision Computing New Zealand | Year: 2017

This report presents the first quantitative results for the recognition of a new type of microscopic, optical marker called 'snowflakes'. Snowflakes have an approximately circular shape with 'teeth' on the outside that form a binary code. The application of snowflakes lies in the automatic tagging and tracking of items over time, distances, or processes by assigning a binary key. We describe a method to determine the position and model-parameters of snowflakes, and ultimately read the binary code from microscopic pictures of laser-machined snowflake prototypes. Our method is evaluated experimentally. We quantify the recognition rate and identify the classes of error relevant for future research. © 2016 IEEE.

News Article | April 21, 2017

Singapore is aiming to be the world's first Smart Nation - but what does that actually entail? You know what it's like. You're waiting for the bus on your way to work and inevitably, you're late. Enter Singapore's Smart Nation solution, which aims to merge technology into every aspect of life on the small island. That includes some bus stops, which under this plan will now have interactive maps and wi-fi connectivity - even e-books and a swing. This is all an attempt to make the journeys of Singapore's commuters more enjoyable and efficient. If you look at how important the bus system is to public transport here, it makes sense. With almost four million daily rides, the bus network makes up the most significant part of Singapore's transport network. Nowhere is the scale of the project more evident than at the headquarters of the Land Transport Authority. Using GPS data, researchers and programmers can tell how fast or slow a bus is going and how many people are on board at any given time. "With this information we know where are the choke points at different times of the day," said Christopher Hooi Wai Yean, deputy director of the authority's communications and sensors division, as he demonstrated the movement of the buses on their screens. "[This way] we can put in measures to alleviate and dissipate the crowd at choke points across the island. This will ensure that the whole transport system is more well-oiled in that sense." It is an approach that is being replicated across all sectors - transport, homes, offices and even hospitals. The KK Women's and Children's Hospital is one of the biggest and busiest in Singapore. On any day, it sees scores of patients - mainly pregnant women or mums with their kids. It began trialling video conferencing for its patients in non-emergency cases in November last year. Gladys Soo is one such mum. Her seven-year old son suffers from eczema and she started treatment for him in February. "We went to the hospital in person for the first consultation to check for his eczema," she told me. "The follow-up was done via video conferencing." Mrs Soo said the fact that she is a working mum was a factor in her decision to go for the video-conferencing option. "It saves you time - I don't have to travel, I don't have to take leave. The pharmacist can actually view my son's eczema on the video conference. And he can diagnose whether it is getting better - it is like being with him in person." Speech therapy, lactation consultation services and paediatric home care services are other aspects of medical care that KKH is using video conferencing to address. Associate Prof Low Cheng Ooi, the chief clinical informatics officer of IHiS, the company that manages the technology infrastructure for the healthcare aspect of Singapore's Smart Nation solutions, says the plan is to phase this programme in gradually. "We already know that public health services delivered over video and medical consultation via video works well in larger countries with rural areas," he told me. "But in Singapore we are very urban, and our citizens can get healthcare within a very short period of time. "So we have to rationalise what it is we are trying to do with this platform. We are moving cautiously with discipline so that patients will benefit from this kind of consultation, with no risks." It's an ambitious goal - trying to merge technology into every aspect of citizens' lives - but this grand plan may have already run into some speed bumps. "We really are not going as fast as we ought to," said the country's Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong recently. To deliver results, Singapore has set up a new ministerial committee to push ahead with its Smart Nation dreams. Vivian Balakrishnan, the minister in charge of the Smart Nation initiative, says that a sense of urgency is vital in ensuring the future success of Singapore. "If we don't get this right, jobs are at stake," he told the BBC. "Wages are at stake and any government that doesn't prepare its people for the future and offer the potential for good jobs will be in trouble." But Harminder Singh, a senior lecturer in business information systems at the Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand, says the main issue with Smart Nation is that there may be too much government control over it right now for real innovation to take place. The future of a good night out Are our cities killing us with bad air? Will we travel to work in jetpacks? "Singapore's way of doing things is that the government leads, then others follow," he told me. "This might be a problem - it is too centralised and so it may take too long for plans to trickle down. "And ideas from the ground may be neither visible to those on top nor acceptable to them, especially if they are related to the delivery of services that are traditionally handled by the government." He adds that it is not clear why Singapore's leaders are so keen to move full steam ahead with this plan. "Smart Nation is about building national technology infrastructure so that the government can offer new services, or do what they do now differently. The government may need to explain more clearly how the Smart Nation project will improve salaries and jobs in Singapore to get the project moving faster." The authorities here are taking this initiative extremely seriously - it appears to be the big bet Singapore is taking for its next generation. Because of its size, Singapore has always had to stay one step ahead of the curve to survive. This tiny island nation has always prided itself on persistence and a strong work ethic to succeed. Smart Nation is its plan for its future survival - and the shoots of innovation are beginning to show. Singapore now has a small but growing start-up culture and home-grown companies are starting to take more risks. But creativity needs to be nurtured - and Singapore may find that its Smart Nation dreams may take time to reach their full potential.

Kabir M.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Han J.,Swinburne University of Technology | Yu J.,Swinburne University of Technology | Yu J.,Auckland University of Technology | Colman A.,Swinburne University of Technology
Personal and Ubiquitous Computing | Year: 2014

Social context information has been used with encouraging results in developing socially aware applications in different domains. However, users' social context information is distributed over the Web and managed by many different proprietary applications, which is a challenge for application developers as they must collect information from different sources and wade through a lot of irrelevant information to obtain the social context information of interest. On the other hand, it is extremely hard for information owners to control how their information should be exposed to different users and applications. Combining the social context information from the diverse sources, incorporating richer semantics and preserving information owners' privacy could greatly assist the developers and as well as the information owners. In this paper, we introduce a social context information management system (SCIMS). It includes the ability to acquire raw social data from multiple sources; an ontology-based model for classifying, inferring and storing social context information, in particular, social relationships and status; an ontology-based policy model and language for owners to control access to their information; a query interface for accessing and utilizing social context information. We evaluate the performance of SCIMS using real data from Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Google Calendar and demonstrate its applicability through a socially aware phone call application. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.

Crewther B.T.,Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand HortResearch | Crewther B.T.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Cook C.J.,Imperial College London | Lowe T.E.,Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand HortResearch | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Crewther, BT, Cook, CJ, Lowe, TE, Weatherby, RP, and Gill, N. The effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 25(1): 32-39, 2011 - This study examined the effects of shortcycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. Thirty male rugby players performed an upperbody power and lower-body strength (UPLS) and/or a lowerbody power and upper-body strength (LPUS) workout using a crossover design (sprint vs. control). A 40-second upper-body or lower-body cycle sprint was performed before the UPLS and LPUS workouts, respectively, with the control sessions performed without the sprints. Bench throw (BT) power and box squat (BS) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength were assessed in the UPLS workout, and squat jump (SJ) power and bench press (BP) 1RM strength were assessed in the LPUS workout. Saliva was collected across each workout and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). The cycle sprints improved BS (2.6 ± 6 1.2%) and BP (2.8 6 ± 1.0%) 1RM but did not affect BT and SJ power. The lower-body cycle sprint produced a favorable environment for the BS by elevating Sal-T concentrations. The upper-body cycle sprint had no hormonal effect, but the workout differences (%) in Sal-T (r = -0.59) and Sal-C (r = 0.42) concentrations correlated to the BP, along with the Sal-T/C ratio (r = -0.49 to -0.66). In conclusion, the cycle sprints improved the BP and BS 1RM strength of elite rugby players but not power output in the current format. The improvements noted may be explained, in part, by the changes in absolute or relative hormone concentrations. These findings have practical implications for prescribing warm-up and training exercises. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Braakhuis A.J.,University of Auckland | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

The beneficial effects of exercise and a healthy diet are well documented in the general population but poorly understood in elite athletes. Previous research in subelite athletes suggests that regular training and an antioxidant-rich diet enhance antioxidant defenses but not performance. Purpose: To investigate whether habitual diet and/or exercise (training status or performance) affect antioxidant status in elite athletes. Methods: Antioxidant blood biomarkers were assessed before and after a 30-min ergometer time trial in 28 male and 34 female rowers. The antioxidant blood biomarkers included ascorbic acid, uric acid, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte- superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Rowers completed a 7-d food diary and an antioxidant-intake questionnaire. Effects of diet, training, and performance on resting biomarkers were assessed with Pearson correlations, and their effect on exercise-induced changes in blood biomarkers was assessed by a method of standardization. Results: With the exception of GPx, there were small to moderate increases with exercise for all markers. Blood resting TAC had a small correlation with total antioxidant intake (correlation .29; 90% confidence limits, ±.27), and the exercise-induced change in TAC had a trivial to small association with dietary antioxidant intake from vitamin C (standardized effect .19; ±.22), vegetables (.20; ±.23), and vitamin A (.25; ±.27). Most other dietary intakes had trivial associations with antioxidant biomarkers. Years of training had a small inverse correlation with TAC (-.32; ±.19) and a small association with the exercise-induced change in TAC (.27; ±.24). Conclusion: Training status correlates more strongly with antioxidant status than diet does. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Chung H.,Auckland University of Technology | Emms G.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Fox C.,University of Otago
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2014

This paper shows how to use a mathematical model to predict the vibration of lightweight timber-framed floor/ceiling systems (LTFSs) caused by mechanical excitation. The LTFS considered here is made up of an upper layer (including the floor), cavity space with timber joists and the ceiling. These components are joined by timber battens, ceiling furring channels and ceiling clips, which are also included in the model. The vibration in the structure is caused by a localized excitation on the top surface and the resulting vibration level of the ceiling surface will be analysed. The cavity space is filled with fibre infill for damping the sound transmitting through the cavity. A unique feature of the design and the model is the sand-sawdust mixture in the upper layer. The theoretical model and the experimental measurements show that the sand-sawdust dampens the vibration in the frequency range between 10 and 200 Hz. The model uses the classical theories of elastic plates, beams and room acoustics together with the Fourier expansion method for solving the system of partial differential equations. The damping by the sand-sawdust and the fibre infill are found by comparing the numerical simulations against the experimental measurements. This paper will show that the simple linear frequency dependent loss factors can be used in the model to predict the low-frequency vibrations of LTFSs. © S. Hirzel Verlag · EAA.

Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Morrison S.,Old Dominion University | Barrett R.,Griffith University
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity | Year: 2010

The current study investigated the effect of 2 different types of unilateral resistance training on the postural tremor output of 19 neurologically healthy men age 70-80 yr. The strength- (n = 7) and coordination-training (n = 7) groups trained twice a week for 6 wk, performing dumbbell biceps curls, wrist flexions, and wrist extensions, while the control group (n = 5) maintained their normal activities. Changes in index-finger tremor (RMS amplitude, peak, and proportional power) and upper limb muscle coactivation were assessed during 4 postural conditions that were performed separately with the trained and untrained limbs. The 2 training groups experienced significantly greater reductions in mean RMS tremor amplitude, peak, and proportional tremor power 8-12 Hz and upper limb muscle coactivation, as well as greater increases in strength, than the control group. These results further demonstrate the benefits of resistance training for improving function in older adults. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Van Ginckel A.,Foundation Flanders Aspirant Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen | Van Ginckel A.,Ghent University | Baelde N.,General Hospital Jan Palfijn | Almqvist K.F.,Ghent University | And 4 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2010

Objective: To longitudinally estimate the change in glycosaminoglycan content of knee cartilage in asymptomatic untrained female novice runners participating in a Start To Run program (STR) compared to sedentary controls. Method: Nine females enrolling in a 10-week STR and 10 sedentary controls participated voluntarily. Prior to and after the 10-week period, both groups were subjected to dGEMRIC imaging. dGEMRIC indices of knee cartilage were determined at baseline and for the change after the 10-week period in both groups. Based on a self-reported weekly log, physical activity change during the study was depicted as decreased, unchanged or increased. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to test the hypotheses that dGEMRIC changes occurred between groups and according to physical activity changes respectively. Results: No significant differences were established between groups for dGEMRIC indices at baseline (P=0.541). A significant positive change of the median dGEMRIC index in the runners group was demonstrated when compared to the controls [+11.66. ms (95% CI: -25.29, 44.43) vs -9.56. ms (95% CI: -29.55, 5.83), P=0.006]. The change in dGEMRIC index differed significantly according to physical activity change (P=0.014), showing an increase in dGEMRIC index with increasing physical activity. Conclusion: Since cartilage appears to positively respond to moderate running when compared to a sedentary lifestyle, this running scheme might be considered a valuable tool in osteoarthritis prevention strategies. Caution is warranted when applying these results to a wider population and to longer training periods. © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

Liu M.-H.,University of Macau | Margaritis D.,Auckland University of Technology | Tourani-Rad A.,Auckland University of Technology
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Foo G.H.B.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2016

This paper presents a robust field weakening method for the direct torque controlled (DTC) synchronous reluctance motors (RSMs). The proposed method ensures a smooth and stable transition between the maximum torque per ampere and field weakening including the maximum torque per flux regions. In addition, it is also robust to the variation in the machine dq-axes inductances in the field weakening region. The proposed algorithm is amalgamated with a duty ratio regulation based DTC to achieve high performance torque and flux control in the field weakening region. The effectiveness of the RSM drive is verified by both simulations and experiments. © 1996-2012 IEEE.

Bolstad K.S.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Hoving H.J.T.,University of Groningen
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2011

Reproduction remains poorly understood in the Onychoteuthidae, with information previously published on only six of the ∼25 species, from three of the seven genera. Herein new information is presented for a further five species from four genera: mated and spent females are reported from the genera Onychoteuthis, Onykia, Notonykia and Callimachus, and the morphologies and locations of implanted spermatangia for the species Onychoteuthis meridiopacifica and Onykia aequatorialis are provided. Males of the genus Onychoteuthis are found to implant spermatangia within longitudinal cuts in the female's mantle surface, while males of Onykia implant individual spermatangia into the female's mantle at various locations, without a specific associated wound. These different implantation strategies are discussed in the context of mating and fertilization. A bulb-like structure at the aboral end of the spermatangium, possibly unique to the genus Onychoteuthis, is also described and examined and its function discussed. All onychoteuthids examined herein are observed to undergo extreme late-life physical degeneration. © 2011 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.

Gemming L.,University of Auckland | Rush E.,Auckland University of Technology | Maddison R.,University of Auckland | Doherty A.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Preliminary research has suggested that wearable cameras may reduce under-reporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of a wearable camera-assisted 24 h dietary recall against the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed over 15 d using the DLW protocol among forty adults (n 20 males, age 35 (sd 17) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2 and n 20 females, age 28 (sd 7) years, BMI 22 (sd 2) kg/m2). EI was assessed using three multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls (MP24) on days 2-4, 8-10 and 13-15. On the days before each nutrition assessment, participants wore an automated wearable camera (SenseCam (SC)) in free-living conditions. The wearable camera images were viewed by the participants following the completion of the dietary recall, and their changes in self-reported intakes were recorded (MP24+SC). TEE and EI assessed by the MP24 and MP24+SC methods were compared. Among men, the MP24 and MP24+SC measures underestimated TEE by 17 and 9 %, respectively (P< 0·001 and P= 0·02). Among women, these measures underestimated TEE by 13 and 7 %, respectively (P< 0·001 and P= 0·004). The assistance of the wearable camera (MP24+SC) reduced the magnitude of under-reporting by 8 % for men and 6 % for women compared with the MP24 alone (P< 0·001 and P< 0·001). The increase in EI was predominantly from the addition of 265 unreported foods (often snacks) as revealed by the participants during the image review. Wearable cameras enhance the accuracy of self-report by providing passive and objective information regarding dietary intake. High-definition image sensors and increased imaging frequency may improve the accuracy further. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.

Chung H.,Auckland University of Technology | Emms G.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
INTERNOISE 2014 - 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Improving the World Through Noise Control | Year: 2014

This paper shows how to use a mathematical model to predict the vibration of lightweight timber-framed floor/ceiling systems (LTFSs) caused by mechanical excitation. The LTFS considered here is made up of an upper floor layer, a cavity space with timber joists and a ceiling. These components are joined by timber battens, ceiling furring channels and ceiling clips. The vibration in the structure is caused by a localized excitation on the top surface and the resulting vibration level of the ceiling surface will be analysed. The cavity space is filled with fibre infill for damping the sound transmitting through the cavity. A unique feature of the design and the model is the sand-sawdust mixture in the upper layer. The theoretical model and the experimental measurements show that the sand-sawdust dampens the vibration in the frequency range between 10 and 200 Hz. The damping by the sand-sawdust and the fibre infill are found by comparing the numerical simulations against the experimental measurements. We show that the simple linear frequency dependent loss factors can be used to predict the low-frequency vibrations of LTFSs.

Hoving H.J.T.,University of Groningen | Lipinski M.R.,South Tourism | Videler J.J.,University of Groningen | Bolstad K.S.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Marine Biology | Year: 2010

Spermatangium implantation is reported in the large oceanic squid Taningia danae, based on ten mated females from the stomachs of sperm whales. Implanted spermatangia were located in the mantle, head and neck (on both sides) or above the nuchal cartilage, under the neck collar and were often associated with incisions. These cuts ranged from 30 to 65 mm in length and were probably made by males, using the beak or arm hooks. This is the first time wounds facilitating spermatangium storage have been observed in the internal muscle layers (rather than external, as observed in some other species of squid). The implications of these observations for the mating behavior of the rarely encountered squid T. danae are discussed. © The Author(s) 2009.

Bogosanovic M.,Auckland University of Technology | Al-Anbuky A.,Auckland University of Technology | Emms G.W.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2013

A microwave-focused beam transmission measurement is identified as a good candidate for fast, accurate, and affordable industrial wood testing. In this paper, the transmission measurement setup, in its various forms, is used to study wood's properties, considering the wood as anisotropic heterogeneous and multiphase dielectric. The depolarization of a linearly polarized plane wave in an anisotropic media is considered first. It is used for grain angle detection for arbitrary grain inclination in 3-D space. A good correlation with visually inspected grain angle values is obtained. A scattering experiment is performed, measuring the transmission through the wood when the transmitting and the receiving antenna axes are at the right angle. The results indicate that the annual ring arrangement strongly influences scattering in the sideways direction, while other investigated parameters (defects, gradual density variation, and bulk density) show poor correlation with the measured scattering coefficient. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

Mildner M.,University of Basel | Bader M.K.-F.,University of Basel | Bader M.K.-F.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | And 3 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2014

There is evidence of continued stimulation of foliage photosynthesis in trees exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations; however, this is mostly without a proportional growth response. Consequently, we lack information on the fate of this extra carbon (C) acquired. By a steady application of a 13CO2 label in a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment, we traced the fate of C in 37-m-tall, ca. 110-year-old Picea abies trees in a natural forest in Switzerland. Hence, we are not reporting tree responses to elevated CO2 (which would require equally 13C labeled controls), but are providing insights into assimilate processing in such trees. Sunlit needles and branchlets grow almost exclusively from current assimilates, whereas shaded parts of the crowns also rely on stored C. Only 2.5 years after FACE initiation, tree rings contained 100 % new C. Stem-respiratory CO2 averaged 50 % of new C over the entire FACE period. Fine roots and mycorrhizal fungi contained 49-56 and 26-43 % new C, respectively, after 2.5 years. The isotopic signals in soil CO2 arrived 12 days after the onset of FACE, yet it contained only ca. 15 % new C thereafter. We conclude that new C first feeds into fast turnover C pools in the canopy and becomes increasingly mixed with older C sources as one moves away (downward) from the crown. We speculate that enhanced C turnover (its metabolic cost) along the phloem path, as evidenced by basipetal isotope signal depletion, explains part of the 'missing carbon' in trees that assimilated more C under elevated CO2. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | Leuzinger S.,ETH Zurich | Hattenschwiler S.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology
Oecologia | Year: 2013

Over the past 25 years, countless experiments have been conducted on the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on various plants and ecosystems. While this research was motivated to better understand and predict how rising CO2 will affect the structure and function of ecosystems in the future, it also shed light on some general, CO2-research independent, aspects in ecological research. Interestingly, it is these general aspects that continue to create confusion and lead to misinterpretation. Here, we focus on seven interrelated key issues including (1) the confusion between fluxes and pools, (2) the stoichiometric aspects of growth and biomass production, (3) resource allocation within organisms, (4) data scaling and the choice of a reference metric, (5) the consideration of time and timing (experimental duration, ontogenetic shifts), (6) confounding and second-order (indirect or feedback) effects, and (7) the key role of biodiversity. The principles deriving from addressing these issues relate strongly to each other. Their concurrent consideration requires experimenters and modellers to likewise maintain a broad, holistic perspective. In this synthesis, we attempt to show how appropriate consideration of these principles can greatly enhance the assessment of the validity, plausibility and generality of experimental and modelling results. We conclude that neglecting to adequately address these key issues in ecological research may lead to overestimations of measured responses and/or simplistic interpretations. Our examples mostly originate from research on plant responses to elevated atmospheric CO2, but are also applicable to other areas of ecological research. We provide a checklist for the planning of ecological field experiments and the interpretation of their results that may help in avoiding common pitfalls. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Mirza M.,Auckland University of Technology | GholamHosseini H.,Auckland University of Technology
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010

In recent years there has been a rapid growth in patient monitoring and medical data analysis using a number of computer-aided systems based on expert systems, fuzzy logic and many other intelligent techniques. Fuzzy logic-based expert systems have shown potential to improve clinician performance by imitating human thought processes in complex circumstances and accurately executing repetitive tasks to which humans are ill-suited. The main goal of this study was to develop a clinically useful diagnostic alarm system for detecting critical events during anaesthesia administration. The proposed diagnostic alarm system called Fuzzy logic monitoring system (FLMS) is presented. The performance of the system was validated through a series of off-line tests. When detecting hypovolaemia a substantial level of agreement was observed between FLMS and the human expert (the anaesthetist) during surgical procedures. © 2010 IEEE.

Lewis G.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Rice D.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Rice D.A.,Waitemata District Health Board | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2015

Background Several studies have identified clinical, psychosocial, patient characteristic, and perioperative variables that are associated with persistent postsurgical pain; however, the relative effect of these variables has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictor variables associated with persistent pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods Included studies were required to measure predictor variables prior to or at the time of surgery, include a pain outcome measure at least 3 months post-TKA, and include a statistical analysis of the effect of the predictor variable(s) on the outcome measure. Counts were undertaken of the number of times each predictor was analysed and the number of times it was found to have a significant relationship with persistent pain. Separate meta-analyses were performed to determine the effect size of each predictor on persistent pain. Outcomes from studies implementing uni- and multivariable statistical models were analysed separately. Results Thirty-two studies involving almost 30 000 patients were included in the review. Preoperative pain was the predictor that most commonly demonstrated a significant relationship with persistent pain across uni- and multivariable analyses. In the meta-analyses of data from univariate models, the largest effect sizes were found for: other pain sites, catastrophizing, and depression. For data from multivariate models, significant effects were evident for: catastrophizing, preoperative pain, mental health, and comorbidities. Conclusions Catastrophizing, mental health, preoperative knee pain, and pain at other sites are the strongest independent predictors of persistent pain after TKA. © 2014 The Author.

Al-Anbuky A.,Auckland University of Technology
2013 Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, ATNAC 2013 | Year: 2013

With the significant growing of multi-service traffic demands in Next Generation Networks (NGNs), there is a need for reducing the overall energy consumption due to the environmental impact and potential economic benefits. While most existing green networking approaches take no or less consideration on the service resilience aspect. There is an inherent contradiction involved in accommodating both service resilience by overprovision of backup network resources such as nodes and links, as well as minimizing the energy consumption by switching off the unnecessary network elements simultaneously. In this paper, we propose three energy aware survivable routing approaches to enforce the routing algorithm to work out a trade-off solution between fault tolerance and energy efficiency requirements. Simulation results have confirmed that Energy Aware Shared Backup Protection (EASBP) could be a promising approach to resolve the above trade-off problem. It consumes much less capacity by sacrificing a small increase in energy expenditure compared with two other proposed approaches. It is especially effective for the large volume of traffic demands under NGNs environment. © 2013 IEEE.

Battin M.R.,Auckland City Hospital | Obolonkin V.,Auckland University of Technology | Rush E.,Auckland University of Technology | Hague W.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Background: Offspring born following maternal gestational diabetes are at risk of excessive childhood weight gain and Type 2 diabetes in childhood, which in turn is associated with an increased rate of hypertension. Methods: The offspring of women who had gestational diabetes and had been assigned to either open treatment with metformin (with supplemental insulin if required) or insulin in the MiG trial were followed up at 2 years of age. Oscillometric measurement of BP in the right arm was performed by a researcher using an appropriately sized cuff. Results: A total of 489 measurement blood pressure measurements were obtained in 170 of the 222 children who were seen at a median (range) age of 29 (22-38) months corrected gestational age. At the time of assessment the mean (SD) weight and height was 13.8(2) kg and 90 (4.2) cm respectively. For the whole group the mean (SD) systolic pressure was 90.9 (9.9) mmHg and mean (SD) diastolic pressure was 55.7 (8.1) mmHg. No difference was found between the metformin and insulin treatment arms. In a regression model, height and weight were only two factors associated with the levels of systolic blood pressure. For each additional kg the systolic blood pressure increased by 1.0 mmHg. For each additional cm of height the systolic blood pressure increased by 0.42 mmHg. Conclusions: Blood pressure data was obtained at approximately two years of age in a substantial cohort of children whose mothers received treatment for GDM. These novel data compare favorably with published norms. Clinical Trials Registry: This study was registered under the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12605000311651). © 2015 Battin et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Usman M.,Auckland University of Technology | Asghar S.,Mohammad Ali Jinnah University | Fong S.,University of Macau
2010 5th International Conference on Digital Information Management, ICDIM 2010 | Year: 2010

Data mining aims at extraction of previously unidentified information from large databases. It can be viewed as an automated application of algorithms to discover hidden patterns and to extract knowledge from data. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems, on the other hand, allow exploring and querying huge datasets in interactive way. These OLAP systems are the predominant front-end tools used in data warehousing environments and the OLAP system's market has developed rapidly during the last few years. Several works in the past emphasized the integration of OLAP and data mining. More recently, data mining techniques along with OLAP have been applied in decision support applications to analyze large data sets in an efficient manner. However, in order to integrate data mining results with OLAP the data has to be modeled in a particular type of OLAP schema. An OLAP schema is a collection of database objects, including tables, views, indexes and synonyms. Schema generation process was considered a manual task but in the recent years research communities reported their work in automatic schema generation. In this paper, we reviewed literature on the schema generation techniques and highlighted the limitations of the existing works. The review reveals that automatic schema generation has never been integrated with data mining. Hence, we propose a model for data mining and automatic schema generation of three types namely star, snowflake, and galaxy. Hierarchical clustering technique of data mining was used and schema from the clustered data was generated. We have also developed a prototype of the proposed model and validated it via experiments of real-life data set. The proposed model is significant as it supports both integration and automation process. ©2010 IEEE.

Abbott M.W.,Auckland University of Technology | Gray R.J.,Research and Evaluation Unit
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objective: To describe survey findings which measure broader gambling harms and provide benchmark data to evaluate an awareness and education program to minimise harm; part of NZ's public health approach to problem gambling. To assess whether previously reported ethnic and socio-economic disparities are evident when researching broader gambling harms. Methods: An in-home, nationwide survey captured data from a multi-stage, random probability sample of 1,774 adults and 199 15-17-year-olds. Oversampling Maori (NZ's indigenous people), Pacific and Asian peoples, and people in areas of deprivation, allowed analysis by ethnicity and socio-economic status. Results: Data show high participation levels; around 8 out of 10 people took part in at least one gambling activity in the previous 12 months. Type and frequency of activities was used to define four groups: infrequent gamblers (60.9%); frequent, non-continuous gamblers (17.6%); frequent, continuous gamblers (4%); and non-gamblers (17.5%). Self-reported knowledge of the signs of gambling harm was high. Arguments about gambling and people going without/unpaid bills provided two indicators of broader gambling harm. Around one-sixth of New Zealanders experienced each of these harms. Impacts were greatest for low-income groups, Maori, and Pacific peoples. Conclusions: The proportion of New Zealander's experiencing broader gambling harms is much higher than the prevalence for problem gambling. Consistent with other research, results show the flow-on impacts of problem gambling-on family, friends and communities. Implications: Measures can be developed to benchmark the wider harms of gambling and evaluate public health programs addressing harm at population and subpopulation levels. © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

Bader M.K.-F.,University of Basel | Bader M.K.-F.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

Rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2 is not only changing the climate system but may also affect the biosphere directly through stimulation of plant growth and ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Although forest ecosystems play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, experimental information on forest responses to rising CO2 is scarce, due to the sheer size of trees. Here, we present a synthesis of the only study world-wide where a diverse set of mature broadleaved trees growing in a natural forest has been exposed to future atmospheric CO2 levels (c. 550 ppm) by free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE). We show that litter production, leaf traits and radial growth across the studied hardwood species remained unaffected by elevated CO2 over 8 years. CO2 enrichment reduced tree water consumption resulting in detectable soil moisture savings. Soil air CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon both increased suggesting enhanced below-ground activity. Carbon release to the rhizosphere and/or higher soil moisture primed nitrification and nitrate leaching under elevated CO2; however, the export of dissolved organic carbon remained unaltered. Synthesis. Our findings provide no evidence for carbon-limitation in five central European hardwood trees at current ambient CO2 concentrations. The results of this long-term study challenge the idea of a universal CO2 fertilization effect on forests, as commonly assumed in climate-carbon cycle models. Synthesis. Our findings provide no evidence for carbon-limitation in in the studied trees in a central European hardwood forest at current ambient CO2 concentrations. The results of this long-term study challenge the idea of a universal CO2 fertilization effect on forests, as commonly assumed in climate-carbon cycle models. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Bogosanovic M.,Auckland University of Technology | Anbuky A.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Emms G.W.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
Journal of Wood Science | Year: 2010

This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature on microwave wood testing, offering a critical comparison of reported methods and techniques. The purpose of this review is to establish current achievements and evaluate the potential for the application of microwave methods in industry. All reviewed articles are classified based on the way they deal with four key issues: propagation modeling, measurement technique, hardware implementation, and determination of wood properties. Currently used methods for propagation modeling are considered first, with particular attention given to the calculation of propagation factors along the principal directions, because these methods take into consideration wood anisotropy and allow grain angle detection. Measurement techniques are also considered in more detail, with a qualitative comparison of the two most advanced techniques: the focused beam technique and the modulated scattering technique. Reported hardware implementation and methods for determining the wood properties of interest from measured data are reviewed in the final sections. The technology is mature, but more effort is needed to reach a solution suitable for an industrial environment. This article aims to help researchers in this field to identify the remaining issues. © 2010 The Japan Wood Research Society.

Reed B.R.,University of California at Davis | Reed B.R.,Alzheimers Disease Center | Crane J.,University of Otago | Garrett N.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology | Year: 2014

Background: Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods: Participants were 1637 adults, aged 18-65years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0-64ppb (0-88μg/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results: The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion: The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Taylor W.J.,University of Otago | Brown M.,University of Otago | William L.,University of Otago | McPherson K.M.,Auckland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine the feasibility, the cluster design effect and the variance and minimal clinical importance difference in the primary outcome in a pilot study of a structured approach to goal-setting. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Subjects: People who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation following stroke who had sufficient cognition to engage in structured goal-setting and complete the primary outcome measure. Interventions: Structured goal elicitation using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Main measures: Quality of life at 12 weeks using the Schedule for Individualised Quality of Life (SEIQOL-DW), Functional Independence Measure, Short Form 36 and Patient Perception of Rehabilitation (measuring satisfaction with rehabilitation). Assessors were blinded to the intervention. Results: Four rehabilitation services and 41 patients were randomized. We found high values of the intraclass correlation for the outcome measures (ranging from 0.03 to 0.40) and high variance of the SEIQOL-DW (SD 19.6) in relation to the minimally importance difference of 2.1, leading to impractically large sample size requirements for a cluster randomized design. Conclusions: A cluster randomized design is not a practical means of avoiding contamination effects in studies of inpatient rehabilitation goal-setting. Other techniques for coping with contamination effects are necessary. © 2011 The Author(s).

Rowan J.A.,National Womens Health | Rush E.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Obolonkin V.,University of Auckland | Battin M.,National Womens Health | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE - In women with gestational diabetes mellitus, who were randomized to metformin or insulin treatment, pregnancy outcomes were similar (Metformin in Gestational diabetes [MiG] trial). Metformin crosses the placenta, so it is important to assess potential effects on growth of the children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In Auckland, New Zealand, and Adelaide, Australia, women who had participated in the MiG trial were reviewed when their children were 2 years old. Body composition was measured in 154 and 164 children whose mothers had been randomized to metformin and insulin, respectively. Children were assessed with anthropometry, bioimpedance, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), using standard methods. RESULTS - The children were similar for baseline maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. In the metformin group, compared with the insulin group, children had larger mid-upper arm circumferences (17.2 ± 1.5 vs. 16.7 ± 1.5 cm; P = 0.002) and subscapular (6.3 ± 1.9 vs. 6.0 ± 1.7 mm; P = 0.02) and biceps skinfolds (6.03 ± 1.9 vs. 5.6 ± 1.7 mm; P = 0.04). Total fat mass and percentage body fat assessed by bioimpedance (n = 221) and DEXA (n = 114) were not different. CONCLUSIONS-Children exposed to metformin had larger measures of subcutaneous fat, but overall body fat was the same as in children whose mothers were treated with insulin alone. Further follow-up is required to examine whether these findings persist into later life and whether children exposed to metformin will develop less visceral fat and be more insulin sensitive. If so, this would have significant implications for the current pandemic of diabetes. © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

Rasmussen J.,University of Aalborg | Boocock M.,University of South Australia | Boocock M.,Auckland University of Technology | Paul G.,University of South Australia
Work | Year: 2012

This paper investigates new opportunities for ergonomic design based on advanced computer simulated musculoskeletal modeling. The approach is inspired by the influence that other advanced computer-aided engineering technologies have had on product design. The background to the musculoskeletal modeling approach (AnyBody Modeling System) is briefly explained and illustrated by means of a hand sawing task. Simple design modifications to the handle of the saw provide empirical data about muscle forces on which designers can use to enhance product design. It is concluded that musculoskeletal simulation has the potential to significantly improve ergonomic design of many tools and products that derive their value from interfacing with the human body. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

King D.,Auckland University of Technology | King D.,Hutt Valley District Health Board | Hume P.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Brughelli M.,Auckland University of Technology | Gissane C.,St. Mary's University
American Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Direct impacts with the head (linear acceleration or pressure) and inertial loading of the head (rotational acceleration or strain) have been postulated as the 2 major mechanisms of head-related injuries such as concussion. Although data are accumulating for soccer and American football, there are no published data for nonhelmeted collision sports such as rugby union. Purpose: To quantify head impacts via instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for rugby union players over a season of matches. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Data on impact magnitude and frequency were collected with molded instrumented mouthguards worn by 38 premier amateur senior rugby players participating in the 2013 domestic season of matches. Results: A total of 20,687 impacts >10g (range, 10.0-164.9g) were recorded over the duration of the study. The mean 6 SD number of impacts per player over the duration of the season of matches was 564 ± 618, resulting in a mean 6 SD of 95 ± 133 impacts to the head per player, per match over the duration of the season of matches. The impact magnitudes for linear accelerations were skewed to the lower values (Sp = 3.7 ± 0.02; P<.001), with a mean linear acceleration of 22.2 ± 16.2g. Rotational accelerations were also skewed to the lower values (Sp = 2.0 ± 0.02; P < .001), with a mean rotational acceleration of 3902.9 ± 3948.8 rad/s2. Conclusion: The acceleration magnitudes and number of head impacts in amateur rugby union players over a season of matches, measured via instrumented mouthguard accelerations, were higher than for most sports previously reported. Mean linear acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to the mean linear accelerations previously reported for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but lower than that for female youth soccer players. Mean rotational acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to mean rotational accelerations for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but less than those for female youth soccer players, concussed American collegiate players, collegiate American football players, and professional American football players. © 2014 The Author(s).

Rice D.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Rice D.A.,Waitemata District Health Board | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Lewis G.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Dalbeth N.,University of Auckland
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2015

Introduction: Substantial weakness of the quadriceps muscles is typically observed in patients with arthritis. This is partly due to ongoing neural inhibition that prevents the quadriceps from being fully activated. Evidence from animal studies suggests enhanced flexion reflex excitability may contribute to this weakness. This prospective observational study examined the effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain in individuals with knee synovitis. Methods: Sixteen patients with chronic arthritis and clinically active synovitis of the knee participated in this study. Knee pain flexion reflex threshold, and quadriceps peak torque were measured at baseline, immediately after knee joint aspiration alone and 5 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 days after knee joint aspiration and the injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate. Results: Compared to baseline, knee pain was significantly reduced 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p = 0.009) post intervention. Flexion reflex threshold increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.009) and 5 (p = 0.01) and 15 days (p = 0.002) post intervention. Quadriceps peak torque increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.004) and 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p <0.001) post intervention. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that altered sensory output from an inflamed joint may increase flexion reflex excitability in humans, as has previously been shown in animals. Joint aspiration and corticosteroid injection may be a clinically useful intervention to reverse quadriceps muscle weakness in individuals with knee synovitis. © 2015 Rice et al.

King D.,Auckland University of Technology | King D.,Hutt Valley District Health Board | Gissane C.,St. Mary's University | Hume P.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Flaws M.,Hutt Valley District Health Board
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2015

Aim To use the King-Devick (K-D) test in senior amateur rugby union and rugby league players over a domestic competition season to see if it could identify witnessed and unwitnessed episodes of concussion that occurred from participation in competition matches over three years. Methods A prospective observational cohort study was conducted on a club level senior amateur rugby union team (n = 36 players in 2012 and 35 players in 2013) and a rugby league team (n = 33 players in 2014) during competition seasons in New Zealand. All 104 players completed two trials 10 min apart of the K-D at the beginning of their competition season. Concussions (witnessed or unwitnessed) were only recorded if they were formally diagnosed by a health practitioner. Results A total of 52 (8 witnessed; 44 unwitnessed) concussive events were identified over the duration of the study resulting in a concussion injury incidence of 44 (95% CI: 32 to 56) per 1000 match participation hours. There was a six-fold difference between witnessed and unwitnessed concussions recorded. There were observable learning effects observed between the first and the second K-D test baseline testing (50 vs. 45 s; z = - 8.81; p < 0.001). For every 1 point reduction in each of the post-injury SAC components there was a corresponding increase (worsening) of K-D test times post-match for changes in orientation (2.9 s), immediate memory (1.8 s) concentration (2.8 s), delayed recall (2.0 s) and SAC total score (1.7 s). Discussion The rate of undetected concussion was higher than detected concussions by using the K-D test routinely following matches. Worsening of the K-D test post-match was associated with reduction in components of the SAC. The appeal of the K-D test is in the rapid, easy manner of its administration and the reliable, objective results it provides to the administrator. The K-D test helped identify cognitive impairment in players without clinically observable symptoms. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Brughelli M.,Edith Cowan University | Cronin J.,Edith Cowan University | Cronin J.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Brughelli, M, Cronin, J, and Chaouachi, A. Effects of running velocity on running kinetics and kinematics. J Strength Cond Res 25(4): 933-939, 2011-Sixteen semiprofessional Australian football players performed running bouts at incremental velocities of 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximum velocity on a Woodway nonmotorized force treadmill. As running velocity increased from 40 to 60%, peak vertical and peak horizontal forces increased by 14.3% (effect size [ES] = 1.0) and 34.4% (ES = 4.2), respectively. The changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 60 to 80% were 1.0% (ES = 0.05) and 21.0% (ES = 2.9), respectively. Finally, the changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 80% to maximum were 2.0% (ES = 0.1) and 24.3% (ES = 3.4). In addition, both stride frequency and stride length significantly increased with each incremental velocity (p < 0.05). Conversely, contact times and the vertical displacement of the center of mass significantly decreased with increased running velocity (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between horizontal force and maximum running velocity (r = 0.47). For the kinematic variables, only stride length was found to have a significant positive correlation with maximum running velocity (r = 0.66). It would seem that increasing maximal sprint velocity may be more dependent on horizontal force production as opposed to vertical force production. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Hankins M.,IMS Health | Field A.,University of Sussex | Theadom A.,Auckland University of Technology | Bowskill R.,Mill View Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2015

Objectives: Asthma is a chronic condition affecting 300 million people worldwide. Management involves adherence to pharmacological treatments such as corticosteroids and β-agonists, but residual symptoms persist. As asthma symptoms are exacerbated by stress, one possible adjunct to pharmacological treatment is expressive writing (EW). EW involves the disclosure of traumatic experiences which is thought to facilitate cognitive and emotional processing, helping to reduce physiological stress associated with inhibiting emotions. A previous trial reported short-term improvements in lung function. This study aimed to assess whether EW can improve lung function, quality of life, symptoms, and medication use in patients with asthma. Methods: Adults (18-45 years) diagnosed as having asthma requiring regular inhaled corticosteroids were recruited from 28 general practices in South East England (n = 146). In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, participants were allocated either EW or nonemotional writing instructions and asked to write for 20 minutes for 3 consecutive days. Lung function (forced expired volume in 1 second [FEV1]% predicted), quality of life (Mark's Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire), asthma symptoms (Wasserfallen Symptom Score Questionnaire), and medication use (inhaled corticosteroids and β-agonist) were recorded at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: Hierarchical linear modeling indicated no significant main effects between time and condition on any outcomes. Post hoc analyses revealed that EW improved lung function by 14% for 12 months for participants with less than 80% FEV1% predicted at baseline (β = 0.93, p =.002) whereas no improvement was observed in the control condition (β = 0.10, p =.667). Conclusions: EW seems to be beneficial for patients with moderate asthma (<80% FEV1% predicted). Future studies of EW require stratification of patients by asthma severity. Copyright © 2015 by the American Psychosomatic Society.

Theadom A.,Auckland University of Technology | Cropley M.,University of Surrey | Kantermann T.,University of Groningen | Kantermann T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2015

Background: Previous qualitative research has revealed that people with fibromyalgia use daytime napping as a coping strategy for managing symptoms against clinical advice. Yet there is no evidence to suggest whether daytime napping is beneficial or detrimental for people with fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study was to explore how people use daytime naps and to determine the links between daytime napping and symptom severity in fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: A community based sample of 1044 adults who had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome by a clinician completed an online questionnaire. Associations between napping behavior, sleep quality and fibromyalgia symptoms were explored using Spearman correlations, with possible predictors of napping behaviour entered into a logistic regression model. Differences between participants who napped on a daily basis and those who napped less regularly, as well as nap duration were explored. Results: Daytime napping was significantly associated with increased pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, memory difficulties and sleep problems. Sleep problems and fatigue explained the greatest amount of variance in napping behaviour, p < 0.010. Those who engaged in daytime naps for >30 minutes had higher memory difficulties (t = -3.45) and levels of depression (t = -2.50) than those who napped for shorter periods (<30mins) (p < 0.010). Conclusions: Frequent use and longer duration of daytime napping was linked with greater symptom severity in people with fibromyalgia. Given the common use of daytime napping in people with fibromyalgia evidence based guidelines on the use of daytime napping in people with chronic pain are urgently needed. © 2015 Theadom et al.

Sapuppo A.,University of Aalborg | Seet B.-C.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing | Year: 2015

Ubiquitous social networking (USN) can be seen as an evolution of ubiquitous computing supporting the social well-being of people in their everyday lives. The vision of USN focuses on enhancing social interactions among its participants during users' physical meetings. This target is leading towards important challenges such as social sensing, enabling social networking and privacy protection. In this paper we firstly investigate the methods and technologies for acquisition of the relevant context for promotion of sociability among inhabitants of USN environments. Afterwards, we review architectures and techniques for enabling social interactions between participants. Finally, we identify privacy as the major challenge for networking in USN environments. Consequently, we depict design guidelines and review privacy protection models for facilitating personal information disclosure. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Baig M.M.,Auckland University of Technology | Hosseini H.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Luo D.H.,Guangdong University of Technology
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Efforts to prepare for a growing number of elderly patients, reducing the escalation of healthcare costs, and avoiding hospitals' emergency room overcrowding are some of the driving forces for adopting wireless healthcare monitoring systems. However, due to the open-to-air commination nature of multilayer wireless networks, it is important to consider reliability, accuracy, security and privacy of such data transmission. We have developed a low-cost and wireless telehealthcare system for monitoring of basic physiological parameters and automatically transmitting the measured data to an electronic patient record. It employs "off the shelf" wireless products and a secure web-based application which have been tested in a hospital with satisfactory outcomes. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

King D.,Auckland University of Technology | Hume P.,Auckland University of Technology | Gissane C.,St. Mary's University
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2015

Aim To determine whether the King-Devick (K-D) test used as a sideline test in junior rugby league players over 12 matches in a domestic competition season could identify witnessed and incidentally identified episodes of concussion. Methods A prospective observational cohort study of a club level junior rugby league team (n = 19) during the 2014 New Zealand competition season involved every player completing two pre-competition season baseline trials of the K-D test. Players removed from match participation, or who reported any signs or symptoms of concussion were assessed on the sideline with the K-D test and referred for further medical assessment. Players with a pre- to post-match K-D test difference > 3 s were referred for physician evaluation. Results The baseline test-retest reliability of the K-D test was high (rs = 0.86; p < 0.0001). Seven concussions were medically identified in six players who recorded pre- to post-match K-D test times greater than 3 s (mean change of 7.4 s). Post-season testing of players demonstrated improvement of K-D time scores consistent with learning effects of using the K-D test (67.7 s vs. 62.2 s). Discussion Although no witnessed concussions occurred during rugby play, six players recorded pre- to post-match changes with a mean delay of 4 s resulting in seven concussions being subsequently confirmed post-match by health practitioners. All players were medically managed for a return to sports participation. Conclusion The K-D test was quickly and easily administered making it a practical sideline tool as part of the continuum of concussion assessment tools for junior rugby league players. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sutton D.,Auckland University of Technology | Wilson M.,Queensland Alliance for Mental Health | Van Kessel K.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Mental Health Nursing | Year: 2013

The dominant model that informs clinical training for preventing violence and managing aggression posits arousal as mediated downwards from higher cortical structures. This view results in an often-misplaced reliance on verbal and cognitive techniques for de-escalation. The emergence of sensory modulation, via the Six Core Strategies, is an alternative or complementary approach that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint. Sensory-based interventions are thought to promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion, but this connection has had limited theoretical and empirical development. This paper presents results of a pilot trial of sensory-based interventions in four inpatient mental health units in New Zealand. Narrative analysis of interview and focus group data suggest that modifications to the environment and the use of soothing stimuli moderate or optimize arousal and promote an ability to adaptively regulate emotion. Findings are discussed in light of recent advances in the neurophysiology of emotional regulation and the General Aggression Model that posits arousal and maladaptive emotional regulation as precursors to aggression. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

Narayanan A.,Auckland University of Technology | Greco M.,Client Focused Evaluations Program CFEP Pty Ltd
Medical Education | Year: 2010

Objectives There is growing interest in multi-source, multi-level feedback for measuring the performance of health care professionals. However, data are often unbalanced (e.g. there are different numbers of raters for each doctor), uncrossed (e.g. raters rate the doctor on only one occasion) and fully nested (e.g. raters for a doctor are unique to that doctor). Estimating the true score variance among doctors under these circumstances is proving a challenge. Methods Extensions to reliability and generalisability (G) formulae are introduced to handle unbalanced, uncrossed and fully nested data to produce coefficients that take into account variances among raters, ratees and questionnaire items at different levels of analysis. Decision (D) formulae are developed to handle predictions of minimum numbers of raters for unbalanced studies. An artificial dataset and two real-world datasets consisting of colleague and patient evaluations of doctors are analysed to demonstrate the feasibility and relevance of the formulae. Another independent dataset is used for validating D predictions of G coefficients for varying numbers of raters against actual G coefficients. A combined G coefficient formula is introduced for estimating multi-sourced reliability. Results The results from the formulae indicate that it is possible to estimate reliability and generalisability in unbalanced, fully nested and uncrossed studies, and to identify extraneous variance that can be removed to estimate true score variance among doctors. The validation results show that it is possible to predict the minimum numbers of raters even if the study is unbalanced. Discussion Calculating G and D coefficients for psychometric data based on feedback on doctor performance is possible even when the data are unbalanced, uncrossed and fully nested, provided that: (i) variances are separated at the rater and ratee levels, and (ii) the average number of raters per ratee is used in calculations for deriving these coefficients. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Fuller C.W.,International Rugby Board | Sheerin K.,Auckland University of Technology | Targett S.,Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained during the IRB 2011 Rugby World Cup. Design A prospective, whole population survey. Population 615 international rugby players representing 20 teams competing at the IRB 2011 Rugby World Cup in New Zealand. Method The study was implemented according to the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; the main measures included the players' age (years), stature (cm) and body mass (Kg) and the incidence (number of injuries/1000 playerhours), mean and median severity (days absence), location (%), type (%) and cause (%) of match and training injuries. Results The incidences of injuries were 89.1/1000 player-match-hours (forwards: 85.0; backs: 93.8) and C 2.2/1000 player-training-hours (forwards: 2.7; backs: 1.7). The mean severity of injuries was 23.6 days (forwards: 21.2; backs: 26.2) during matches and 26.9 (forwards: 33.4; backs: 14.3) during training. During matches, lower-limb muscle/tendon (31.6%) and ligament (15.8%) and, during training, lower-limb muscle/tendon (51.4%) and trunk muscle/tendon (11.4%) injuries were the most common injuries. The most common cause of injury during matches was the tackle (forwards: 43.6%, backs: 45.2%), and during training was full and semicontact skills activities. Conclusion The results confirm that rugby, like other full-contact sports, has a high incidence of injury: the results from IRB Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2011 were similar to those reported for RWC 2007.

Chou S.W.,National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology | Techatassanasoontorn A.A.,Auckland University of Technology
Information and Management | Year: 2015

Based on cost savings and efficiency gains in past business process outsourcing (BPO) projects, firms increasingly consider outsourcing knowledge-intensive and strategically oriented business processes. However, the success of these strategic BPO projects entails strong commitment from both the client and the service provider to leverage interfirm resources and engage in close collaboration to improve the client's business processes. Despite the growing acceptance of BPO practices, how commitment is formed with respect to BPO remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, weemploy the relational view as our theoretical lens in explaining that the client's commitment is influenced by the relational value from outsourcing relationships. Relational values are characterized as knowledge-based capabilities, process-based capabilities, and governance. The proposed model and hypotheses are largely supported by the empirical data from 167 firms: the results show that commitment is positively affected by the service provider's task-knowledge coordination, process alignment, process flexibility, and the client's behavior control over the service provider. Finally, we discuss theoretical and practical implications. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mason-Mackay A.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Whatman C.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2015

Objectives: To examine the evidence for effect of restricted ankle dorsiflexion range of motion on lower-extremity landing mechanics. Design: Literature review. Methods: Systematic search of the literature. Articles critiqued by two reviewers. Results: Six studies were identified that investigated the effect of restricted DF ROM on landing mechanics. Overall, results suggest that landing mechanics are altered with restricted DF ROM, but studies disagree as to the particular mechanical variables affected. Conclusions: There is evidence that restricted dorsiflexion range of motion may alter lower-extremity landing mechanics in a manner, which predisposes athletes to injury. Interpretation of results was made difficult by the variation in landing tasks investigated and the lack studies investigating sport-specific landing tasks. The focus of studies on specific mechanical variables rather than mechanical patterns and the analysis of pooled data in the presence of different compensation strategies between participants also made interpretation difficult. These areas require further research. © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia.

Davis D.,University of Canberra | Baddock S.,Otago Polytechnic | Pairman S.,Otago Polytechnic | Hunter M.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Birth | Year: 2012

Background: Primary postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity internationally. Research comparing physiological (expectant) and active management of the third stage of labor favors active management, although studies to date have focused on childbirth within hospital settings, and the skill levels of birth attendants in facilitating physiological third stage of labor have been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of place of birth on the risk of postpartum hemorrhage and the effect of mode of management of the third stage of labor on severe postpartum hemorrhage. Methods: Data for 16,210 low-risk women giving birth in 2006 and 2007 were extracted from the New Zealand College of Midwives research database. Modes of third stage management and volume of blood lost were compared with results adjusted for age, parity, ethnicity, smoking, length of labor, mode of birth, episiotomy, perineal trauma, and newborn birthweight greater than 4,000 g. Results: In total, 1.32 percent of this low-risk cohort experienced an estimated blood loss greater than 1,000 mL. Place of birth was not found to be associated with risk of blood loss greater than 1,000 mL. More women experienced blood loss greater than 1,000 mL in the active management of labor group for all planned birth places. In this low-risk cohort, those women receiving active management of third stage of labor had a twofold risk (RR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.39-3.22) of losing more than 1,000 mL blood compared with those expelling their placenta physiologically. Conclusions: Planned place of birth does not influence the risk of blood loss greater than 1,000 mL. In this low-risk group active management of labor was associated with a twofold increase in blood loss greater than 1,000 mL compared with physiological management. © 2012, the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pontin D.R.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Schliebs S.,Auckland University of Technology | Worner S.P.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | Watts M.J.,University of Adelaide
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2011

Because of increasing transport and trade there is a growing threat of marine invasive species being introduced into regions where they do not presently occur. So that the impacts of such species can be mitigated, it is important to predict how individuals, particularly passive dispersers are transported and dispersed in the ocean as well as in coastal regions so that new incursions of potential invasive species are rapidly detected and origins identified. Such predictions also support strategic monitoring, containment and/or eradication programs. To determine factors influencing a passive disperser, around coastal New Zealand, data from the genus Physalia (Cnidaria: Siphonophora) were used. Oceanographic data on wave height and wind direction and records of occurrences of Physalia on swimming beaches throughout the summer season were used to create models using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and Naι ve Bayesian Classifier (NBC). First, however, redundant and irrelevant data were removed using feature selection of a subset of variables. Two methods for feature selection were compared, one based on the multilayer perceptron and another based on an evolutionary algorithm. The models indicated that New Zealand appears to have two independent systems driven by currents and oceanographic variables that are responsible for the redistribution of Physalia from north of New Zealand and from the Tasman Sea to their subsequent presence in coastal waters. One system is centred in the east coast of northern New Zealand and the other involves a dynamic system that encompasses four other regions on both coasts of the country. Interestingly, the models confirm, molecular data obtained from Physalia in a previous study that identified a similar distribution of systems around New Zealand coastal waters. Additionally, this study demonstrates that the modelling methods used could generate valid hypotheses from noisy and complicated data in a system about which there is little previous knowledge. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Krishnamurthi R.V.,Auckland University of Technology | Feigin V.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Forouzanfar M.H.,University of Washington | Mensah G.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2013

Background The burden of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke varies between regions and over time. With differences in prognosis, prevalence of risk factors, and treatment strategies, knowledge of stroke pathological type is important for targeted region-specific health-care planning for stroke and could inform priorities for type-specific prevention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the global and regional burden of first-ever ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke during 1990-2010. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, LILACS, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Global Health Database, the WHO library, and regional databases from 1990 to 2012 to identify relevant studies published between 1990 and 2010. We applied the GBD 2010 analytical technique (DisMod-MR) to calculate regional and country-specific estimates for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence, mortality, mortality-to-incidence ratio, and disability-adjusted lifeyears (DALYs) lost, by age group (aged <75 years, ≥75 years, and in total) and country income level (high-income and low-income and middle-income) for 1990, 2005, and 2010. Findings We included 119 studies (58 from high-income countries and 61 from low-income and middle-income countries). Worldwide, the burden of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke increased significantly between 1990 and 2010 in terms of the absolute number of people with incident ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke (37% and 47% increase, respectively), number of deaths (21% and 20% increase), and DALYs lost (18% and 14% increase). In the past two decades in high-income countries, incidence of ischaemic stroke reduced significantly by 13% (95% CI 6-18), mortality by 37% (19-39), DALYs lost by 34% (16-36), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 21% (10-27). For haemorrhagic stroke, incidence reduced significantly by 19% (1-15), mortality by 38% (32-43), DALYs lost by 39% (32-44), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 27% (19-35). By contrast, in low-income and middle-income countries, we noted a significant increase of 22% (5-30) in incidence of haemorrhagic stroke and a 6% (-7 to 18) non-significant increase in the incidence of ischaemic stroke. Mortality rates for ischaemic stroke fell by 14% (9-19), DALYs lost by 17% (-11 to 21%), and mortality-to-incidence ratios by 16% (-12 to 22). For haemorrhagic stroke in low-income and middle-income countries, mortality rates reduced by 23% (-18 to 25%), DALYs lost by 25% (-21 to 28), and mortalityto- incidence ratios by 36% (-34 to 28). Interpretation Although age-standardised mortality rates for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke have decreased in the past two decades, the absolute number of people who have these stroke types annually, and the number with related deaths and DALYs lost, is increasing, with most of the burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Further study is needed in these countries to identify which subgroups of the population are at greatest risk and who could be targeted for preventive efforts. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Hirt-Chabbert J.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Young O.A.,Auckland University of Technology
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2012

Elvers and glass eels of Anguilla anguilla were fed diets containing two types of feeding stimulants (FS) that were based on processed marine (MBFS) and yeast proteins (YBFS). Elvers (1.5±0.3g) were fed seven diets (MBFS and YBFS diets at 20gkg -1, 40gkg -1 and 60gkg -1 plus control) for 60days. Glass eels (250±100mg) were weaned to 60gkg -1 MBFS, 60gkg -1 YBFS and control diets for 30days. Diets containing 60gkg -1 FS had a beneficial effect in terms of growth, homogenous size distribution and feed intake in elvers. Elvers fed 60gkg -1 MBFS and YBFS diets grew 11.9% and 5.6% faster than the control group. No differences in growth and size distribution were detected in glass eels fed 60gkg -1 MBFS and YBFS diets. However, FS affected the digestive system maturation; fish fed the 60gkg -1 MBFS and YBFS diets showed higher and intermediate values in the specific enzyme activities in comparison with the control group. This study revealed that the incorporation of FS into a pelleted diet was beneficial on the overall performance of European glass eels and elvers. However, the observed results were different depending on the eel's stage of development, as well as the type and inclusion level of the FS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Leuzinger S.,Auckland University of Technology | Leuzinger S.,ETH Zurich | Leuzinger S.,University of Basel | Bader M.K.-F.,University of Western Australia | Bader M.K.-F.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO2), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. © 2012 Leuzinger and Bader.

Gillman L.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Wright S.D.,University of Auckland | Cusens J.,Auckland University of Technology | Mcbride P.D.,Auckland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2015

Aim: Global patterns in primary productivity in natural ecosystems are important for interpreting ecological processes and patterns of biodiversity. Net primary productivity (NPP) on land has long been thought to be greatest in tropical forests and to decrease towards the poles. However, it has recently been claimed that the NPP of mid-latitude forests is as great as, or even greater than, that of tropical forests and that ecologically relevant productivity peaks at mid-latitudes. Here we evaluate these hypotheses by testing for relationships between latitude and productivity using a range of forest productivity datasets. Location: Global. Methods: We apply ordinary least squares regression and t-test analyses to published latitude-productivity data for forests, specifically updated to include an expanded dataset for the previously data-poor tropics, and we evaluate the relationship between the primary productivity of forests and modelled vascular plant species richness. Results: Contrary to the recent claims, we found strong support for a negative relationship between latitude and annual NPP of forests with all datasets, and NPP was significantly greater in tropical forests than in temperate forests. Vascular plant richness was positively correlated with NPP. Main conclusions: NPP of forests increases towards the equator. Given that species richness also increases towards the equator, and that vascular plant richness correlates with NPP, these results are consistent with recent meta-analyses showing that the relationships between productivity and species richness of both plants and animals in natural ecosystems are predominantly positive. These results are congruent with ecological theories that predict a positive relationship between species richness and productivity, and they indicate that there is no need to explain peaked richness-productivity relationships over broad spatial extents, since they do not appear to exist. © 2014 The Authors.

Davis D.,University of Technology, Sydney | Pairman S.,Otago Polytechnic | Hunter M.,Auckland University of Technology | Benn C.,Massey University | And 2 more authors.
Birth | Year: 2011

Background: Midwives providing care as lead maternity caregivers in New Zealand provide continuity of care to women who may give birth in a variety of settings, including home, primary units, and secondary and tertiary level hospitals. The purpose of this study was to compare mode of birth and intrapartum intervention rates for low-risk women planning to give birth in these settings under the care of midwives. Methods: Data for a cohort of low-risk women giving birth in 2006 and 2007 were extracted from the Midwifery Maternity Provider Organisation database. Mode of birth, intrapartum interventions, and neonatal outcomes were compared with results adjusted for age, parity, ethnicity, and smoking. Results: Women planning to give birth in secondary and tertiary hospitals had a higher risk of cesarean section, assisted modes of birth, and intrapartum interventions than similar women planning to give birth at home and in primary units. The risk of emergency cesarean section for women planning to give birth in a tertiary unit was 4.62 (95% CI: 3.66-5.84) times that of a woman planning to give birth in a primary unit. Newborns of women planning to give birth in secondary and tertiary hospitals also had a higher risk of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05-1.87; RR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.31-2.42) than women planning to give birth in a primary unit. Conclusions: Planned place of birth has a significant influence on mode of birth and rates of intrapartum intervention in childbirth. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Contreras B.,Auckland University of Technology | Schoenfeld B.,Global Fitness Services
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2011

The crunch and its many variations have long been considered a staple exercise in fitness programs. However, recently, some fitness professionals have questioned the wisdom of performing flexion-based spinal exercises, such as the crunch. Concerns are usually predicated on the belief that the spine has a finite number of bending cycles and that exceeding this limit will hasten the onset of vertebral degeneration. This article will seek to review the research pertaining to the risks of performing dynamic spinal flexion exercises and will discuss the application of these findings to exercise performance. Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Roth G.A.,University of Washington | Johnson C.O.,University of Washington | Nguyen G.,University of Washington | Naghavi M.,University of Washington | And 4 more authors.
Neuroepidemiology | Year: 2015

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is a long-standing effort to report consistent and comprehensive measures of disease burden for the world. In this paper, we describe the methods used to estimate the global burden of stroke for the GBD 2013 study. Pathologic subtypes of stroke are modeled separately for two mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories: (1) ischemic stroke and (2) hemorrhagic and other non-ischemic strokes. Acute and chronic strokes are estimated separately. The GBD 2013 study has incorporated large amounts of new data on stroke death rates, incidence and case fatality. Disease modeling methods have been updated to better integrate mortality and incidence data. Future efforts will focus on incorporating data on the regional variation in severity of disability. Stroke remains a new area for disease modeling. A better understanding of stroke incidence, mortality and severity, and how it varies among countries, can help guide priority setting and improve health policy related to this important condition. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Yongchareon S.,Unitec Institute of Technology | Liu C.,Swinburne University of Technology | Yu J.,Auckland University of Technology | Zhao X.,University of Canberra
Information Systems | Year: 2015

Over the past several years, more efficient approaches have been on increasing demands for designing, modeling, and implementing inter-organizational business processes. In the process collaboration across organizational boundaries, organizations still stay autonomic, which means each organization can freely modify its internal operations to meet its private goals while satisfying the mutual objectives with its partners. Recently, artifact-centric process modeling has been evidenced with higher flexibility in process modeling and execution than traditional activity-centric modeling methods. Although some efforts have been put to exploring how artifact-centric modeling facilitates the collaboration between organizations, the achievement is still far from satisfaction level, particularly in aspects of process modeling and validating. To fill in the gaps, we propose a view framework for modeling and validating the changes of inter-organizational business processes. The framework consists of an artifact-centric process meta-model, public view constructing mechanism, and private view and change validating mechanisms, which are specially designed to facilitate the participating organizations to customize their internal operations while ensuring the correctness of the collaborating processes. We also implement a software tool named Artifact-M to help organizations to automatically construct a minimal and consistent public view from their processes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-1 | Award Amount: 39.56M | Year: 2013

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, leading to great personal suffering to victim and relatives, as well as huge direct and indirect costs to society. Strong ethical, medical, social and health economic reasons therefore exist for improving treatment. The CENTER-TBI project will collect a prospective, contemporary, highly granular, observational dataset of 5400 patients, which will be used for better characterization of TBI and for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). The generalisability of our results will be reinforced by a contemporaneous registry level data collection in 15-25,000 patients. Our conceptual approach is to exploit the heterogeneity in biology, care, and outcome of TBI, to discover novel pathophysiology, refine disease characterization, and identify effective clinical interventions. Key elements are the use of emerging technologies (biomarkers, genomics and advanced MR imaging) in large numbers of patients, across the entire course of TBI (from injury to late outcome) and across all severities of injury (mild to severe). Improved characterization with these tools will aid Precision Medicine, a concept recently advocated by the US National Academy of Science, facilitating targeted management for individual patients. Our consortium includes leading experts and will bring outstanding biostatistical and neuroinformatics expertise to the project. Collaborations with external partners, other FP7 consortia, and international links within InTBIR, will greatly augment scientific resources and broaden the global scope of our research. We anticipate that the project could revolutionize our view of TBI, leading to more effective and efficient therapy, thus improving outcome and reducing costs. These outcomes reflect the goals of CER to assist consumers, clinicians, health care purchasers, and policy makers to make informed decisions, and will improve healthcare at both individual and population levels.

Su X.,University of Wollongong | Zhang M.,University of Wollongong | Mu Y.,University of Wollongong | Bai Q.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Computer and System Sciences | Year: 2013

In service-oriented computing applications, service consumers and providers need to evaluate the trust levels of potential partners before engaging in interactions. The accuracy of trust evaluation greatly affects the success rate of the interaction. Trust evaluation is a challenging problem in open and dynamic environment as there is no central mediator to manage standardized evaluation criteria or reputation records. In this paper, a novel trust model, called the priority-based trust model, is presented. The model derives the trustworthiness of a service provider from designated referees and its historical performance. In addition, consumers can specify their preferred priorities which will affect the result of trust evaluations. The experimental results show that the proposed model has better performance than other trust models, especially in open and dynamic environments. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Shen X.,Tongji University | Chen S.,Tongji University | Li G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang Y.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2013

Onboard energy storage system (ESS) is an important energy-saving technology in urban rail transit. The key issue of the ESS is the array configuration. In this paper, a new array configuration methodology is developed. First, the limitations of the capacity-constrained configuration method, which is mainly adopted for configuring the onboard supercapacitor array (OSA), are investigated. Second, a mathematical model of the OSA is developed taking into account power and capacity constraints so that the absorbed braking energy can be recovered. Finally, a power- and capacity-constrained configuration methodology (P&C-Method) is proposed. Digital simulation studies are conducted, and the results show that the OSA with the proposed P&C-Method can realize the effective energy recovery of the whole absorbed braking energy and have a high energy-saving effect/weight ratio. © 2012 IEEE.

Barr K.,Auckland University of Technology | Korchagina E.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Ryzhov I.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Bovin N.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Henry S.,Auckland University of Technology
Transfusion | Year: 2014

Background Monoclonal (MoAb) reagents are routinely used and are usually very reliable for the serologic determination of ABO blood types. However, the fine specificity and cross-reactivity of these reagents are often unknown, particularly against synthetic antigens used in some diagnostic assays. If nonserologic assays or very sensitive techniques other than those specifically prescribed by the manufacturer are used, then there is a risk of incorrect interpretation of results.Study Design and Methods Forty-seven MoAbs and two polyclonal ABO reagents were tested against red blood cell (RBC) kodecytes prepared with A trisaccharide, A Type 1, A Type 2, A Type 3, A Type 4, B trisaccharide, B Type 1, B Type 2, acquired B trisaccharide, and Lea trisaccharide function-spacer-lipid (FSL) constructs. Natural RBCs were tested in parallel. In addition these FSL constructs were printed onto paper with a desktop inkjet printer and used in a novel immunoassay that identifies reactivity through the appearance of alphanumeric characters.Results Mapping of MoAbs with kodecytes and printed FSL constructs revealed a series of broad recognition patterns. All ABO MoAbs tested were reactive with the RBC dominant Type 2 ABO antigens. Unexpectedly some anti-A reagents were reactive against the B Type 1 antigen, while others were poorly reactive with trisaccharide antigens. Conclusions All ABO MoAbs detect the RBC dominant Type 2 ABO antigens; however, some reagents may show minor reactivity with inappropriate blood group antigens, which needs to be considered when using these reagents in alternative or highly sensitive analytic systems. © 2014 AABB.

Swinton P.A.,Robert Gordon University | Stewart A.D.,Robert Gordon University | Lloyd R.,University of Abertay Dundee | Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the traditional squat with 2 popular exercise variations commonly referred to as the powerlifting squat and box squat. Twelve male powerlifters performed the exercises with 30, 50, and 70% of their measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with instruction to lift the loads as fast as possible. Inverse dynamics and spatial tracking of the external resistance were used to quantify biomechanical variables. A range of significant kinematic and kinetic differences (p < 0.05) emerged between the exercises. The traditional squat was performed with a narrow stance, whereas the powerlifting squat and box squat were performed with similar wide stances (48.3 ± 3.8, 89.6 ± 4.9, 92.1 ± 5.1 cm, respectively). During the eccentric phase of the traditional squat, the knee traveled past the toes resulting in anterior displacement of the system center of mass (COM). In contrast, during the powerlifting squat and box squat, a more vertical shin position was maintained, resulting in posterior displacements of the system COM. These differences in linear displacements had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on a number of peak joint moments, with the greatest effects measured at the spine and ankle. For both joints, the largest peak moment was produced during the traditional squat, followed by the powerlifting squat, then box squat. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also noted at the hip joint where the largest moment in all 3 planes were produced during the powerlifting squat. Coaches and athletes should be aware of the biomechanical differences between the squatting variations and select according to the kinematic and kinetic profile that best match the training goals. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Lorimer A.V.,Auckland University of Technology | Lorimer A.V.,Unitec Institute of Technology | Hume P.A.,Auckland University of Technology
Sports Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Overuse injuries are multifactorial resulting from cumulative loading. Therefore, clear differences between normal and at-risk individuals may not be present for individual risk factors. Using a holistic measure that incorporates many of the identified risk factors, focusing on multiple joint movement patterns may give better insight into overuse injuries. Lower body stiffness may provide such a measure. Objective: To identify how risk factors for Achilles tendon injuries influence measures of lower body stiffness. Methods: SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed were searched for Achilles tendon injury risk factors related to vertical, leg and joint stiffness in running athletes. Results: Increased braking force and low surface stiffness, which were clearly associated with increased risk of Achilles tendon injuries, were also found to be associated with increased lower body stiffness. High arches and increased vertical and propulsive forces were protective for Achilles tendon injuries and were also associated with increased lower body stiffness. Risk factors for Achilles tendon injuries that had unclear associations were also investigated with the evidence trending towards an increase in leg stiffness and a decrease in ankle stiffness being detrimental to Achilles tendon health. Conclusion: Few studies have investigated the link between lower body stiffness and Achilles injury. High stiffness is potentially associated with risk factors for Achilles tendon injuries although some of the evidence is controversial. Prospective injury studies are needed to confirm this relationship. Large amounts of high-intensity or high-speed work or running on soft surfaces such as sand may increase Achilles injury risk. Coaches and clinicians working with athletes with new or reoccurring injuries should consider training practices of the athlete and recommend reducing speed or sand running if loading is deemed to be excessive. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Barr K.,Auckland University of Technology | Korchagina E.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Popova I.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Bovin N.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Henry S.,Auckland University of Technology
Transfusion | Year: 2015

Background The FORS blood group system (originally recognized as the Apae phenotype) was discovered by sporadic activity against polyclonal anti-A reagents and activity against the lectin Helix pomatia. The extent of monoclonal anti-A reagent activity against the FORS1 antigen is serologically and immunochemically incomplete. Study Design and Methods In the absence of natural FORS1-positive red blood cells (RBCs), kodecytes were created with synthetic disaccharide and pentasaccharide Forssman function-spacer-lipid (FSL) constructs, Fsdi-kodecytes, and FORS1-kodecytes, respectively. FSL constructs were also applied to solid surfaces and used in solid-phase enzyme immunoassays. A range of characterized monoclonal anti-A and anti-B reagents were then serologically and immunochemically characterized against these Forssman antigens. Polyclonal human anti-A, anti-B, the lectin H. pomatia serologic reagents; and canine RBCs were used as serologic controls. Results None of 19 different monoclonal anti-A reagents were able to detect the pentasaccharide Forssman on FORS1-kodecytes, while three reagents were able to detect disaccharide Forssman on Fsdi-kodecytes. Most anti-A reagents were immunochemically reactive with both the di- and the pentasaccharide Forssman antigens in the solid-phase assays. Historic polyclonal human anti-A and the lectin H. pomatia reacted strongly with the FORS1-kodecytes, correlating with the discovery of the Apae phenotype and supporting the use of FORS1-kodecytes as FORS1 surrogates. Conclusions Monoclonal anti-A reagents, despite showing reactivity against the FORS1 antigen in solid-phase assays are unlikely to cause the agglutination of FORS1 antigen-positive RBCs. © 2014 AABB.

Meylan C.M.,Canadian Sport Institute Pacific | Cronin J.,Auckland University of Technology | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Oliver J.,University of Wales
Pediatric Exercise Science | Year: 2014

Adjustment for body mass and maturation of strength, power, and velocity measures of young athletes is important for talent development. Seventy-four youth male athletes performed a ballistic leg press test at five loads relative to body mass. The data were analyzed in maturity groups based on years from peak height velocity: 2.5 to 0.9 y (n = 29); 1.0 to 0.4 y (n = 28); and 0.5 to 2.0 y (n = 16). Allometric scaling factors representing percent difference in performance per percent difference in body mass were derived by linear regression of log-transformed variables, which also permitted adjustment of performance for body mass. Standardized differences between groups were assessed via magnitude-based inference. Strength and power measures showed a greater dependency on body mass than velocity-related variables (scaling factors of 0.56-0.85 vs. 0.42-0.14%/%), but even after adjustment for body mass most differences in strength and power were substantial (7-44%). In conclusion, increases in strength and power with maturation are due only partly to increases in body mass. Such increases, along with appropriate adjustment for body mass, need to be taken into account when comparing performance of maturing athletes. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Chen Y.,Auckland University of Technology | Narayanan A.,Auckland University of Technology | Pang S.,Unitec Institute of Technology | Tao B.,Japan National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
Proceedings - International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA | Year: 2012

Malware is currently a major threat to information and computer security, with the volume and growing diversity of its variants causing major problems to traditional security defenses. Software patches and upgrades to anti-viral packages are typically released only after the malware's key characteristics have been identified through infection, by which time it may be too late to protect systems. Multiple sequence analysis is widely used in bioinformatics for revealing the genetic diversity of organisms and annotating gene functions through the identification of common genetic regions. This paper adopts a new approach to the problem of malware recognition, which is to use multiple sequence alignment techniques from bioinformatics to align variable length computer viral and worm code so that core, invariant regions of the code occupy fixed positions in the alignment patterns. Data mining (ANNs, symbolic rule extraction) can then be used to learn the critical features that help to determine into which class the aligned patterns fall. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our novel approach for identifying malware code through multiple sequence alignment followed by analysis by ANNs and symbolic rule extraction methods. © 2012 IEEE.

Moustafa A.,University of Wollongong | Zhang M.,University of Wollongong | Bai Q.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing | Year: 2016

The widespread use of web services in forming complex online applications requires service composition to cope with highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments. Traditional centralized service composition techniques are not sufficient to address the needs of applications in decentralized environments. In this paper, a stigmergic-based approach is proposed to model the decentralized service interactions and handle service composition in highly dynamic open environments. In the proposed approach, web services and resources are modeled as multiple agents. Stigmergic-based self-organization mechanisms among agents are deployed to facilitate adapting service composition. In addition, to overcome the limitations of traditional QoS-based approaches, trust measurements are deployed as a criterion for service selection. To improve the performance of the proposed stigmergic-based approach under dynamic scale-free environments, we investigate the hybridization with local search operators to consolidate adaptation, and diversity schemes are introduced to facilitate continual service adaptation. Extensive experiments show the efficiency of the proposed approach in dealing with incomplete information and dynamic factors in composing and adapting web services in open environments. The experiment results also show that the proposed approach achieves a better performance than other traditional approaches. © 2014 IEEE.

Buxton R.T.,University of Otago | Jones C.,Landcare Research | Moller H.,Science and Capability Group | Towns D.R.,University of Otago | Towns D.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Conservation Biology | Year: 2014

Eradication of introduced mammalian predators from islands has become increasingly common, with over 800 successful projects around the world. Historically, introduced predators extirpated or reduced the size of many seabird populations, changing the dynamics of entire island ecosystems. Although the primary outcome of many eradication projects is the restoration of affected seabird populations, natural population responses are rarely documented and mechanisms are poorly understood. We used a generic model of seabird colony growth to identify key predictor variables relevant to recovery or recolonization. We used generalized linear mixed models to test the importance of these variables in driving seabird population responses after predator eradication on islands around New Zealand. The most influential variable affecting recolonization of seabirds around New Zealand was the distance to a source population, with few cases of recolonization without a source population ≤25 km away. Colony growth was most affected by metapopulation status; there was little colony growth in species with a declining status. These characteristics may facilitate the prioritization of newly predator-free islands for active management. Although we found some evidence documenting natural recovery, generally this topic was understudied. Our results suggest that in order to guide management strategies, more effort should be allocated to monitoring wildlife response after eradication. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

Dassanayake R.S.,Kent State University | Cabelli D.E.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Brasch N.E.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Although now recognized to be an important reactive nitrogen species in biological systems that modifies the structures of proteins, DNA and lipids, there are few studies on the reactivity of •NO2, including the reactions between •NO2 and transition metal complexes. We report kinetic studies on the reactions of •NO2 with two forms of vitamin B12 - cob(II)alamin and nitrocobalamin. UV-visible spectroscopy and HPLC analysis of the product solution show that •NO2 cleanly oxidizes the metal center of cob(II)alamin to form nitrocobalamin, with a second-order rate constant of (3.5 ± 0.3) × 108 M-1 s-1 (pH 7.0 and 9.0, room temperature, I = 0.20 M). The stoichiometry of the reaction is 1:1. No reaction is detected by UV-visible spectroscopy and HPLC analysis of the product solution when nitrocobalamin is exposed to up to 2.0 mol equiv. •NO2. © 2014, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lu B.-B.,Xinjiang University | Jia Z.-H.,Xinjiang University | Yang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu R.,Auckland University of Technology
Guangdianzi Jiguang/Journal of Optoelectronics Laser | Year: 2011

The fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm has been proven to be effective for image segmentation. However, the standard FCM algorithm is sensitive to noise and gray inhomogeneity. An improved FCM-based algorithm is proposed in this paper, which firstly modeled the noise of an image as a slowly varying additive or multiplicative noise and iteratively approximate the gray inhomogeneity and noise areas by using the spatial neighborhood information. In this process, the threshold values of up and down cut-off were applied to adjust different memberships of pixel. The experimental results on the segmentation demonstrate that the algorithm performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm and MFCM algorithm.

Ramezani M.,Auckland University of Technology | Schmid S.R.,University of Notre Dame
Journal of Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2015

Abstract For a number of reasons, magnesium is being used increasingly often in applications where weight savings are desired. However, magnesium is difficult to form, so that warm or hot forming are generally necessary. Lubricants are recognized as essential in these processes, but the lubricants used to date for magnesium forming have environmental drawbacks. This paper evaluates the tribological behavior and rheology of four types of bio-based metal working fluids. Using an elastohydrodynamic lubrication apparatus, their traction behavior was measured and their piezoviscous behavior was determined by applying the well-known Hamrock-Dowson equation to measured film thickness profiles. The results showed that the investigated bio-lubricants have good ability to generate lubricant films in forming of magnesium. Traction tests showed low friction values, indicating the investigated bio-lubricants are suitable for metal forming applications where effective lubrication is desired. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Klusemann M.J.,Australian Institute of Sport | Pyne D.B.,Australian Institute of Sport | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Drinkwater E.J.,Charles Sturt University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

Competition-specific conditioning for tournament basketball games is challenging, as the demands of tournament formats are not well characterized. Purpose: To compare the physical, physiological, and tactical demands of seasonal and tournament basketball competition and determine the pattern of changes within an international tournament. Methods: Eight elite junior male basketball players (age 17.8 ± 0.2 y, height 1.93 ± 0.07 m, mass 85 ± 3 kg; mean ± SD) were monitored in 6 seasonal games played over 4 mo in an Australian second-division national league and in 7 games of an international under-18 tournament played over 8 days. Movement patterns and tactical elements were coded from video and heart rates recorded by telemetry. Results: The frequency of running, sprinting, and shuffling movements in seasonal games was higher than in tournament games by 8-15% (99% confidence limits ± ~8%). Within the tournament, jogging and low- to medium-intensity shuffling decreased by 15-20% (± ∼14%) over the 7 games, while running, sprinting, and high-intensity shuffling increased 11-81% (± ∼25%). There were unclear differences in mean and peak heart rates. The total number of possessions was higher in seasonal than in tournament games by 8% (± 10%). Conclusions: Coaches should consider a stronger emphasis on strength and power training in their conditioning programs to account for the higher activity of seasonal games. For tournament competition, strategies that build a sufficient aerobic capacity and neuromuscular resilience to maintain high-intensity movements need to be employed. A focus on half-court tactics accounts for the lower number of possessions in tournaments. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Tu E.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cao L.,University of Technology, Sydney | Yang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Neurocomputing | Year: 2014

Many real-world applications expose the nonlinear manifold structure of the lower dimension rather than its high-dimensional input space. This greatly challenges most existing clustering and representative selection algorithms which do not take the manifold characteristics into consideration. The performance of the corresponding learning algorithms can be greatly improved if the manifold structure is considered. In this paper, we propose a graph-based k-means algorithm, GKM, which bears the simplicity of classic k-means while incorporating global information of data geometric distribution. GKM fully exploits the intrinsic manifold structure for appropriate data clustering and representative selection. GKM is evaluated on both synthetic and real-life data sets and achieves very impressive results compared to the state-of-the-art approaches, including classic k-means, kernel k-means, spectral clustering, and clustering through ranking and for representative selection. Given the widespread appearance of manifold structures in real world problems, GKM shows promising potential for partitioning manifold-distributed data. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Towns D.R.,Science and Technical Group | Towns D.R.,Auckland University of Technology | West C.J.,Science and Technical Group | Broome K.G.,Science and Technical Group
Wildlife Research | Year: 2013

Context Invasive mammals have been removed from at least 100 offshore islands around New Zealand, covering a total area of around 45000ha. Aims To review the outcomes of eradications, the statutory and social environment in which the eradications were conducted, and the lessons provided for future work. Methods Native species to benefit from the eradications were identified, as were the reasons for the eradications and the agencies responsible. Examples are provided using case studies. Key results Three loosely linked work streams were revealed: research into efficient baits and baiting methods, threatened species-led projects nested within priorities for species recovery and supported by legislation, and community-led projects instigated by restoration societies. At least 180 populations of 14 species of invasive mammals were removed. Numerous species of native plants, invertebrates and more than 70 species of terrestrial vertebrates are recovering or are likely to recover as a result of the eradications. Partnerships have been formed with Māori and innovative projects developed with community groups. Conclusions Eradications of invasive mammals are aggressive conservation actions that can have wide benefits for biodiversity but can also be controversial, technically demanding and expensive. Implications Eradications are multi-scale problems. If they are to gain public acceptance, evidence is needed in support. This evidence can include understanding the detrimental effects of invasive species, the likely responses of native biodiversity, and the benefits ensuing from their recovery. However, the way this evidence is gained and communicated will also require deep understanding of nuances in regional political and cultural environments. © 2013 CSIRO.

Swinton P.A.,Robert Gordon University | Lloyd R.,University of Abertay Dundee | Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Keogh J.W.L.,Bond University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

It was the aim of the present study to expand on previous correlation analyses that have attempted to identify factors that influence performance of jumping, sprinting, and changing direction. This was achieved by using a regression approach to obtain linear models that combined anthropometric, strength, and other biomechanical variables. Thirty rugby union players participated in the study (age: 24.2±3.9 years; stature: 181.2±6.6 cm; mass: 94.2±11.1 kg). The athletes' ability to sprint, jump, and change direction was assessed using a 30-m sprint, vertical jump, and 505 agility test, respectively. Regression variables were collected during maximum strength tests (1 repetition maximum [1RM] deadlift and squat) and performance of fast velocity resistance exercises (deadlift and jump squat) using submaximum loads (10-70% 1RM). Force, velocity, power, and rate of force development (RFD) values were measured during fast velocity exercises with the greatest values produced across loads selected for further analysis. Anthropometric data, including lengths, widths, and girths were collected using a 3-dimensional body scanner. Potential regression variables were first identified using correlation analyses. Suitable variables were then regressed using a best subsets approach. Three factor models generally provided the most appropriate balance between explained variance and model complexity. Adjusted R2 values of 0.86, 0.82, and 0.67 were obtained for sprint, jump, and change of direction performance, respectively. Anthropometric measurements did not feature in any of the top models because of their strong association with body mass. For each performance measure, variance was best explained by relative maximum strength. Improvements in models were then obtained by including velocity and power values for jumping and sprinting performance, and by including RFD values for change of direction performance. © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Korchagina E.Y.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Henry S.M.,Auckland University of Technology
Biochemistry (Moscow) | Year: 2015

Function - spacer - lipid (FSL) constructs are amphiphilic molecules that are able to disperse in water and then self-assemble into cell membranes or onto solid surfaces. Modification of a biological or non-biological surface is very easy and achieved by simple contact of the surface with an appropriately buffered solution containing one or more FSLs. When the functional head group of the FSL is a glycan, glycan modified surfaces can be rapidly formed. Once cells, viruses, or solid surfaces are FSL modified with either simple or complex glycans, they can be used in vitro and/or in vivo to measure interactions with cells, viruses, antibodies, and lectins. FSLs have already been used in a variety of techniques including antibody specificity mapping, antibody/toxin neutralization, diagnostic assays, immune system manipulation, and animal modeling of transfusion reactions. FSLs offer the easiest and fastest method available to achieve a glycan-modified surface. © 2015 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Yang B.,Xinjiang University | Jia Z.-H.,Xinjiang University | Qin X.-Z.,Xinjiang University | Yang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu R.,Auckland University of Technology
Guangdianzi Jiguang/Journal of Optoelectronics Laser | Year: 2013

Remote sensing image with the characteristics of overall dim brightness, low-contrast and no obvious distinction between the target and background, makes the remote sensing image enhancement technology play an active role for improving the contrast of the image and highlighting some local details. At present, the image multi-scale system has gained successful applications in image processing, wavelet transform, Curverlet transform, Contourlet transform and some improved algorithms based on them. One of the most common shortcomings of the frameworks of the system Curverlet and Contourlet is lacking of providing a unified treatment between the continuity and the digital world. Shearlet system is the only one which satisfies this property, yet still optimally delivers sparse approximations of images. Based on Shearlet transform, we propose a new algorithm for remote sensing image enhancement. First, the remote sensing images are transformed into the low frequency coefficients and high frequent coefficients by Shearlet transform; second, we use fuzzy contrast enhancement on the low frequency coefficients of Shearlet transform; third, we use fuzzy enhancement on the high frequency coefficients of each scale and direction. Experimental results show that in the subjective side, we obtain a good visual effect, and objectively, the image entropy and mean have a significant promotion.

Wang J.-J.,Xinjiang University | Jia Z.-H.,Xinjiang University | Qin X.-Z.,Xinjiang University | Yang J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology | Year: 2015

In order to solve the problem of noise amplification, low contrast and image distortion in the process of medical image enhancement, a new algorithm is proposed which combines NSCT (nonsubsampled contourlet transform) and improved fuzzy contrast. The image is decomposed by NSCT. Firstly, linear enhancement method is used in low frequency coefficients; secondly the improved adaptive threshold function is used to deal with the high frequency coefficients. Finally, the improved fuzzy contrast is used to enhance the global contrast and the Laplace operator is used to enhance the details of the medical images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the image visual effects, remove the noise and enhance the details of medical images. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 25, 7-14, 2015 © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Swinton P.A.,Robert Gordon University | Stewart A.,Robert Gordon University | Agouris I.,Robert Gordon University | Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Lloyd R.,University of Abertay Dundee
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

The purpose of the investigation was to compare the kinematics and kinetics of the deadlift performed with 2 distinct barbells across a range of submaximal loads. Nineteen male powerlifters performed the deadlift with a conventional straight barbell and a hexagonal barbell that allowed the lifter to stand within its frame. Subjects performed trials at maximum speed with loads of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of their predetermined 1- repetition maximum (1RM). Inverse dynamics and spatial tracking of the external resistance were used to quantify kinematic and kinetic variables. Subjects were able to lift a heavier 1RM load in the hexagonal barbell deadlift (HBD) than the straight barbell deadlift (SBD) (265±41 kg vs. 245±39 kg, p < 0.05). The design of the hexagonal barbell significantly altered the resistance moment at the joints analyzed (p < 0.05), resulting in lower peak moments at the lumbar spine, hip, and ankle (p < 0.05) and an increased peak moment at the knee (p < 0.05). Maximum peak power values of 4,388±713 and 4,872±636 W were obtained for the SBD and HBD, respectively (p < 0.05). Across the submaximal loads, significantly greater peak force, peak velocity and peak power values were produced during the HBD compared to during the SBD (p ± 0.05). The results demonstrate that the choice of barbell used to perform the deadlift has a significant effect on a range of kinematic and kinetic variables. The enhanced mechanical stimulus obtained with the hexagonal barbell suggests that in general the HBD is a more effective exercise than the SBD. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Swinton P.A.,Robert Gordon University | D. Stewart A.,Robert Gordon University | Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Agouris I.,Robert Gordon University | Lloyd R.,University of Abertay Dundee
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the deadlift could be effectively incorporated with explosive resistance training (ERT) and to investigate whether the inclusion of chains enhanced the suitability of the deadlift for ERT. Twenty-three resistance trained athletes performed the deadlift with 30, 50, and 70% 1-repetition maximum (1RM) loads at submaximal velocity, maximal velocity (MAX), and MAX with the inclusion of 2 chain loads equal to 20 or 40% of the subjects' 1RM. All trials were performed on force platforms with markers attached to the barbell to calculate velocity and acceleration using a motion capture system. Significant increases in force, velocity, power, rate of force development, and length of the acceleration phase (p < 0.05) were obtained when repetition velocity increased from submaximal to maximal. During MAX repetitions with a constant resistance, the mean length of the acceleration phase ranged from 73.2 (67.2%) to 84.9 (612.2%) of the overall movement. Compared to using a constant resistance, the inclusion of chains enabled greater force to be maintained to the end of the concentric action and significantly increased peak force and impulse (p < 0.05), while concurrently decreasing velocity, power, and rate of force development (p < 0.05). The effects of chains were influenced by the magnitude of the chain and barbell resistance, with greater increases and decreases in mechanical variables obtained when heavier chain and barbell loads were used. The results of the investigation suggest that the deadlift can be incorporated effectively in ERT programs. Coaches and athletes should be aware that the inclusion of heavy chains may have both positive and negative effects on kinematics and kinetics of an exercise. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Chen Y.,Auckland University of Technology | Narayanan A.,Auckland University of Technology | Pang S.,Unitec Institute of Technology | Tao B.,Japan National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
Proceedings - International Conference on Natural Computation | Year: 2012

Malware is currently a major threat to information and computer security, with the volume and growing diversity of its variants causing major problems to traditional security defenses. Software patches and upgrades to anti-viral packages are typically released only after the malware's key characteristics have been identified through infection, by which time it may be too late to protect systems. Sequence analysis is widely used in bioinformatics for revealing the genetic diversity of organisms and annotating gene functions. This paper adopts a new approach to the problem of malware recognition, which is to use multiple sequence alignment techniques from bioinformatics to align variable length computer viral and worm code so that core, invariant regions of the code occupy fixed positions in the alignment patterns. Data mining (ANNs, symbolic rule extraction) can then be used to learn the critical features that help to determine into which class the aligned patterns fall. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our novel approach for identifying malware code through multiple sequence alignment followed by analysis by ANNs and symbolic rule extraction methods. © 2012 IEEE.

Oliver M.,Auckland University of Technology | Badland H.,University of Melbourne | Mavoa S.,University of Melbourne | Witten K.,Massey University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2014

Background: Active transport (e.g., walking, cycling) to school (ATS) can contribute to children's physical activity and health. The built environment is acknowledged as an important factor in understanding children's ATS, alongside parental factors and seasonality. Inconsistencies in methodological approaches exist, and a clear understanding of factors related to ATS remains equivocal. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of associates of children's ATS, by considering the effects of daily weather patterns and neighbourhood walk ability and neighbourhood preferences (i.e., for living in a high or low walkable neighbourhood) on this behaviour.Methods: Data were drawn from the Understanding Relationships between Activity and Neighbourhoods study, a cross-sectional study of physical activity and the built environment in adults and children in four New Zealand cities. Parents of participating children completed an interview and daily trip diary that assessed their child's mode of travel to school, household and individual demographic information, and parental neighbourhood preference. Daily weather data were downloaded from New Zealand's national climate database. Geographic information systems-derived variables were calculated for distance to school and neighbourhood walkability. Bivariate analyses were conducted with ATS and potential associates; factors related to ATS at p < 0.20 were considered simultaneously in generalized estimation equation models, and backwards elimination of non-significant factors was conducted; city was treated as a fixed effect in all models.Results: A total of 217 children aged 6.5-15 years participated in this study. Female sex, age, city, household income, limited/no car access, residing in zone of school, shorter distance to school, neighbourhood self selection, rainfall, and sunlight hours were simultaneously considered in multivariate generalised estimation equation modelling (all p < 0.20 in bivariate analyses). After elimination of non-significant factors, age (p = 0.005), shorter distance to school (p < 0.001), city (p = 0.03), and neighbourhood self selection (p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with ATS in the multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Distance to school is the prevailing environmental influencing factor on children's ATS. This study, in conjunction with previous research, suggests that school siting is likely an important associate of children's ATS. © 2014 Oliver et al.

Theadom A.,Auckland University of Technology | Rodrigues M.,Auckland City Hospital | Roxburgh R.,Auckland City Hospital | Balalla S.,Auckland University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Neuroepidemiology | Year: 2014

Background: Determining the prevalence of neuromuscular disorders for the general population is important to identify the scope of burden on society and enable comparisons with other health conditions. This systematic review aims to identify and collate the findings of studies published between 1960 and 2013 on the prevalence of all types of muscular dystrophies. Summary: Relevant articles were identified through electronic database searches and manual searches of reference lists. There were 38 articles from across 19 countries that met the inclusion criteria. The total combined prevalence for all muscular dystrophies for studies classified as having a low risk of bias ranged between 19.8 and 25.1 per 100,000 person-years. Myotonic dystrophy (0.5-18.1 per 100,000), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (1.7-4.2) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (3.2-4.6 per 100,000) were found to be the most common types of disorder. There was wide variation in study methodology, case ascertainment, and verification procedures and populations studied, all of which may contribute to the wide prevalence range, in addition to the likely variation in prevalence by country. Key Messages: Greater consistency in the conduct and reporting of neuroepidemiological studies is urgently needed to enable comparisons to be made between studies, countries, and over time. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Hill E.M.,Auckland University of Technology | Gick M.L.,Carleton University
Journal of Health Psychology | Year: 2013

The present study explored the role of attachment insecurity in cervical screening behaviors and barriers in a sample of 257 female undergraduates. Information on attachment dimensions as well as attachment style was collected. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were associated with decreased likelihood of having participated in cervical screening and positively associated with screening barriers. Screening barriers were elevated among individuals with insecure attachment styles (preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing), and dismissing participants were less likely to have engaged in screening compared to secure participants. Our findings demonstrate that attachment insecurity may be a risk factor for inadequate cervical screening and screening barriers. © The Author(s) 2012.

Jessri M.,Research Institute for Endocrine science | Jessri M.,University of Queensland | RashidKhani B.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Zinn C.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (± 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (± 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (± 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Xie B.,East China Normal University | Xiong S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liang S.,East China Normal University | Hu C.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Aged landfill leachates become more refractory over time and difficulty to treat. Recently, aged refuse bioreactors show great promise in treating leachates. In this study, aged refuse bioreactors were constructed to simulate landfill leachate degradation process. The characteristics of leachate were: COD cr, ∼2200mg/L; BOD 5, ∼280mg/L; total nitrogen, ∼2030mg/L; and ammonia, ∼1900mg/L. Results showed that bioreactor could remove leachate pollutants effectively at hydraulic loading of 20L/m 3d. The removal rate reduced when hydraulic loading doubled or temperature lowered. Effluent recirculation could alleviate the temperature effect. Combining aged refuse and slag biofilters could treat leachate more efficiently. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that bacteria from Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, Bacillus and δ-proteobacter, Flexibacteraceae were more abundant in the samples. The Shannon index decreased at lower temperature, while evenness and equitability increased with recirculation. We suggest that filter medium and temperature may be the main factors for shaping bacterial community structure. © 2011.

Pang S.,Unitec Institute of Technology | Ban T.,Japan National Institute of Information and Communications Technology | Kadobayashi Y.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

Personalized transductive learning (PTL) builds a unique local model for classification of individual test samples and is therefore practically neighborhood dependant; i.e. a specific model is built in a subspace spanned by a set of samples adjacent to the test sample. While existing PTL methods usually define the neighborhood by a predefined (dis)similarity measure, this paper introduces a new concept of a knowledgeable neighborhood and a transductive Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification tree (t-SVMT) for PTL. The neighborhood of a test sample is constructed over the classification knowledge modelled by regional SVMs, and a set of such SVMs adjacent to the test sample is systematically aggregated into a t-SVMT. Compared to a regular SVM and other SVMTs, a t-SVMT, by virtue of the aggregation of SVMs, has an inherent superiority in classifying class-imbalanced datasets. The t-SVMT has also solved the over-fitting problem of all previous SVMTs since it aggregates neighborhood knowledge and thus significantly reduces the size of the SVM tree. The properties of the t-SVMT are evaluated through experiments on a synthetic dataset, eight bench-mark cancer diagnosis datasets, as well as a case study of face membership authentication. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Harwood M.,Medical Research Institute of New Zealand | Weatherall M.,University of Otago | Talemaitoga A.,Ministry of Health | Barber P.A.,University of Auckland | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Objective: Few community interventions following stroke enhance activity, participation or quality of life. We tested two novel community interventions designed to promote self-directed rehabilitation following stroke.Design: This was a randomized, controlled parallel group 2×2 trial.Setting: Community.Participants: Maori and Pacific New Zealanders, >15 years old, randomized within three months of a new stroke.Interventions: A DVD of four inspirational stories by Maori and Pacific people with stroke and a 'Take Charge Session'-a single structured risk factor and activities of daily living assessment, designed to facilitate self-directed rehabilitation.Main measures: Primary outcomes were Health-related Quality of Life (Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of the Short Form 36 (SF-36)) 12 months from randomization. Secondary outcomes were Barthel Index, Frenchay Activities Index, Carer Strain Index and modified Rankin score.Results: One hundred and seventy-two people were randomized with 139 (80.8%) followed up at 12 months post randomization. The effect of the Take Charge Session on SF-36 PCS at 12 months was 6.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 10.0) and of the DVD was 0.9 (95% CI -3.1 to 4.9). Participants allocated to the Take Charge Session were less likely to have a modified Rankin score of >2 (odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.89) and their carers had lower (better) Carer Strain Index scores (-1.5, 95% CI -2.8 to -0.1).Conclusion: A simple, low-cost intervention in the community phase of stroke recovery aiming to promote self-directed rehabilitation improved outcomes. © The Author(s) 2011.

Arcos A.L.,Club Atletico Osasuna | Yanci J.,University of the Basque Country | Mendiguchia J.,Zentrum Rehabilitation and Performance Center | Salinero J.J.,Camilo José Cela University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 strength and conditioning programs involving either purely vertically oriented or combining vertically and horizontally oriented exercises on soccer-relevant performance variables (ie, acceleration, jumping ability, peak power, and endurance). Methods: Twenty-two professional male soccer players were randomly assigned to 2 training groups: vertical strength (VS, n = 11) and vertical and horizontal strength (VHS, n = 11). Players trained 2 times per week during all the preseason (5 wk) and 3 weeks of the competitive season. The effect of the training protocols was assessed using doubleand single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (CMJ), half-squat peak power (PP), sprint performance over 5 and 15 m, and blood lactate concentration at selected running speeds. Results: Both groups obtained significant improvements in PP (P < .05; ES = 0.87 and 0.80 for VS and VHS, respectively) and small practical improvements in 5-m- (P < .05; ES = 0.27 and 0.25 for VS and VHS, respectively) and 15-m-sprint time (P < .05; ES = 0.19 and 0.24 for VS and VHS, respectively). The CMJ performance showed a small improvement (P < .05, ES = 0.34) only in the VHS group. Submaximal aerobic-fitness changes were similar in both groups (P < .05; ES = 1.89 and 0 .71 for VS and VHS, respectively). Conclusion: This study provided a small amount of practical evidence for the consideration of preseason training protocols that combine exercises for vertical- and horizontal-axis strength development in professional male soccer players. Further studies using more aggressive training protocols involving horizontally oriented conditioning exercises are warranted. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Nibali M.,Australian Institute of Sport | Nibali M.,Charles Sturt University | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Drinkwater E.,Charles Sturt University
European Journal of Sport Science | Year: 2011

Little is known about the race performance characteristics of elite-level slalom canoeists or the magnitude of improvement necessary to enhance medal-winning prospects. Final placing in this sport is determined by the aggregate of semi-final and final run times inclusive of penalty times. We therefore used mixed linear modelling to analyse these times for finalists ranked in the top and bottom half in the men's canoe, men's kayak, and women's kayak boat classes at World Cups, World Championships, and Olympic Games from 2000 to 2007. The run-to-run variability for top-ranked athletes at different courses ranged from 0.8% to 3.2% (90% confidence limits ×/÷1.11-1.31), reflecting differences in how challenging these courses were. The race-to-race variability of aggregate run time was 1.2-2.1% (×/÷~1.09); 0.3 of this variability yields the smallest worthwhile enhancement of 0.4-0.6%. The variabilities of bottom-ranked finalists were approximately double those of top-ranked finalists. The home advantage was small (0.3-0.8%), and incurring a penalty had a marginal effect on reducing actual run time (0.2-0.7%). Correlation coefficients for performance predictability within competitions (0.06-0.35), within years (0.12-0.47), and between years (0.12-0.43) were poor. In conclusion, the variability of performance and smallest worthwhile enhancements in slalom canoe-kayaking are larger than those of comparable sports, and race outcomes are largely unpredictable. © 2011 European College of Sport Science.

Rice D.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Rice D.A.,North Shore Hospital | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Lewis G.N.,Auckland University of Technology | Mannion J.,Unitec Institute of Technology
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2015

Introduction: Populations with knee joint damage, including arthritis, have noted impairments in the regulation of submaximal muscle force. It is difficult to determine the exact cause of such impairments given the joint pathology and associated neuromuscular adaptations. Experimental pain models that have been used to isolate the effects of pain on muscle force regulation have shown impaired force steadiness during acute pain. However, few studies have examined force regulation during dynamic contractions, and these findings have been inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of experimental knee joint pain on submaximal quadriceps force regulation during isometric and dynamic contractions. Methods: The study involved fifteen healthy participants. Participants were seated in an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee extensor force matching tasks were completed in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle contraction conditions. The target force was set to 10 % of maximum for each contraction type. Hypertonic saline was then injected into the infrapatella fat pad to generate acute joint pain. The force matching tasks were repeated during pain and once more 5 min after pain had subsided. Results: Hypertonic saline resulted in knee pain with an average peak pain rating of 5.5 ± 2.1 (0-10 scale) that lasted for 18 ± 4 mins. Force steadiness significantly reduced during pain across all three muscle contraction conditions. There was a trend to increased force matching error during pain but this was not significant. Conclusion: Experimental knee pain leads to impaired quadriceps force steadiness during isometric, eccentric, and concentric contractions, providing further evidence that joint pain directly affects motor performance. Given the established relationship between submaximal muscle force steadiness and function, such an effect may be detrimental to the performance of tasks in daily life. In order to restore motor performance in people with painful arthritic conditions of the knee, it may be important to first manage their pain more effectively. © 2015 Rice et al.

Pang S.,Unitec Institute of Technology | Ban T.,National Institution of Information and Communications Technology | Kadobayashi Y.,National Institution of Information and Communications Technology | Kadobayashi Y.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Kasabov N.K.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics | Year: 2012

To adapt linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to real-world applications, there is a pressing need to equip it with an incremental learning ability to integrate knowledge presented by one-pass data streams, a functionality to join multiple LDA models to make the knowledge sharing between independent learning agents more efficient, and a forgetting functionality to avoid reconstruction of the overall discriminant eigenspace caused by some irregular changes. To this end, we introduce two adaptive LDA learning methods: LDA merging and LDA splitting. These provide the benefits of ability of online learning with one-pass data streams, retained class separability identical to the batch learning method, high efficiency for knowledge sharing due to condensed knowledge representation by the eigenspace model, and more preferable time and storage costs than traditional approaches under common application conditions. These properties are validated by experiments on a benchmark face image data set. By a case study on the application of the proposed method to multiagent cooperative learning and system alternation of a face recognition system, we further clarified the adaptability of the proposed methods to complex dynamic learning tasks. © 2006 IEEE.

Konradsen H.,Gentofte University Hospital | Kirkevold M.,University of Aarhus | McCallin A.,Auckland University of Technology | Caye-Thomasen P.,Gentofte University Hospital | Zoffmann V.,Steno Diabetes Center
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2012

Little is known about the psychosocial effects of facial disfigurement. We present the results of a qualitative study following 15 patients who had been surgically treated for head, neck, or eye cancer over the course of their first postoperative year. Taped nurse-patient conversations and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from a disfigured person to a person with a disfigurement. The model explains the process of adjustment and demonstrates various elements that could be used in interventions targeting patients who experience psychosocial problems. © The Author(s) 2012.

Turner-Stokes L.,King's College London | Turner-Stokes L.,Northwick Park Hospital | Siegert R.J.,King's College London | Siegert R.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2013

Purpose: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the UK FIM + FAM. Methods: (a) A systematic literature review integrating the evidence for psychometric qualities of both the original and UK versions, and (b) exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of admission/discharge data from an inpatient general neuro-rehabilitation cohort using parametric and non-parametric techniques. A prospective cohort of 459 patients with a male:female ratio of 57:43 and mean age of 44.5 (SD 14.3) years participated in this study. Results: Seven published articles together demonstrated acceptable utility, concurrent validity, inter-rater reliability and responsiveness of the UK FIM + FAM. Factor analysis demonstrated that all items loaded high (>0.58) on the first principal component and distinct motor and cognitive factors emerged after rotation. A four-factor solution also demonstrated four distinct, interpretable dimensions (Physical, Psychosocial, Communication and Extended Activities of Everyday Living (EADL)). Mokken analysis of the second data set confirmed these dimensions. Cronbach's αs were 0.97 and 0.96 for the motor and cognitive domains and 0.90-0.97 for the subscales. Analysis of responsiveness demonstrated "large" effect sizes (0.86-1.29). Conclusions: The UK FIM + FAM, including the newer EADL module, is a valid, reliable scale of functional independence. It has high internal consistency in two domains and four subscales and is responsive to changes occurring in a general inpatient neuro-rehabilitation population.Implications for RehabilitationThe UK FIM + FAM is a valid, reliable scale of functional independence, which is responsive to changes occurring in a general inpatient neuro-rehabilitation population.It can be used to derive a reliable, single score of overall independence and also yields specific information in two main domains and four separate subscales of independence: Physical, Psychosocial, Communication and Extended Activities of Daily Living (EADL).The newer EADL item module provides added value, measuring functional independence for community-based activities. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.

Etherington T.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Etherington T.R.,University of Auckland
Progress in Physical Geography | Year: 2015

Isolation is a fundamental geographical characteristic that plays an important role in invasion ecology. However, risk mapping for established non-native species currently tends to ignore isolation, and instead focuses on the risk of population growth through the use of species distribution models. By focusing on how geographical isolation can be used to improve invasive species risk assessments this paper aims to: (i) provide a brief review of how methods to quantify isolation have developed, (ii) describe least-cost modelling as one approach to quantify isolation, (iii) promote catchment area mapping as a method of continuous isolation mapping that can improve invasive species risk assessments that may currently only consider risk from population growth, and (iv) discuss ways in which geographical isolation could be modified to control invasive species. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Sarkar N.I.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies | Year: 2013

Motivating students to learn Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) wireless networking to undergraduate students is often difficult because many students find the subject rather technical and abstract when presented in traditional lecture format. This paper focuses on the teaching and learning aspects of Wi-Fi networking using limited hardware resources. It provides a walk-through tutorial on setting up Wi-Fi networks using wireless laptops and access points. Students can easily set up and configure Wi-Fi networks using relatively few computing resources to learn networking concepts more effectively. By measuring the key performance metrics such as network throughput and response times, students are able to gain a deeper understanding of Wi-Fi network performance and related issues. The effectiveness of these Wi-Fi practical learning activities has been evaluated both formally by students and informally in discussion within the teaching team. This paper describes the overall effectiveness of teaching and learning Wi-Fi network fundamentals using limited resources. © 2013, IGI Global.

Shepherd D.,Auckland University of Technology | Welch D.,University of Auckland | Dirks K.N.,University of Auckland | Mathews R.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2010

The relationship between environmental noise and health is poorly understood but of fundamental importance to public health. This study estimated the relationship between noise sensitivity, noise annoyance and health-related quality of life in a sample of adults residing close to the Auckland International Airport, New Zealand. A small sample (n = 105) completed surveys measuring noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and quality of life. Noise sensitivity was associated with health-related quality of life; annoyance and sleep disturbance mediated the effects of noise sensitivity on health. © 2010 by the authors.

Luck M.,Auckland University of Technology
Coastal Management | Year: 2016

With the continuing growth of the tourism industry over recent decades, has come a change in tourist behavior from the traditional stereotypical 3-S tourist (sun, sand, sex) to an increasingly sophisticated and demanding tourist. These “new” tourists like to learn about history, nature, and wildlife, and they expect an educational component on wildlife tours. This study investigated swim-with-dolphin tours in Kaikoura, New Zealand with regard to the educational content and the overall anatomy of these tours, using data from observations on a total of 32 tours during December 2011. The resulting data were then compared with the data from Hrycik and Forestell's study, which investigated the content of questions asked by passengers on whale-watching tours in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Results of the on-tour observations indicate that the surveyed tours display a structured approach to interpretation, which is customized to the specific tour anatomy of a “swim-with” tour, and varies in some parts significantly from “watch-only” tour interpretation. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Ijpma G.,Institute of Biomedical Technologies | Al-Jumaily A.M.,Institute of Biomedical Technologies | Cairns S.P.,Auckland University of Technology | Sieck G.C.,Mayo Medical School
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Length adaptation in airway smooth muscle (ASM) is attributed to reorganization of the cytoskeleton, and in particular the contractile elements. However, a constantly changing lung volume with tidal breathing (hence changing ASM length) is likely to restrict full adaptation of ASM for force generation. There is likely to be continuous length adaptation of ASM between states of incomplete or partial length adaption. We propose a new model that assimilates findings on myosin filament polymerization/ depolymerization, partial length adaptation, isometric force, and shortening velocity to describe this continuous length adaptation process. In this model, the ASM adapts to an optimal force-generating capacity in a repeating cycle of events. Initially the myosin filament, shortened by prior length changes, associates with two longer actin filaments. The actin filaments are located adjacent to the myosin filaments, such that all myosin heads overlap with actin to permit maximal cross-bridge cycling. Since in this model the actin filaments are usually longer than myosin filaments, the excess length of the actin filament is located randomly with respect to the myosin filament. Once activated, the myosin filament elongates by polymerization along the actin filaments, with the growth limited by the overlap of the actin filaments. During relaxation, the myosin filaments dissociate from the actin filaments, and then the cycle repeats. This process causes a gradual adaptation of force and instantaneous adaptation of shortening velocity. Good agreement is found between model simulations and the experimental data depicting the relationship between force development, myosin filament density, or shortening velocity and length. © 2011 by the American Physiological Society.

Hocking C.,Auckland University of Technology
Work | Year: 2012

Objective: To examine published case examples of occupational deprivation in relation to Wilcock's 1989 theoretical proposal that it is caused by economic and political systems, institutional policies, or advances in technology that displace workers. Case examples: Eleven accounts of occupational deprivation centering on access to or maintenance of a work role. Method: A thematic review of articles reporting access to or maintenance of a worker role as a major concern were located in an electronic search of multiple databases using the keyword 'occupational deprivation'. Results: While no examples pertaining to technological change were located, legislation enacted to protect national security or redress the ongoing affects of colonisation, a philosophy of punishing prisoners, and healthcare and employment structures were identified as causes of occupational deprivation. Conclusions: Economic and political systems and institutional policies are confirmed to cause occupational deprivation of worker roles in prison and indigenous populations, migrant workers and older female immigrants, young women displaced by war, refugees and asylum seekers, and people with disabilities. The ongoing economic burden of wasting human potential and the loss of cultural practices that support productive occupations are two negative outcomes. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Doborjeh Z.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Doborjeh M.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Modelling of dynamic brain activity for better understanding of human decision making processes becomes an important task in many areas of study. Inspired by importance of the attentional bias principle in human choice behaviour, we proposed a Spiking Neural Network (SNN) model for efficient recognition of attentional bias. The model is based on the evolving spatio-temporal data machine NeuCube. The proposed model is tested on a case study experimental EEG data collected from a group of subjects exemplified here on a group of moderate drinkers when they were presented by different product features (in this case different features of drinks). The results showed a very high accuracy of discriminating attentional bias to non-target objects and their features when compared with a poor performance of traditional machine learning methods. Potential applications in neuromarketing and cognitive studies are also discussed. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

Asif Naeem M.,Auckland University of Technology | Weber G.,University of Auckland | Lutteroth C.,University of Auckland
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Semi-stream joins perform a join between a stream and a disk-based table. These joins can easily deal with typical workloads in online real-time data warehousing in many scenarios and with relatively modest system requirements. The disk access is page-based. In the past, several proposals have been made to exploit skew in the distribution of the join attribute. Such skew is a common result of natural short- or longtailed distributions in master data. Several semi-stream joins use caching strategies in order to improve performance. This works up to a point, but these algorithms still require relatively slow processing of stream data that matches with the infrequent tuples in the master data. In this work we explore the possibility of an additional strategy to exploit data skew: disk pages that are frequently accessed as a whole are accessed with priority. We show that considerable gain in service rate can be achieved with this strategy, while keeping memory consumption low. In essence we gain a three-stage approach to deal with skewed, unsorted data: caching plus our new strategy plus processing of the long tail of the distribution. We also present a cost model for our approach and validate our approach empirically. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

Houliston B.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Parry D.T.,Auckland University of Technology | Merry A.F.,University of Auckland
Methods of Information in Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Task analysis is a valuable research method for better understanding the activity of anaesthetists in the operating room (OR), providing evidence for designing and evaluating improvements to systems and processes. It may also assist in identifying potential error paths to adverse events, ultimately improving patient safety. Human observers are the current 'gold standard' for capturing task data, but they are expensive and have cognitive limitations. Objectives: Towards Automated Detection of Anaesthetic Activity (TADAA) - aims to produce an automated task analysis system, employing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to capture anaesthetists' location, orientation and stance (LOS). This is the first stage in a scheme for automatic detection of activity. Methods: Active RFID tags were attached to anaesthetists and various objects in a high fidelity OR simulator, and anesthetic procedures performed. The anaesthetists' LOSs were calculated using received signal strength (RSS) measurements combined with machine learning tools including Self- Organizing Maps (SOMs). These LOSs were compared to those derived from video recordings. Results: SOM clustering was effective at determining anaesthetists' LOS from RSS data for each procedure. However cross-procedure comparison was less reliable,probably because of changes in the environment. Conclusions: Active RFID tags provide potentially useful information on LOS at a low cost and with minimal impact on the work environment. Machine learning techniques may be employed to handle the variable nature of RFID's radio signals. Work on mapping LOS data to activities will involve integration with other sensors and task analysis techniques. © Schattauer 2011.

Neville S.,Auckland University of Technology | Adams J.,Massey University
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being | Year: 2016

Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex. © 2016 S. Neville & J. Adams.

Blundell B.G.,Auckland University of Technology
3D Research | Year: 2015

Abstract: In the eighteenth century, techniques that enabled a strong sense of 3D perception to be experienced without recourse to binocular disparities (arising from the spatial separation of the eyes) underpinned the first significant commercial sales of 3D viewing devices and associated content. However following the advent of stereoscopic techniques in the nineteenth century, 3D image depiction has become inextricably linked to binocular parallax and outside the vision science and arts communities relatively little attention has been directed towards earlier approaches. Here we introduce relevant concepts and terminology and consider a number of techniques and optical devices that enable 3D perception to be experienced on the basis of planar images rendered from a single vantage point. Subsequently we allude to possible mechanisms for non-binocular parallax based 3D perception. Particular attention is given to reviewing areas likely to be thought-provoking to those involved in 3D display development, spatial visualization, HCI, and other related areas of interdisciplinary research. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, 3D Research Center, Kwangwoon University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nana A.,Australian Institute of Sport | Nana A.,RMIT University | Slater G.J.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Burke L.M.,Australian Institute of Sport
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

Purpose: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is rapidly becoming more accessible and popular as a technique to monitor body composition, especially in athletic populations. This study investigates the reliability of DXA in measuring body composition of active individuals, specifically to ascertain biological variability associated with two different types of exercise under free-living conditions in active individuals. Methods: Well-trained individuals (27 strength-trained male subjects, 14 female cyclists, and 14 male cyclists) underwent three whole-body DXA scans over a 1-d period: in the morning after an overnight fast, approximately 5 min later after repositioning on the scanning bed, and shortly after a self-chosen exercise session (resistance training or cycling). Subjects were allowed to consume food and fluid ad libitum before and during exercise as per their usual practices. Magnitude of typical (standard) errors of measurement and changes in the mean of DXA measures were assessed by standardization. Results: Exercise and its related practices of fluid and food intake are associated with changes in the mean estimates of total and regional body composition that range from trivial to small but substantial. An exercise session also increases the typical error of measurement of these characteristics by approximately 10%. Conclusion: The easiest and most practical way to minimize the biological noise associated with undertaking a DXA scan is to have subjects fasted and rested before measurement. Until sufficient data on the smallest important effect are available, both biological and technical noises should be minimized so that any small but potentially real changes can be confidently detected. © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Al-Jumaily A.M.,Auckland University of Technology | Mbikou P.,Auckland University of Technology | Redey P.R.,Auckland University of Technology
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2012

Excessive airway narrowing due to airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperconstriction is a major symptom in many respiratory diseases. In vitro imposition of length oscillations similar to those produced by tidal breathing on contracted ASM have shown to reduce muscle active forces, which is usually attributed to unconfirmed disruption of actomyosin cross-bridges. This research focuses on an in vitro investigation of the effect of mechanical oscillations on ASM reactivity and actomyosin cross-bridges. A computerized organ bath system was used to test maximally precontracted bovine ASM subjected to length oscillations at frequencies in the range of 10-100 Hz superimposed on tidal breathing oscillation. Using an immunofluorescence technique, two specific antibodies against the phospho-serine19 myosin light chain and the α-smooth muscle actin were used to analyze the colocalization between these two filaments. Data were processed using the plug-in "colocalization threshold" of ImageJ 1.43m software. The results demonstrate that both tidal and superimposed length oscillations reduce the active force in contracted ASM for a relatively long term and that the latter enhances the force reduction of the former. This reduction was also found to be frequency and time dependent. Additionally colocalization analysis indicates that length oscillations cause the detachment of the actomyosin connections and that this condition is sustained even after the cessation of the length oscillations. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Wysoski S.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Benuskova L.,Auckland University of Technology | Benuskova L.,University of Otago | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Neural Networks | Year: 2010

This paper presents a new modular and integrative sensory information system inspired by the way the brain performs information processing, in particular, pattern recognition. Spiking neural networks are used to model human-like visual and auditory pathways. This bimodal system is trained to perform the specific task of person authentication. The two unimodal systems are individually tuned and trained to recognize faces and speech signals from spoken utterances, respectively. New learning procedures are designed to operate in an online evolvable and adaptive way. Several ways of modelling sensory integration using spiking neural network architectures are suggested and evaluated in computer experiments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Zagorac S.,Auckland University of Technology | Pears R.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Performance of multi domain web search applications is typically hindered by the availability and accessibility of the web data sources. In this paper we consider web data materialization as a solution. The web data services are modelled via binding schema patterns - access patterns - thereby defining input and output dependencies between the participating data sources. Web materialization is formulated as a set of interdependent blocks, each being a deciding factor in formulating an obtainable materialization. In this work consideration is given to the feasibility of the proposed set of web sources for the given materialization task. The model for analysing the feasible materialization solution in terms of reachability and bound is established. To demonstrate the effectiveness of such a feasibility analysis model, an empirical study is performed on a set of materialization tasks ranging in their schema dependency complexity. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Patel A.,Auckland University of Technology | Schofield G.M.,Auckland University of Technology | Kolt G.S.,Auckland University of Technology | Kolt G.S.,University of Western Sydney | And 2 more authors.
BMC Family Practice | Year: 2011

Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial in both the prevention and management of chronic health conditions. A large proportion of adult New Zealanders, however, are insufficiently active. To help increase population levels of physical activity in New Zealand the Green Prescription, a primary care physical activity scripting program, was developed. The primary aim of this study was to identify why general practitioners (GPs) counsel for physical activity and administer Green Prescriptions. A secondary aim was to examine GPs' views and experiences of Green Prescription counselling for the management of depression. Methods. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 GPs. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Results: Several themes and sub-themes emerged from the data. Notably, GPs counselled for physical activity and prescribed Green Prescriptions for both primary preventive (e.g., weight control) and secondary management (e.g., diabetes management) purposes. GPs reported the benefits of the Green Prescription centred around two main themes: (i) a non-medication approach to a healthier lifestyle and (ii) the support benefits of physical activity. Time constraints within the consultation was the only main theme that emerged regarding the barriers GPs perceived to Green Prescription use. Physical activity in general, and physical activity prescribed through the Green Prescription, were also viewed by GPs as beneficial for the management of depression. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that New Zealand GPs view the Green Prescription program as beneficial for their patients with pre-existing conditions and/or weight problems. While this is encouraging, the Green Prescription may also be used to promote physical activity in currently healthy but low-active and sedentary individuals. Such individuals are currently disease free, but are at risk for future health-related problems because of their inactive lifestyle. It is recommended that time constraints of the consultation in regard to administering Green Prescriptions could be dealt with by delegating the more time consuming tasks to the patient support counsellors that support the Green Prescription program, and having practice nurses assist in the administration of Green Prescriptions. Green Prescription counselling in conjunction with antidepressant medication may be beneficial for the management of depression and warrants further research. © 2011 Patel et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wang G.Y.,Auckland University of Technology | Kydd R.,University of Auckland | Wouldes T.A.,University of Auckland | Jensen M.,University of Auckland | Russell B.R.,University of Auckland
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2015

Objective: This study investigated the electrophysiological activity associated with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods: The resting EEG spectrum of beta (14.5-30. Hz), alpha (8-13. Hz), theta (4-7.5. Hz) and delta (1.5-3.5. Hz) rhythm were measured in 32 patients undertaking chronic MMT, 17 opiate users and 25 healthy volunteers. Differences in the EEG components of each group were evaluated using a repeated measures Analyses of Variance (ANOVA). Post-hoc comparisons were Bonferroni corrected. Results: Our results show that either patients undertaking MMT or active opiate users exhibited a significant increase in the power of beta and theta bands relative to healthy control subjects. However, the spectral power of patients undertaking MMT fell between that of current opiate users and healthy control subjects on many regional EEG measures. There was an inverse correlation between the power of beta or theta bands and cognitive performance. Conclusion: The abnormal neural electrical activity present in those still using illicit opiates might be reduced following MMT. Significance: The present findings provide further support for MMT of opiate dependence and demonstrates potentially positive effects of substitution treatment on brain function. © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Al-Jumaily A.,Auckland University of Technology | Chen L.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2012

This paper presents a novel approach to estimate stiffness changes in airway smooth muscles due to external oscillation. Artificial neural networks are used to model the stiffness changes due to cyclic stretches of the smooth muscles. The nonlinear relationship between stiffness ratios and oscillation frequencies is modeled by a feed-forward neural network (FNN) model. The structure of the FNN is selected through the training and validation using literature data from 11 experiments with different muscle lengths, muscle masses, oscillation frequencies and amplitudes. Data pre-processing methods are used to improve the robustness of the neural network model to match the non-linearity. The validation results show that the FNN model can predict the stiffness ratio changes with a mean square error of 0.0042. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kandampully J.,Ohio State University | Keating B.W.,University of Canberra | Kim B.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Mattila A.S.,University Park | Solnet D.,University of Queensland
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly | Year: 2014

This study applies a Delphi analysis regarding the level of integration of service topics in the hospitality literature, as found in 539 service-related papers published in four hospitality journals from 1998 to 2012. The journals in question are Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, International Journal of Hospitality Management, and Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. The number of service-related studies account for 16 percent of the total pool of articles in the four journals over the fifteen-year period, and the analysis records an increase in the number of service-based articles published over this period. Since then, the number of articles dealing with service-related phenomena has ebbed somewhat. Theory-testing papers dominated the hospitality literature during the study period, accounting for more than half of the papers, while theory-building papers accounted for a quarter of all papers, and around 15 percent had a conceptual purpose. The most popular topic for papers in this sample was service experience, followed by operations management, human resource management, and accounting. © The Author(s) 2014.

Zamora R.,Auckland University of Technology | Srivastava A.K.,Washington State University
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2016

Networked microgrid can operate in different possible configurations including: islanded microgrid, a grid-connected microgrid without a tie-line converter, a grid-connected microgrid with a tie-line converter, and networked microgrids. These possible alternative configurations and intermittent renewable energy offer challenges in designing control and management algorithms for voltage, frequency and power in all possible operating scenarios. In this work, a novel multi-layer architecture for control algorithm is designed based on large-signal model that enables microgrid to operate in wide range of operating points. Goals of the designed controls are to regulate voltage magnitude and frequency, as well as output power of the distributed generations (DGs). Local controls also integrate with a microgrid level energy management system or microgrid central controller (MGCC) for power and energy balance for the microgrid in islanded, gridconnected, or networked microgid mode. The MGCC coordinates the lower level controls in centralized manner. In this work, with the communication network failure, local lower level droop control will be activated. Designed control algorithm works with high R/X ratio and simulation results indicate satisfactory performance. © 2016 IEEE.

Nisbet A.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings of the 11th Australian Information Security Management Conference, ISM 2013 | Year: 2014

This research examines the current level of security in wireless networks in New Zealand. A comprehensive wardrive covering the length of the country was made in January 2013 to ensure accurate comparisons from two previous wardrives as well as comparisons between the four main cities and the suburbs can be made. With 16 years since the introduction of the original IEEE 802.11 wireless standard having passed, an examination is made of the current state of wireless security of networks throughout New Zealand and the Auckland suburbs, and where possible compares these results with similar studies undertaken in 2004 and 2011. Additionally, comparisons are made with growth of numbers of access points, security standards implementations and channel selections. This study looks at whether wireless network security has reached the levels hoped for in 1999 when security was built in to the IEEE 802.11a and 802.11b standards and concludes that whilst vastly improved, there is still some way to go. Finally, some recommendations are made as to what still needs to be addressed to ensure efficient and secure communications with wireless networks.

Rafique Z.,Auckland University of Technology | Seet B.-C.,Auckland University of Technology
2011 IEEE Online Conference on Green Communications, GreenCom'11 | Year: 2011

In this paper, Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (WOFDM) is proposed as the primary modulation technique for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) based on Vertical Bell Labs Layered Space-Time (V-BLAST) architecture. The BER and energy performance of WOFDM is analyzed and compared with other well-known modulation techniques. By exploiting the properties of WOFDM such as one dimensional constellation and low Peak-to-Average-Power Ratio (PAPR), simpler RF section can be designed for energy-efficient and high data-rate WSNs. © 2011 IEEE.

Chung H.,Auckland University of Technology
20th International Congress on Sound and Vibration 2013, ICSV 2013 | Year: 2013

The dynamics of thin elastic plates have been studied using various theoretical and experimental methods. In the context of acoustics, the primary interest is in the sound propagation from one side of the plate to the other. This paper shows how to compute the vibration of rectangular single- and double-plates that have inhomogeneous material properties. One of the inhomogeneities is the elasticity modulus of the plates, which is continuously and smoothly varying over the plates. The elasticity modulus is simulated as a random function with a pre-assigned probability density at any given position on the plate and power spectral density over the plate. The method of simulating such random functions is adopted from the theories of signal processing. In the case of the double-plate, the inhomogeneities in the junctions between the plate and the reinforcement beams are also considered. The behaviour of the plates is numerically analysed using the root-mean-square velocity and the transmission loss factor. The vibration field of the plates is represented using the Fourier series by taking advantage of the rectangular shape. Furthermore the random functions are represented by the series of cosine functions with random phases, wavelengths and amplitudes. As a result, the computation of the solution does not require discretization of the object, and thus the computational cost is low compare to typical finite element methods. Effects of the random inhomogeneities are compared to those of the deterministic inhomogeneities. Several probability density functions for the elasticity are also tried. In addition to numerical simulations, theoretical studies on the single-plate are presented using the analytical formulas for the Fourier coefficients.

Bacic B.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Temporal phasing analysis is integral to ubiquitous/“smart” coaching devices and sport science. This study presents a novel approach to autonomous temporal phasing of human motion from captured tennis activity (3D data, 66 time-series). Compared to the optimised Echo State Network (ESN) model achieving 85% classification accuracy, the ESN ensemble system demonstrates improved classification of 95% and 100% accurate phasing state transitions for previously unseen motions without requiring ball impact information. The ESN ensemble model is robust to low-sampling rates (50 Hz) and unbalanced data sets containing incomplete data time-series. The demonstrated achievements are applicable to exergames, augmented coaching and rehabilitation systems advancements by enabling automated qualitative analysis of motion data and generating feedback to aid motor skill and technique improvements. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology | Hu Y.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine | Year: 2010

Personalised modelling aims to create a unique computational diagnostic or prognostic model for an individual. The paper reports a new Integrated Method for Personalised Modelling (IMPM) that applies global optimisation of variables (features) and neighbourhood of appropriate data samples to create an accurate personalised model for an individual. The proposed IMPM allows for adaptation, monitoring and improvement of an individual's model. Three medical decision support problems are used as illustrations: cancer diagnosis and profiling; risk of disease evaluation based on whole genome SNPs data; chronic disease decision support. The method leads to improved accuracy and unique personalised profiling that could be used for personalised treatment and personalised drug design. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Bini R.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Bini R.R.,Capes Foundation | Dagnese F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano | Year: 2012

Noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces have been designed to optimize variables related to cycling performance (e.g. peak crank torque and efficiency), with conflicting results in terms of performance. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to review the theoretical background of noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces and their effects on biomechanical, physiological and performance variables. Reducing internal work, crank peak torque, and time spent at the top and bottom dead centres (12 o'clock and 6 o'clock positions, respectively) were among the various targets of noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interface design. Changes in joint kinematics without effects on muscle activation were observed when cyclists were assessed using noncircular chainrings and novel pedal to crank interfaces. Conflicting results for economy/efficiency explain the unclear effects of noncircular chainrings on cycling performance and the positive effects of some novel pedal to crank interfaces on cycling economy/efficiency.

Braid H.E.,University of Guelph | Braid H.E.,Auckland University of Technology | Deeds J.,Us Fda Center For Food Safety And Applied Nutrition | DeGrasse S.L.,Us Fda Center For Food Safety And Applied Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2012

In fall of 2009, several mass strandings of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) occurred on Vancouver Island (49°7′60N 125°54′0W). Morphological dissections coupled with DNA barcoding of stomach contents revealed Sardinops sagax (Pacific sardine) and Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring) as their primary prey. Plastic nurdles, fishing line, bull kelp, eelgrass, and a guillemot feather were also discovered. The primary prey, Pacific sardines and Pacific herring, are known to bioaccumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs); additionally, both PSTs and domoic acid (DA) have been implicated in other mass strandings. Therefore, stomach contents, and other tissues when possible, were tested for PSTs and DA. Testing revealed DA concentrations below regulatory guidance levels for human consumption, yet PSTs were well in excess. Though we cannot conclude that PSTs were the definitive cause of the strandings, our findings are the first report of PSTs in D. gigas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Sarkar N.I.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Business Data Communications and Networking | Year: 2013

This paper reports on the design and evaluation of a class of cross-layer design (CLD) framework for improving the performance of 802.11-based wireless local area networks (WLANs). While various CLD approaches have been proposed for improving the performance of WLANs in recent years, the problem of efficient channel utilization, higher throughput, lower packet delay, and fairness has not been fully solved yet. To overcome the performance problems of 802.11, we propose a CLD framework which is based on a cross-layer medium access control (MAC) protocol called the channel-aware buffer unit multiple access (C-BUMA). In the framework, the radio propagation (i.e. physical layer) is combined with the MAC sub-layer to develop a robust cross-layer communication. By sharing channel information with the MAC protocol, the approach reduced unnecessary packet transmissions, and hence reduced bandwidth wastage and significantly improved the system performance. The proposed CLD method is evaluated by extensive simulation experiments. A comparison with 802.11 standards is provided. Results obtained show that the network achieves up to 13.5% higher throughput, 56% lower packet delay, 40% better fairness, and 38% lower packet dropping with the proposed CLD. We also found that the proposed CLD outperforms Pham's CLD with respect to network throughput and packet dropping. The analysis and empirical results reported in this paper provide some insights into the design and evaluation of a CLD framework for improving data rate of 802.11 networks which may help researchers in this field to overcome the remaining design issues and challenges. Copyright © 2013, IGI Global.

Rotimi J.O.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Ramanayaka C.D.D.,University of Witwatersrand
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems | Year: 2015

This study reviews relevant literature to identify the drawbacks of traditional planning algorithms related to technical rationality. It also evaluates the suitability of construction project strategies, to bring reflective practice into construction project planning by using an archival analysis approach. The archival analysis used qualitative data provided by the Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB), UK, for 66 construction projects that are recognised as being successfully delivered. The information was sorted and analysed via NVivo and content analysis, respectively. The findings show that the characteristics of reflective practice are predominant in the problems and strategic solutions mentioned in the CIOB qualitative information. This study emphasises that the two paradigms are not isolated, but associated through three distinct relationships. Recommendations are given for practitioners to use reflective practice, along with technical rationality to strategically solve problems encountered in construction project implementation. Finally, future studies are suggested to minimise the limitations of this qualitative study by integrating quantitative methodologies, to empirically determine the right combination of the two paradigms in the context of construction project implementation. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Wang J.,Auckland University of Technology | Yan W.Q.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics | Year: 2016

The License Plate Recognition (LPR) as one crucial part of intelligent traffic systems has been broadly investigated since the boosting of computer vision techniques. The motivation of this paper is to probe in plate number recognition which is an important part of traffic surveillance events. In this paper, locating the number plate is based on edge detection and recognizing the plate numbers is worked on Back-Propagation (BP) Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Furthermore, the authors introduce the system implementation and take advantage of the well-known Matlab platform to delve how to accurately recognize plate numbers. There are 80 samples adopted to test and verify the proposed plate number recognition method. The experimental results demonstrate that the accuracy of the authors' character recognition is above 70%. © Copyright 2016 IGI Global.

Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2013

The talk presents a brief overview of contemporary methods for neurocomputation, including: evolving connections systems (ECOS) and evolving neuro-fuzzy systems [1]; evolving spiking neural networks (eSNN) [2-5]; evolutionary and neurogenetic systems [6]; quantum inspired evolutionary computation [7,8]; rule extraction from eSNN [9]. These methods are suitable for incremental adaptive, on-line learning from spatio-temporal data and for data mining. But the main focus of the talk is how they can learn to predict early the outcome of an input spatio-temporal pattern, before the whole pattern is entered in a system. This is demonstrated on several applications in bioinformatics, such as stroke occurrence prediction, and brain data modeling for braincomputer interfaces [10], on ecological and environmental modeling [11]. eSNN have proved superior for spatio-and spectro-temporal data analysis, modeling, pattern recognition and early event prediction as outcome of recognized patterns when partially presented. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Biszak A.M.,Massey University | Babbage D.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Brain Injury | Year: 2014

Primary objective: The occurrence of facial affect recognition difficulties in a sample of people accessing traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation services was examined. It was hypothesized that between 13-39% of participants would demonstrate clinically significant impairment in facial affect recognition. Research design: Cross-sectional sample of eligible participants who were current clients of eight brain injury services were invited to participate. Methods and procedures: Forty-five participants with mild-To-severe TBI were assessed for facial affect recognition difficulties using the facial affect discrimination, naming, selection and matching sub-Tests of the Florida Affect Battery. Main outcomes and results: Fifty-one per cent of participants had at least moderate difficulties with facial affect recognition. Conclusions: The current sample was not a random selection from the population of people with TBI, so the results do not establish a formal estimate of prevalence. Nonetheless, the data indicate that when assessing typical clients with severe brain injuries presenting to neurorehabilitation services, there is likely to be a high frequency of occurrence of facial affect recognition difficulties. Rehabilitation outcomes may be improved by screening for and treating facial affect recognition difficulties following TBI. Further examination and development of treatment options is warranted. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Wang L.,Auckland University of Technology | Simpkin R.,Callaghan Innovation | Al-Jumaily A.M.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE iWEM 2013 - 2013 IEEE International Workshop on Electromagnetics: Applications and Student Innovation Competition | Year: 2013

Microwave imaging techniques for breast cancer detection have attacked many research groups recently. The key element for the microwave imaging system is the antenna. In this paper, a small flanged open-ended rectangular waveguide antenna (ORWA) is proposed for breast cancer detection. WR 62 waveguide which has cut-off frequency of 9.5 GHz is used in the design process. A 16-element antenna array plane is proposed for operation at a frequency of 12.6 GHz. Measurement and simulation results show that the designed single ORWA can obtain a return loss less than -60 dB at frequency of 12.12 GHz. The scattered field detection capability is also tested under our developed holographic microwave imaging array (HMIA) system for breast phantom detection. The experimental results show that the proposed ORWA has the ability to detect tumour as small as 2.5 mm within the breast phantom. © 2013 IEEE.

Shymanska A.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Computational Electronics | Year: 2015

Electron-optical devices with microchannel amplification have many advantages, except poor noise characteristics. In order to increase gain and reduce a noise factor a layer with increased secondary emission is deposited on the top of a contact conducting layer at the entrance of channels. Effects, arising in the channel amplifier with the high-efficiency emitter, are investigated in this work using the computational method, developed by the author. A computational method for simulation of stochastic processes of an electron multiplication is based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations and the theorems of serial and parallel amplification stages proposed by the author. The method provides a high calculation accuracy with minimal cost of computations. The computational model is used to investigate the effect on the noise factor of the incidence angle of the input electron beam, nonuniformity of the emitter surface, the depth and secondary emission yield of the high-efficiency emitter. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Darvish K.,Auckland University of Technology | Chen Z.W.,Auckland University of Technology | Pasang T.,Auckland University of Technology
Materials and Design | Year: 2016

There is a need to understand how selective laser melting (SLM) parameters affect the size and shape of tracks which are the predominant factor relating to the amount of lack of fusion (LOF) formed during SLM. This study is needed as severe LOF impacts quality. In this work on CoCrMo alloy SLM, experiments and analysis have been conducted to reveal how laser power (P) and thus energy, as other parameters are kept unchanged, affect the geometrical features of SLM tracks and the formation of LOF. It has been found that the track was insufficient to overlap and prevent LOF when the recommended condition (P = 180 W) was used. Increasing P increases the size and improves the shape stability of the tracks. It will be shown that there is a rapid decay in the amount of LOF as P increases from 180 W to 220 W, as the result of the geometrical effect of the track size on overlapping coverage. However, residual LOF has remained even when P has increased to > 300 W. Evidence of large size spatters causing this and of the high laser beam penetrating capability to reduce the spatter effect is presented and discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Schliebs S.,Auckland University of Technology | Hunt D.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

This paper proposes to use a Liquid State Machine (LSM) to classify inertial sensor data collected from horse riders into activities of interest. LSM was shown to be an effective classifier for spatio-temporal data and efficient hardware implementations on custom chips have been presented in literature that would enable relative easy integration into wearable technologies. We explore here the general method of applying LSM technology to domain constrained activity recognition using a synthetic data set. The aim of this study is to provide a proof of concept illustrating the applicability of LSM for the chosen problem domain. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Buchheit M.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Buchheit M.,Academy for Sports Excellence | Chivot A.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Parouty J.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

The aims of the present study were to (1) assess relationships between running performance and parasympathetic function both at rest and following exercise, and (2) examine changes in heart rate (HR)-derived indices throughout an 8-week period training program in runners. In 14 moderately trained runners (36 ± 7 years), resting vagal-related HR variability (HRV) indices were measured daily, while exercise HR and post-exercise HR recovery (HRR) and HRV indices were measured fortnightly. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and 10 km running performance were assessed before and after the training intervention. Correlations (r > 0.60, P < 0.01) were observed between changes in vagal-related indices and changes in MAS and 10 km running time. Exercise HR decreased progressively during the training period (P < 0.01). In the 11 subjects who lowered their 10 km running time >0.5% (responders), resting vagal-related indices showed a progressively increasing trend (time effect P = 0.03) and qualitative indications of possibly and likely higher values during week 7 [+7% (90% CI -3.7;17.0)] and week 9 [+10% (90% CI -1.5;23)] compared with pre-training values, respectively. Post-exercise HRV showed similar changes, despite less pronounced between-group differences. HRR showed a relatively early possible decrease at week 3 [-20% (90% CI -42;10)], with only slight reductions near the end of the program. The results illustrate the potential of resting, exercise and post-exercise HR measurements for both assessing and predicting the impact of aerobic training on endurance running performance. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Shanmuganathan S.,Auckland University of Technology | Yan L.,Asia Pacific College
2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, FSKD 2015 | Year: 2015

The census of population and dwellings undertaken by national state institutions world over at regular time intervals, is a fantastic source of information. However, there are major challenges to overcome when transforming the census data that usually consists of a vast number of attributes, into useful knowledge. In this paper, an artificial intelligent approach is investigated to select appropriate attribute features that indicate interesting patterns in Beppu census wards in 2000 and 2010. The results of the SOM (unsupervised artificial neural network) based clustering, GIS visualisation and machine learning (J48 and JRip functions of WEKA), provide relevant discerning features, new patterns and new knowledge that can be of use in many application domains, such as urban planning, resources management and transport planning. © 2015 IEEE.

Medagoda N.,Auckland University of Technology | Shanmuganathan S.,Auckland University of Technology
2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, FSKD 2015 | Year: 2015

Free texts such as comments by customers or readers, contain not only the sentiments of the topic being talked about but also temporal trends of the sentiments. Sentiment detection automatically estimates the polarity of the comments as positive, negative or sometimes neutral. On the other hand, a temporal sentiment analysis in an investigation of the sentiment pattern within a given time period. We propose a method for investigating the temporal patterns using keywords in the comments. We managed to relate a few major events that occurred during the time period of investigation (19 November - 20 December 2014) using sentiment classification techniques and keyword clustering. The results of this work show how temporal sediment analysis could be used to establish the changes in opinions from the pubic relating to issues-events in a historically important election campaign in a developing country. The results show interesting information on the change of opinions during this election campaign impossible to learn by other means. © 2015 IEEE.

Pears R.,Auckland University of Technology | Koh Y.S.,University of Auckland
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

Association rule mining is an important data mining task that discovers relationships among items in a transaction database. Most approaches to association rule mining assume that the items within the dataset have a uniform distribution. Therefore, weighted association rule mining (WARM) was introduced to provide a notion of importance to individual items. In previous work most of these approaches require users to assign weights for each item. This is infeasible when we have millions of items in a dataset. In this paper we propose a novel method, Weighted Association Rule Mining using Particle Swarm Optimization (WARM SWARM), which uses particle swarm optimization to assign meaningful item weights for association rule mining. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Zhang J.,Auckland University of Technology | Seet B.-C.,Auckland University of Technology | Lie T.T.,Auckland University of Technology
Buildings | Year: 2015

Building information modelling (BIM) provides architectural 3D visualization and a standardized way to share and exchange building information. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using BIM, not only for design and construction, but also the post-construction management of the built facility. With the emergence of smart built environment (SBE) technology, which embeds most spaces with smart objects to enhance the building's efficiency, security and comfort of its occupants, there is a need to understand and address the challenges BIM faces in the design, construction and management of future smart buildings. In this paper, we investigate how BIM can contribute to the development of SBE. Since BIM is designed to host information of the building throughout its life cycle, our investigation has covered phases from architecture design to facility management. Firstly, we extend BIM for the design phase to provide material/device profiling and the information exchange interface for various smart objects. Next, we propose a three-layer verification framework to assist BIM users in identifying possible defects in their SBE design. For the post-construction phase, we have designed a facility management tool to provide advanced energy management of smart grid-connected SBEs, where smart objects, as well as distributed energy resources (DERs) are deployed. © 2015 by the authors.

Rush E.,Auckland University of Technology | Obolonkin V.,Auckland University of Technology | Savila F.,Auckland University of Technology
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Since 2000, the longitudinal Pacific Island Families study has measured the weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of 582 girls and 643 boys at 2, 4, 6 and 9 year data collection phases. Aim: To extend and record the age-related distribution of weight, height and BMI measures in Pacific children aged 2-10 years and to compare the distribution to population and clinical growth charts. Methods: Gender-specific age-related centile curves were derived using the LMS method for weight, height and BMI. The 50th centiles from the World Health Organisation growth reference for 2-5 year olds and the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) for 5-10 year olds were compared. Overweight and obesity were defined by the CDC BMI 85th and 95th centiles. Results: The proportion of children whose weight and height were above the reference 50th centile increased with age. At age 10, using CDC criteria, more than 50% of the children were classified as obese and 70% were overweight. Conclusions: These charts support the need to prioritize interventions for Pacific families to address childhood obesity. These centile curves could help assess the relative growth of Pacific children and identify children for further assessment and treatment. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Chepulis L.M.,Waiariki Institute of Technology | Mearns G.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Nursing Education | Year: 2015

Background: Obesity is prevalent in health care workers, but it is unknown whether a lack of nutritional knowledge contributes to this. This study measured the nutrition knowledge of undergraduate nursing students to identify knowledge gaps that could be addressed through nutrition teaching in an updated undergraduate nursing curriculum. Method: Undergraduate nursing students (N = 197) completed a nutrition knowledge survey with questions on demographics, body composition, nutrition labels, food packaging claims, and healthy food-purchasing choices. Results: Mean overall nutritional knowledge scores were low, but overall scores were higher for students who had received nutrition teaching (60.5% versus 52.5%; F[1, 187] = 7.2, p < 0.001). Improvements in nutrition knowledge were consistent across all ethnic groups, and no effects of age were observed. Conclusion: To sufficiently prepare nurses for their public health role in obesity prevention, more nutrition education is needed in undergraduate nursing education programs, with emphasis on ethnic-specific educational requirements. © SLACK Incorporated.

Collis J.,Auckland University of Technology
Hand Therapy | Year: 2011

Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) causes sensory and motor dysfunction of the ulnar nerve and can lead to permanent loss of hand function. Hand therapists frequently encounter this pathology and are required to be cognisant of symptoms, diagnosis, therapeutic and surgical management. A detailed understanding of the anatomical structures will give the therapist greater expertise in managing this pathology. A single case cadaveric study was undertaken to investigate known sites of ulnar nerve compression and observe the mechanisms by which compression occurs. A literature review reports on knowledge relating to the pathology, diagnosis, therapeutic and surgical management of UNE. Anatomic structures compressing the ulnar nerve are the Arcade of Struthers, the medial intermuscular septum, the cubital tunnel and the deep flexor aponeurosis. UNE is attributable to mechanical compression from fibrous and bony structures at these sites and to traction on the ulnar nerve from elbow flexion. Provocative tests are a useful tool in the diagnosis of UNE but should be used cautiously due to limitations in statistical accuracy. Conservative treatment approaches of splintage, ergonomic adaptations, education and neural mobilizations lack high-quality evidence but may have benefit primarily for early or mild to moderate disease. There is some evidence in support of conservative management in longer standing disease. Therapists play an important role in the diagnosis and management of UNE and should have a sound understanding of the relevant anatomy, pathology, diagnosis and treatment. Conservative treatment may be efficacious for UNE but lacks evidence from randomized, controlled trials. Further research is needed to verify current precepts and traditional approaches. © 2011, British Association of Hand Therapists Limited. All rights reserved.

Ogeil R.P.,Monash University | Ogeil R.P.,Eastern Health | Phillips J.G.,Auckland University of Technology
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2015

Background: Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used stimulants that enhance alertness and mood. Discontinuation of both stimulants is associated with withdrawal symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, which may differ in males and females. The present study examines changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and psychological distress associated with use and dependence on caffeine and nicotine. Methods: An online survey comprising validated tools to assess sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological distress was completed by 166 participants (74 males, 96 females) with a mean age of 28 years. Participants completed the study in their own time, and were not offered any inducements to participate. Results: Sleep quality was poorer in those dependent upon caffeine or nicotine, and there were also significant interaction effects with gender whereby females reported poorer sleep despite males reporting higher use of both stimulants. Caffeine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality, increased daytime dysfunction, and increased levels of night time disturbance, while nicotine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality and increased use of sleep medication and sleep disturbances. There were strong links between poor sleep and diminished affect, with psychological distress found to co-occur in the context of disturbed sleep. Conclusions: Stimulants are widely used to promote vigilance and mood; however, dependence on commonly used drugs including caffeine and nicotine is associated with decrements in sleep quality and increased psychological distress, which may be compounded in female dependent users. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kloss G.K.,Auckland University of Technology
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2013

In science and engineering the problem of "sanity" in data management is quite common. Particularly, if partners within a project are geographically distributed, and require access to this data. These partners would ideally like to access or store data using a local server, while still retaining remote access. Furthermore, data does not "live alone," but has a "partner": Metadata. Currently available solutions cater for different needs, and do not fully address the problems in our own environment. Particularly, seamless integration within a Grid infrastructure is essential. For these reasons, the presented MataNui data server infrastructure offers full storage of files along with arbitrarily extensive meta-data for each stored item. The server can replicate its content between geographically distributed locations, making each usable for full read/write access, enabling researchers to use the one closest to their own network. Files are accessible through GridFTP as the predominant protocol for Grid Computing. For full access to meta-data and server side search queries a (RESTful) Web Service is provided. The current implementation features very high performance in data throughput on storage, retrieval and query operations. Through the Web Service front end it is straight forward to integrate it with scientific workflow environments or scientific data management applications. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Liu F.,Auckland University of Technology | Narayanan A.,Auckland University of Technology
12th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems 2013, AAMAS 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper describes a novel and dynamic rectangular roundabout ('rectabout') collision avoidance system based on Minimum Enclosing Rectangle (MER) paradigm. The approach is fully decentralized maneuver based on equal priority and involves local views. This maneuver is calculated by each robot involved in the possible collision course separately through its own local view. The virtual MER-based rectabout lies in the position of two robots and also is capable of dealing with static obstacles. Simulated demonstrations indicate that rectabout in conjunction with Minimal Predicted Distance (MPD) ensure that all robots remain free of collision, thereby making the procedure well-suited for real-time applications involving a number of independent robots planning routes to their goal destinations. Copyright © 2013, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems ( All rights reserved.

Wang L.,Auckland University of Technology | Simpkin R.,Callaghan Innovation | Al-Jumaily A.M.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE iWEM 2013 - 2013 IEEE International Workshop on Electromagnetics: Applications and Student Innovation Competition | Year: 2013

This paper presents a two dimensional (2D) Holographic Microwave Imaging Array (HMIA) technique for early breast tumour detection and demonstrates its efficacy using experimental data. The system is designed for operation at a single frequency of 12.6 GHz, which includes one transmitter and an array of 15 receivers that is placed at a far-field under the breast phantom. The breast phantom consists of homogeneous normal breast tissue, a small malignant tumour and skin. The matching solution medium is not necessary in this system. Air is used between the antennas and breast phantom. The experimental results showed that small tumours (<5 mm) at different locations could be successfully detected by using the proposed 2D HMIA technique. © 2013 IEEE.

Jiang J.,Auckland University of Technology | Bai Q.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - IEEE 10th International Conference on Services Computing, SCC 2013 | Year: 2013

Service Oriented Computing Systems can be considered as a type of complex systems consisting of a number of loosely coupled autonomous and adaptive components (i.e., service components). Service quality depends on the performance of the "service group", and many dynamic factors including the expectation of service consumers, the availability of resources, etc. Trust is an important factor for determining the interrelationships among service components. In this paper, we consider the dynamic factors in service composition, and propose a trust management approach, which adopts related methods in information theory, to enable more reliable service composition in dynamic environments. From the experimental results, we claim that the proposed approach can effectively handle dynamic factors in open environments, and obtain better service composition results. © 2013 IEEE.

Braid H.E.,Auckland University of Technology | Bolstad K.S.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2014

The squid Idioteuthis cordiformis is consumed by several apex predators, but nothing is known of its own feeding ecology. Its anomalous size and morphology within the family Mastigoteuthidae suggest that its diet may also be unusual, but material suitable for dietary studies has not been available previously. Herein, using several opportunistically collected specimens from New Zealand waters, gut contents were examined using DNA barcoding, revealing that this species feeds upon birdbeak dogfish Deania calcea and, apparently, snapper Lutjanus sp. Stable- isotope analysis of 15N and 13C confirmed that D. calcea occupied a trophic level immediately below that of the squid. These data suggest that this squid may prey actively upon relatively large pelagic species; alternatively, it could be net feeding and/or scavenging. I. cordiformis has 15N signatures comparable to those of the colossal squid and higher than those of the giant squid, which could indicate a high trophic position; however, further research is needed to conclusively distinguish predation from scavenging. © Inter-Research 2014.

Hirt-Chabbert J.A.,Auckland University of Technology | Sabetian A.,Auckland University of Technology | Young O.A.,Auckland University of Technology
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2014

It is generally believed that size grading in a fish farm improves the total biomass output, because it will minimise the stress imposed by larger individuals over small individuals, resulting in higher feed intake and growth rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of size grading on individual growth performance of yellow New Zealand shortfin eel (Anguilla australis). A 109 day trial was conducted in a recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) with 103 eels of similar initial weight (101 ± 12 g). All eels were individually marked by PIT (passive integrated transponder) tags. On day 42, eels were graded to establish the following groups: only small eels (S-graded ≤ 135 g), only large eels (L-graded > 135 g), and small and large eels together (S-ungraded and L-ungraded). The large eels showed better specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the small eels. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found either between L-graded and L-ungraded or between S-graded and S-ungraded. The age of eels was not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that the individual growth rate performance of the eels is not primarily a consequence of social interaction among tank-mates. © 2014 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Viet Le D.,Auckland University of Technology | Alfaro A.C.,Auckland University of Technology | King N.,Cawthron Institute
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2014

Two-year-old New Zealand geoducks (Panopea zelandica) were conditioned within combinations of three water temperatures (7-8, 11-12 and 16-17 °C) and three feeding rations (10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 cells mL-1of Chaetoceros mulleri and Isochrysis galbana) for 73 days. Similar percent matured and dry condition index values were observed among temperatures. However, significantly higher dry gonadosomatic indices (GSIdw) were recorded at 8 and 12 °C. Although no difference was detected in percentage of spawned individuals and connective tissue occupation indices, a higher percent matured were recorded when fed 10,000 and 50,000 cells mL-1. A reference group conditioned in pond water became matured 2 months later than the other nine experimental groups, but GSIdwwere similar. To maximise reproductive output, we suggest that 2-year-old P. zelandica may be conditioned in pond water for a month and then in 8 or 12 °C seawater with 50,000 cells mL-1. © 2014 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Hancock M.J.,University of Sydney | Maher C.G.,University of Sydney | Laslett M.,Auckland University of Technology | Hay E.,Keele University | Koes B.,Erasmus Medical Center
European Spine Journal | Year: 2011

Purpose Over 20 years ago the term non-specific low back pain became popular to convey the limitations of our knowledge of the pathological source of most people's low back pain. Knowledge of underlying pathology has advanced little since then, despite limited improvements in outcomes for patients with low back pain. Methods This paper discusses potential misunderstandings related to diagnostic studies in the field of low back pain and argues that future diagnostic studies should include and investigate pathological sources of low back pain. Results Six potential misunderstandings are discussed. (1) Until diagnosis is shown to improve outcomes it is not worth investigating; (2) without a gold standard it is not possible to investigate diagnosis of low back pain; (3) the presence of pathology in some people without low back pain means it is not important; (4) dismissal of the ability to diagnose low back pain in clinical guidelines is supported by the same level of evidence as recommendations for therapy; (5) suggesting use of a diagnostic test in research is misinterpreted as endorsing its use in current clinical practice; (6) we seem to have forgotten the 'bio' in biopsychosocial low back pain. Conclusions We believe the misunderstandings presented in this paper partly explain the lack of investigation into pathology as an important component of the low back pain experience. A better understanding of the biological component of low back pain in relation, and in addition, to psychosocial factors is important for a more rational approach to management of low back pain. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Nordez A.,University of Nantes | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Casari P.,University of Nantes | Cornu C.,University of Nantes
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2010

The findings of previous research indicate that the passive torque-angle curve may be different according to whether individuals have undertaken cyclic or static stretching. To date, no authors have compared these curves in the same subjects. We hypothesised that static stretching would lead to a constant change in range of motion across torque levels with the shape of the curve being unchanged, while cyclic stretching would change the shape of the curve. To test this hypothesis, eight subjects performed five passive knee extension/flexion cycles on a Biodex® dynamometer at 5° s-1 to 80% of their maximal range of motion before and after a static stretching protocol. The difference in angle between pre and post stretching torque-angle curves was calculated at 11 levels of torque from 0% to 100% of the maximal torque with a 10% increment. The mean change in angle across these 11 torque levels was then calculated. The findings showed that after static stretching a relatively constant mean change of 5.2° was noted across torque levels. In contrast, after cyclic stretching the angle change depended upon the torque level with greater change observed toward the start of the range of motion. The findings indicated that different mechanisms were operating depending upon the type of stretching procedure performed. Changes in muscle resting length and thixotropy were thought to be responsible. © 2009 Sports Medicine Australia.

Xie B.,East China Normal University | Lv B.Y.,East China Normal University | Hu C.,East China Normal University | Liang S.B.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Landfill leachate pollutants were treated in a biofilter filled with a mixture of aged refuse and slag, and the performance was compared with those reactors filled solely with either medium. Cultural counting method showed that bioreactor filled with slag had the highest amount of nitrifying bacteria, while polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method showed that reactor filled with both media had the highest bacterial community diversity. Particle size distributions measurement showed that slag contained less fine particles than aged refuse, which provided better permeability. The reactor containing both media exhibited a high efficiency in removal of pollutants, and a higher resistance to shock loading and low temperature compared with single-medium reactors. It also overcame both the poor permeability of aged refuse filling and the low bacteria diversity of slag. The study shows that a mixture of aged refuse and slag as a new biofilter medium for leachate pollutant removal is technically viable. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahmad W.,Auckland University of Technology | Narayanan A.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 2010 2nd World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing, NaBIC 2010 | Year: 2010

Outlier detection has important applications in various data mining domains such as fraud detection, intrusion detection, customers' behavior and employees' performance analysis. Outlier detection is the process of detecting data objects which are significantly different from the rest of the data. In this paper, a novel cluster-based outlier detection method is proposed using humoral-mediated clustering algorithm (HAIS) which is based on humoral mediated response triggered in natural immune systems. The proposed method finds meaningful clusters as well as outliers simultaneously. This is an iterative approach where only clusters above threshold (larger sized clusters) are carried forward to the next cycle while removing small sized clusters. The validation of this method is conducted through widely used datasets from the literature as well as on simulated data. © 2010 IEEE.

Lu J.,University of Auckland | Lu J.,Auckland University of Technology
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Triethylenetetramine (TETA), a CuII-selective chelator, is commonly used for the treatment of Wilson's disease. Recently, it has been shown that TETA can be used in the treatment of cancer because it possesses telomerase inhibiting and anti-angiogenesis properties. Although TETA has been used in the treatment of Wilson's disease for decades, a comprehensive review on TETA pharmacology does not exist. TETA is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of 8 to 30%. It is widely distributed in tissues with relatively high concentrations measured in liver, heart, and kidney. It is mainly metabolized via acetylation, and two major acetylated metabolites exist in human serum and urine. It is mainly excreted in urine as the unchanged parent drug and two acetylated metabolites. It has a relatively short half-life (2 to 4 hours) in humans. The most recent discoveries in TETA pharmacology show that the major pharmacokinetic parameters are not associated with the acetylation phenotype of N-acetyltransferase 2, the traditionally regarded drug acetylation enzyme, and the TETA-metabolizing enzyme is actually spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase. This review also covers the current preclinical and clinical application of TETA. A much needed overview and up-to-date information on TETA pharmacology is provided for clinicians or cancer researchers who intend to embark on cancer clinical trials using TETA or its close structural analogs. ©2010 AACR.

Bini R.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Bini R.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Hume P.A.,Auckland University of Technology
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2013

Limited evidence showed that higher workload increases knee forces without effects from changes in pedalling cadence. This study assessed the effects of workload and cadence on patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint forces using a new model. Right pedal force and lower limb joint kinematics were acquired for 12 competitive cyclists at two levels of workload (maximal and second ventilatory threshold) at 90 and 70 rpm of pedalling cadence. The maximal workload showed 18% larger peak patellofemoral compressive force PFC (large effect size, ES) than the second ventilatory threshold workload (90 rpm). In the meantime, the 90-rpm second ventilatory threshold was followed by a 29% smaller PFC force (large ES) than the 70-rpm condition. Normal and anterior tibiofemoral compressive forces were not largely affected by changes in workload or pedalling cadence. Compared to those of previous studies, knee forces normalized by workload were larger for patellofemoral (mean = 19 N/J; difference to other studies = 20-45%), tibiofemoral compressive (7.4 N/J; 20-572%), and tibiofemoral anterior (0.5 N/J; 60-200%) forces. Differences in model design and testing conditions (such as workload and pedalling cadence) may affect prediction of knee joint forces. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Ahmad W.,Auckland University of Technology | Narayanan A.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 2010 2nd World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing, NaBIC 2010 | Year: 2010

Nature over millions of years has found innovative, robust and effective methods through evolution for helping organisms deal with the challenges they face when attempting to survive in hostile and uncertain environments. Two critical natural mechanisms in this evolutionary process are variation and selection, which form the basis of 'evolutionary computing' (EC). EC has proved successful when dealing with complex problems, such as classification, clustering and optimization. In recent years, as our knowledge of microbiology has deepened, researchers have turned to microlevel biology for inspiration to help solve complex problems. This paper describes a novel supervised learning algorithm inspired from the humoral mediated response triggered by adaptive immune system. The proposed algorithm uses core immune system concepts such as memory cells, plasma cells and B-cells as well as parameters and processes inspired by our knowledge of the microbiology of immune systems, such as negative clonal selection and affinity thresholds. In particular, we show how local and global similarity based measures based on affinity threshold can help to avoid over-fitting data. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is discussed in the context of existing immune system based supervised learning algorithms. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on well known bench marked real world datasets and the results indicate performance no worse than existing techniques in most cases and improvement over previous reported results in some. © 2010 IEEE.

Goh S.S.,Edith Cowan University | Laursen P.B.,Edith Cowan University | Laursen P.B.,Auckland University of Technology | Dascombe B.,University of Newcastle | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

No previous studies have investigated the effect of lower body compression garments (CG) on running performance in the heat. This study tested the hypothesis that CG would negatively affect running performance in the heat by comparing CG and non-CG conditions for running performance and physiological responses in hot and cold conditions. Ten male recreational runners (29.0 ± 10.0 years, V̇O2max: 58.7 ± 2.7 ml kg -1 min-1) performed four treadmill tests consisting of 20-min running at first ventilatory threshold followed by a run to exhaustion at V̇O2max velocity in four conditions: 10°C with CG, 10°C without CG, 32°C with CG, and 32°C without CG (randomised, counterbalanced order). Time to exhaustion (TTE), skin and rectal temperature, V̇O2, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were compared between CG and non-CG conditions at each environmental temperature. TTE was not significantly different between the CG and non-CG conditions at 10°C (158 ± 74 vs. 148 ± 73 s) and 32°C (115 ± 40 vs. 97 ± 33 s); however, there was a small (0.15) and moderate effect size (0.48), respectively, suggestive of an improvement in TTE with CG. Lower limb skin temperature was 1.5°C higher at 10°C with CG (P < 0.05), but no significant differences in other physiological variables, including rectal temperature, were observed between garment conditions. Interestingly, RPE was lower (P < 0.05) during submaximal running at 32°C with CG (13.8 ± 2.0) compared with non-CG (14.5 ± 2.7). It was concluded that CG had no adverse effects on running performance in hot conditions. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Tan K.W.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Tan K.W.,University of Auckland | Li Y.,University of Auckland | Li Y.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) plays an important role in determining the absorption and disposition of consumed xenobiotics including various drugs and dietary phytochemicals and is also one of the prominent efflux transporters involved in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we have investigated the interactions between ABCG2 and 56 naturally-occurring phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenes and other common dietary phytochemicals, as well as two non plant-based compounds (hippuric acid and propyl gallate) using cell- and membrane-based transport inhibition assays. Of the non-flavonoid phytochemicals tested, berberine, celastrol, ellagic acid, limonin, oleanolic acid, propyl gallate, sinapic acid and ursolic acid demonstrated significant inhibition of ABCG2-mediated transport. Chrysoeriol, laricitrin, myricetin 3′,4′,5′- trimethylether, pinocembrin, quercitrin, tamarixetin, tricetin and tricetin 3′,4′,5′-trimethylether were also identified as novel flavonoid ABCG2 inhibitors. The identified inhibitory activity of dietary phytochemicals on ABCG2 provides a framework for further investigation of ABCG2-modulated phytochemical bioavailability, MDR, and possible food-drug interactions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Neitzert T.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2015

Additive manufacturing processes and materials are described with respect to their ability to generate finished products. The accuracy of produced parts is seen as an important criterion for this technology to compete with subtractive or constant volume technologies. From the existing literature can be concluded process variation is high and part accuracy is not better then IT grade 9. The manufacturing process itself is complex and dependent on a number of machine, material and geometry parameters. A better understanding of the heat transfer within the product build environment will assist in the future to improve the process and therefore the resulting parts' accuracy. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Phillips J.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Currie J.,Auckland University of Technology | Ogeil R.P.,Monash University
Journal of Addictive Diseases | Year: 2016

Models are needed to understand the emerging capability to track consumers' movements. Therefore, we examined the use of legal and readily available stimulants that vary in their addictive potential (nicotine, caffeine). One hundred sixty-six participants answered the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Severity of Dependence Scale for nicotine and caffeine, and reported the number of times and locations stimulants were purchased and used. On average, nicotine dependent individuals made their purchases from 2 locations, while caffeine dependent individuals consumed caffeine at 2 locations, but some people exhibited a greater range and intensity of use. Stimulant foraging behavior could be described by power laws, and is exacerbated by dependency. The finding has implications for attempts to control substance use. © 2016 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Rezaei M.,Islamic Azad University at Qazvin | Terauchi M.,Hiroshima International University | Klette R.,Auckland University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems | Year: 2015

Avoiding high computational costs and calibration issues involved in stereo-vision-based algorithms, this paper proposes real-time monocular-vision-based techniques for simultaneous vehicle detection and inter-vehicle distance estimation, in which the performance and robustness of the system remain competitive, even for highly challenging benchmark datasets. This paper develops a collision warning system by detecting vehicles ahead and, by identifying safety distances to assist a distracted driver, prior to occurrence of an imminent crash. We introduce adaptive global Haar-like features for vehicle detection, tail-light segmentation, virtual symmetry detection, intervehicle distance estimation, as well as an efficient single-sensor multifeature fusion technique to enhance the accuracy and robustness of our algorithm. The proposed algorithm is able to detect vehicles ahead at both day or night and also for short- and long-range distances. Experimental results under various weather and lighting conditions (including sunny, rainy, foggy, or snowy) show that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. © 2000-2011 IEEE.

Rush E.,Auckland University of Technology | McLennan S.,Sport Waikato | Obolonkin V.,Auckland University of Technology | Vandal A.C.,Auckland University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15%, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0% (95% CI-5·8,- 1·3) and 2·4% (95% CI-4·3,-0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3%, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous Māori and non-Māori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © The Authors 2013.

Moghanian H.,Islamic Azad University at Dezful | Mobinikhaledi A.,Arak University | Blackman A.G.,Auckland University of Technology | Sarough-Farahani E.,Arak University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Sulfanilic acid-functionalized silica-coated nano-Fe3O 4 particles (MNPs-PhSO3H) have been prepared as a reusable heterogeneous acid catalyst using a facile process. The catalytic performance of this novel material has been studied in the synthesis of 1-amido- and 1-aminoalkyl-2-naphthol derivatives via a one-pot three-component condensation reaction of aldehydes, 2-naphthol, and amides/urea/amines in good to excellent yields, under solvent-free classical heating conditions. The catalyst was easily separated from the reaction mixture with the assistance of an external magnetic field and reused for several consecutive runs without significant loss of its catalytic efficiency. Results obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sample magnetometery (VSM) show that the synthesized magnetic nanocomposites are superparamagnetic with a size range of 15-30 nm. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Cowell J.F.,Auckland University of Technology | Cronin J.,Auckland University of Technology | Brughelli M.,Auckland University of Technology
Strength and Conditioning Journal | Year: 2012

An eccentric muscle action is described as a muscular contraction occurring while the muscle is simultaneously lengthening. Eccentric muscle actions can be implemented by the strength and conditioning specialist in a varietyof ways to achieve a number of goals from increasing strength and power production to prevention and rehabilitation of injury. The physiologic rationale as well as the loading parametersfor thesevarious forms of "eccentric training" will be briefly discussed in this review. © National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Siegel R.,Edith Cowan University | Mate J.,Edith Cowan University | Watson G.,Edith Cowan University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of a small bolus of ice slurry (1.25 g kg -1) could attenuate the reduction in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque output during a 2-min sustained task following exercise-induced hyperthermia. On two separate occasions, 10 males (age: 24 ± 3 years, {VO 2: 49.8 ± 4.7 ml kg -1 min -1) ran to exhaustion at their first ventilatory threshold in a hot environment (34.1 ± 0.1°C, 49.5 ± 3.6% RH). Prior to and after exercise, subjects performed a 2-min sustained MVC of the right elbow flexors in a thermoneutral environment (24.6 ± 0.8°C, 37.2 ± 4.5% RH). The post exercise MVC was performed immediately following the ingestion of either 1.25 g kg -1 of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE) or warm fluid (40°C; CON), in a counterbalanced and randomised order. Run time to exhaustion (42.4 ± 9.5 vs. 41.7 ± 8.7 min; p = 0.530), and rectal (39.08 ± 0.30 vs. 39.08 ± 0.30°C; p = 0.934) and skin temperatures (35.26 ± 0.65 vs. 35.28 ± 0.67°C; p = 0.922) and heart rate (189 ± 5 vs. 189 ± 6 beats min -1; p = 0.830) at the end of the run were similar between trials. Torque output during the post-exercise 2-min sustained MVC was significantly higher (p = 0.001) following ICE (30.75 ± 16.40 Nm) compared with CON (28.69 ± 14.88 Nm). These results suggest that ice slurry ingestion attenuated the effects of exercise-induced hyperthermia on MVC, possibly via internal thermoreceptive and/or temperature-related sensory mechanisms. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Bollen J.C.,University of Exeter | Dean S.G.,University of Exeter | Siegert R.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Howe T.E.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Goodwin V.A.,University of Exeter
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Background: Adherence is an important factor contributing to the effectiveness of exercise-based rehabilitation. However, there appears to be a lack of reliable, validated measures to assess self-reported adherence to prescribed but unsupervised home-based rehabilitation exercises. Objectives: A systematic review was conducted to establish what measures were available and to evaluate their psychometric properties. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO CINAHL ( June 2013) and the Cochrane library were searched (September 2013). Reference lists from articles meeting the inclusion criteria were checked to ensure all relevant papers were included. Study selection: To be included articles had to be available in English; use a self-report measure of adherence in relation to a prescribed but unsupervised home-based exercise or physical rehabilitation programme; involve participants over the age of 18. All health conditions and clinical populations were included. Data extraction: Descriptive data reported were collated on a data extraction sheet. The measures were evaluated in terms of eight psychometric quality criteria. Results: 58 studies were included, reporting 61 different measures including 29 questionnaires, 29 logs, two visual analogue scales and one tally counter. Only two measures scored positively for one psychometric property (content validity). The majority of measures had no reported validity or reliability testing. Conclusions: The results expose a gap in the literature for well-developed measures that capture self-reported adherence to prescribed but unsupervised home-based rehabilitation exercises.

Rush E.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Chhichhia P.,Auckland University of Technology | Kilding A.E.,Auckland University of Technology | Plank L.D.,University of Auckland
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

Water homeostasis is essential for life and optimal function and considerable interest surrounds the issue of recommendations for water consumption in healthy individuals. Objective data on water turnover in free-living individuals are limited, however. The aim of the present work was to measure water turnover in children and young adults using isotopically labeled water to provide objective data on magnitude and variability in relation to body weight, fat-free mass and physical activity level. Water turnover was measured by deuterated water dilution in 91 healthy children (40 boys, 51 girls; age 5-14 years) and 109 healthy young adults (80 women, 29 men; age 18-27 years) with a wide range of body mass index (13.3-51.8 kg/m2) and percent body fat (6.1-59.3%). Total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate were measured by the doubly labeled water technique and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Water turnover was 1.77 ± 0.57 (SD), 1.79 ± 0.44, 2.85 ± 0.82, and 3.90 ± 0.81 L/day in girls, boys, women, and men, respectively. Water turnover indexed to body surface area did not differ significantly between girls and women but was higher in men than boys. Water turnover indexed to TEE was 0.8 mL/kcal in girls and boys and 1.0 mL/kcal in women and men. This study provides objective data on water turnover for children and young adults in a temperate climate and shows that anthropometric parameters can account for the variation between girls, boys and women but not between these groups and the more active men. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Stoner L.,Massey University | Faulkner J.,Massey University | Lowe A.,Auckland University of Technology | Lambrick D.M.,Massey University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis | Year: 2014

Pulse wave analysis(PWA) is widely used to investigate systemic arterial stiffness. The augmentation index(AIx), the primary outcome derived from PWA, is influenced by the mean arterial pressure(MAP), age, gender and heart rate(HR). Gender- and age-specific reference values have been devised, and it is recommended that the MAP be used as a statistical covariate. The AIx is also commonly statistically adjusted to a HR of 75 b·min-1; however, this approach may be physiologically and statistically inappropriate. First, there appears to be an important physiological chronic interaction between HR and arterial stiffness. Second, the method used to correct to HR assumes that the relationship with AIx is uniform across populations. A more appropriate practice may be to include HR as an independent predictor or covariate; this approach is particularly recommended for longitudinal studies, in which changes in HR may help to explain changes in arterial stiffness.

Liu J.,Auckland University of Technology | Moskvina A.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2015 | Year: 2015

An organisational structure consists of a network where employees are connected by working and social ties. Analysing this network, one can discover valuable insights into information flow within the organisation. Moreover, properly defined centrality measures reveal the distribution of power and, therefore, important individuals in the network. We develop this idea and propose a model that is consistent with management theory, and that captures main traits of large corporations. The carcass of the model is an organisational hierarchy. We extend it by allowing additional types of connections such as collaboration, consultation, and friendship. Having both reporting and non-reporting interpersonal ties, our model supports a multilevel approach to social networks. We then formally define power and stability in organisations. These notions enable us to analyse a range of organisational phenomena such as limited hierarchy height, restructuring through flattening, and impact of non-reporting ties. We support our framework with examples and case studies.

Skleryk J.R.,Edith Cowan University | Karagounis L.G.,RMIT University | Hawley J.A.,RMIT University | Sharman M.J.,Edith Cowan University | And 5 more authors.
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Aims: To investigate the effects of short-term, reduced-volume sprint interval training (SIT) compared to traditional exercise recommendations (TER) in sedentary obese men. Methods: Sixteen subjects [37.8±5.8years; body mass index (BMI) 32.8±4.7kg/m2] were randomly allocated to 2weeks of either SIT (6 sessions of 8-12×10s sprints) or TER [10 sessions of 30min at 65% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak)] cycle exercise. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), body composition and VO2peak were assessed at baseline and approximately 72h after the final training bout. Skeletal muscle biopsy samples were also obtained before and 72h after training and analysed for AS160 phosphorylation and COX II, COX IV, GLUT-4, Nur77 and SIRT1 protein expression. Results: No changes in BMI, body composition, VO2peak, glucose, insulin, NEFA and HOMA-IR were observed after training, either within or between groups. Skeletal muscle markers of glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function also remained unaltered after 2weeks of exercise training. Conclusions: Our findings show that 2weeks of reduced-volume SIT or TER did not elicit any measurable metabolic adaptations in sedentary obese men. Further work is needed to determine the minimal amount of exercise required for short-term adaptations in this population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Shanmuganathan S.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2014

"Data mining" for "knowledge discovery in databases" and associated computational operations first introduced in the mid-1990 s can no longer cope with the analytical issues relating to the so-called "big data". The recent buzzword big data refers to large volumes of diverse, dynamic, complex, longitudinal and/or distributed data generated from instruments, sensors, Internet transactions, email, video, click streams, noisy, structured/unstructured and/or all other digital sources available today and in the future at speeds and on scales never seen before in human history. The big data also being described using 3 Vs, volume, variety and velocity (with an additional 4th V for "veracity" and more recently with a 5th V for "value"), requires a set of new technologies, such as high performance computing i.e., exascale, architectures (distributed or grid), algorithms (for data clustering and generating association rules), programming languages, automated and scalable software tools, to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information lately referred to as "actionable knowledge" or "data products" from the massive volumes of complex raw data. In view of the above facts, the paper gives an introduction to the synergistic challenges in "data-intensive" science and "exascale" computing for resolving "big data analytics" and "data science" issues in four main disciplines namely, computer science, computational science, statistics and mathematics. For the realisation of vital identified foundational aspects of an effective cyber infrastructure, basic problems need to be addressed adequately in the respective disciplines and are outlined. Finally, the paper looks at five scientific research projects that are urgently in need of high performance computing; this is in contrast to the earlier situations where private business enterprises were the drivers of better modern and faster technologies. © 2014 S. Shanmuganathan.

Teo W.,Edith Cowan University | McGuigan M.R.,New Zealand Academy of Sport North Island | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Newton M.J.,Edith Cowan University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

The study investigated the effects of circadian rhythm of cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) on maximal force production (Fpeak) and power output (Ppeak). Twenty male university students (mean age = 23.8 ± 3.6 years, height = 177.5 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 11.2 kg) performed 4 time-of-day testing sessions consisting of countermovement jumps (CMJs), squat jumps (SJ), isometric midthigh pulls (IMTPs), and a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat. Saliva samples were collected at 0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 hours to assess T and C levels on each testing day. Session rate-of-perceived exertion (RPE) scores were collected after each session. The results showed that Fpeak and Ppeak presented a clear circadian rhythm in CMJ and IMTP but not in SJ. One repetition maximum squat did not display a clear circadian rhythm. Session RPE scores collected at 0800 and 2000 hours were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than those obtained at 1200 and 1600 hours. Salivary T and C displayed a clear circadian rhythm with highest values at 0800 hours and lowest at 2000 hours; however, no significant correlation was found between T and C with Fpeak and Ppeak. A very strong correlation was found between Taural with Fpeak of CMJ and IMTP and Ppeak of CMJ (r = 0.86, r = 0.84 and r = 0.8, p ≤ 0.001). The study showed the existence of a circadian rhythm in Fpeak and P peak in CMJ and IMTP. The evidence suggests that strength and power training or testing should be scheduled later during the day. The use of Taural seemed to be a more effective indicator of physical performance than hormonal measures, and the use of session RPE should also be closely monitored because it may present a circadian rhythm. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Dugas L.R.,Loyola University Chicago | Harders R.,Loyola University Chicago | Merrill S.,Loyola University Chicago | Ebersole K.,Loyola University Chicago | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: There is an assumption that people in developing countries have a higher total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) than do people in developed nations, but few objective data for this assertion exist. Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of TEE and PAL by using data from countries that have a low or middle human development index (HDI) compared with those with a high HDI to better understand how energy-expenditure variables are associated with development status and population differences in body size. Design: We performed a literature search for studies in which energy expenditure was measured by using doubly labeled water. Mean data on age, weight, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), TEE, and PAL were extracted, and HDI status was assessed. Pooled estimates of the mean effect by sex were obtained, and the extent to which age, weight, HDI status, and year of publication explained heterogeneity was assessed. Results: A total of 98 studies (14 studies from low- or middle-HDI countries) that represented 183 cohorts and 4972 individuals were included. Mean (±SE) BMI was lower in countries with a low or middle HDI than in those with a high HDI for both men and women (22.7 ± 1.0 compared with 26.0 ± 0.7, respectively, in men and 24.3 ± 0.7 compared with 26.6 ± 0.4, respectively, in women). In meta-regression models, there was an inverse association of age (P < 0.001) and a positive association of weight (P < 0.001) with TEE for both sexes; there was an association of age only in men with PAL (P < 0.001). There was no association of HDI status with either TEE or PAL. Conclusion: TEE adjusted for weight and age or PAL did not differ significantly between developing and industrialized countries, which calls into question the role of energy expenditure in the cause of obesity at the population level. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Argus C.K.,Auckland University of Technology | Gill N.D.,Auckland University of Technology | Keogh J.W.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Blazevich A.J.,Edith Cowan University | Hopkins W.G.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Argus, CK, Gill, ND, Keogh, JWL, Blazevich, AJ, and Hopkins, WJ. Kinetic and training comparisons between assisted, resisted, and free countermovement jumps. J Strength Cond Res 25(8): 2219-2227, 2011-Elastic band assisted and resisted jump training may be a novel way to develop lower-body power. The purpose of this investigation was to (a) determine the kinetic differences between assisted, free, and resisted countermovement jumps and (b), investigate the effects of contrast training using either assisted, free, or resisted countermovement jump training on vertical jump performance in well-trained athletes. In part 1, 8 recreationally trained men were assessed for force output, relative peak power (PP·kg -1) and peak velocity during the 3 types of jump. The highest peak force was achieved in the resisted jump method, while PP·kg -1 and peak velocity were greatest in the assisted jump. Each type of jump produced a different pattern of maximal values of the variables measured, which may have implications for developing separate components of muscular power. In part 2, 28 professional rugby players were assessed for vertical jump height before and after 4 weeks of either assisted (n = 9), resisted (n = 11), or free (n = 8) countermovement jump training. Relative to changes in the control group (1.3 ± 9.2%, mean ± SD), there were clear small improvements in jump height in the assisted (6.7 ± 9.6%) and the resisted jump training group (4.0 ± 8.8%). Elastic band assisted and resisted jump training are both effective methods for improving jump height and can be easily implemented into current training programs via contrast training methods or as a part of plyometric training sessions. Assisted and resisted jump training is recommended for athletes in whom explosive lower-body movements such as jumping and sprinting are performed as part of competition. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Jones M.R.L.,Auckland University of Technology | Breen B.B.,Auckland University of Technology
Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers | Year: 2013

The food and feeding relationships of mid-slope slickheads in New Zealand waters are little known compared with those from the northern hemisphere. This study examines the feeding relationships of three common slickhead species from approximately 1000. m on Chatham Rise, New Zealand: Alepocephalus antipodianus (Parrot, 1948), A. australis (Barnard, 1923), and Xenodermichthys copei (Gill, 1884). The Alepocephalus species were predominantly benthopelagic feeders with a small benthic component to their diets. Alepocephalus australis fed on pelagic tunicates, notably Pyrosoma atlanticum Péron, 1804. Alepocephalus antipodianus fed on fish and pelagic tunicates, and also crustaceans. Xenodermichthys copei fed primarily on crustaceans. Considerable material was recovered from the intestines of all three species, and much of it was identifiable and only partially digested, including the remains of pelagic tunicates. There was little dietary overlap between the stomach contents of the three slickhead species indicating a degree of niche partitioning. Intestinal contents differed from stomach contents in weight, but not in number of items for all three species. The composition of stomach and intestinal contents differed for A. australis, but not for A. antipodianus or X. copei, which suggests that intestinal contents could be potentially useful in lieu of stomach content. There was a high level of overlap between the intestinal contents of A. antipodianus and A. australis, suggesting a possible closer dietary relationship between these two species than that indicated by stomach contents alone. Despite limitations in sample size and spatial and temporal coverage, the results from this study indicate that the three slickhead species could play an important role in the structuring of the demersal community at mid-slope depths on northeastern Chatham Rise. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Aminian S.,Auckland University of Technology | Hinckson E.A.,Auckland University of Technology
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2012

Background: Decreasing sedentary activities that involve prolonged sitting may be an important strategy to reduce obesity and other physical and psychosocial health problems in children. The first step to understanding the effect of sedentary activities on children's health is to objectively assess these activities with a valid measurement tool.Purpose: To examine the validity of the ActivPAL monitor in measuring sitting/lying, standing, and walking time, transition counts and step counts in children in a laboratory setting.Methods: Twenty five healthy elementary school children (age 9.9 ± 0.3 years; BMI 18.2 ± 1.9; mean ± SD) were randomly recruited across the Auckland region, New Zealand. Children were fitted with ActivPAL monitors and observed during simulated free-living activities involving sitting/lying, standing and walking, followed by treadmill and over-ground activities at various speeds (slow, normal, fast) against video observation (criterion measure). The ActivPAL sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transition counts and steps were also compared with video data. The accuracy of step counts measured by the ActivPAL was also compared against the New Lifestyles NL-2000 and the Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometers.Results: We observed a perfect correlation between the ActivPAL monitor in time spent sitting/lying, standing, and walking in simulated free-living activities with direct observation. Correlations between the ActivPAL and video observation in total numbers of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions were high (r = 0.99 ± 0.01). Unlike pedometers, the ActivPAL did not misclassify fidgeting as steps taken. Strong correlations (r = 0.88-1.00) between ActivPAL step counts and video observation in both treadmill and over-ground slow and normal walking were also observed. During treadmill and over-ground fast walking and running, the correlations were low (r = 0.21-0.46).Conclusion: The ActivPAL monitor is a valid measurement tool for assessing time spent sitting/lying, standing, and walking, sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transition counts and step counts in slow and normal walking. The device did not measure accurately steps taken during treadmill and over-ground fast walking and running in children. © 2012 Aminian and Hinckson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Perera R.,Auckland University of Technology | Nand P.,Auckland University of Technology
29th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, PACLIC 2015 | Year: 2015

Recent trends in Question Answering (QA) have led to numerous studies focusing on presenting answers in a form which closely resembles a human generated answer. These studies have used a range of techniques which use the structure of knowledge, generic linguistic structures and template based approaches to construct answers as close as possible to a human generate answer, referred to as human competitive answers. This paper reports the results of an empirical study which uses the linguistic structure of the source question as the basis for a human competitive answer. We propose a typed dependency based approach to generate an answer sentence where linguistic structure of the question is transformed and realized into a sentence containing the answer. We employ the factoid questions from QALD-2 training question set to extract typed dependency patterns based on the root of the parse tree. Using identified patterns we generate a rule set which is used to generate a natural language sentence containing the answer extracted from a knowledge source, realized into a linguistically correct sentence. The evaluation of the approach is performed using QALD-2 testing factoid questions sets with a 78.84% accuracy. The top-10 patterns extracted from training dataset were able to cover 69.19% of test questions.

Hussain W.,Auckland University of Technology | Clear T.,Auckland University of Technology
Proceedings - 2014 IEEE 9th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2014 | Year: 2014

Globally distributed stakeholders employ various collaborative technologies to manage requirements. While these technologies facilitate requirements collaboration, their perceived purpose, use and structure co-evolve over time. In this paper we report the results of a study in two global software development settings involving client-vendor relationships. In both cases we noted that the vendor and client sites appropriated spreadsheet technology in quite specific ways, for use locally and for bridging across sites. Yet these spreadsheet files were embedded within different collaborative technologies. Through close study we note how team members practices co-evolved with the spreadsheet artefacts involved in the process of managing requirements change. We note how through a single spreadsheet cell, we may see a world as in William Blake's "grain of sand". Through the evolution of a spreadsheet's structure or content we expose how seemingly incremental local changes have far wider implications for global requirements change management. © 2014 IEEE.

Cormie P.,Edith Cowan University | McGuigan M.R.,New Zealand Academy of Sport North Island | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Newton R.U.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2010

Purpose: To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Methods: Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Results: Both experimental groups showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvements in jump and sprint performances after training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% ± 9.3%, PT = 17.6% ± 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% ± 1.9%, PT = 3.6% ± 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% ± 11.3%, PT = 4.5% ± 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P ≤ 0.05) changes in the force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Conclusions: Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength, makes strength training a more effective training modality for relatively weak individuals. © 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Cormie P.,Edith Cowan University | McGuigan M.R.,New Zealand Academy of Sport North Island | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology | Newton R.U.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2010

PURPOSE: To determine whether ballistic power training and strength training result in specific changes in stretch-shorten cycle (SSC) function during the eccentric (ECC) phase and, if so, whether these changes are influenced by the individual's strength level. METHODS: Thirty-two male subjects were divided into four groups: stronger power training group (SP, n = 8, squat one-repetition maximum-to-body mass ratio (1RM/BM) = 1.97 ± 0.08), weaker power training group (WP, n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.32 ± 0.14), weaker strength training group (WS, n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.28 ± 0.17), or control group (C, n = 8, 1RM/BM = 1.37 ± 0.13). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk. The SP and WP groups performed maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM, and the WS group performed back squats at 75%-90% 1RM. Maximal strength, jump performance, musculotendinous stiffness, and neural activation were assessed before training and after 5 and 10 wk of training. RESULTS: Both power and strength training elicited significant changes in a multitude of ECC variables that were significantly associated with improvements in concentric (CON) performance. Enhancements in CON performance were theorized to be driven by the development of a strategy to better use the ECC phase during jumping (i.e., greater unloading allowed for increased negative acceleration and thus velocity during the countermovement and improved musculotendinous stiffness resulted in an enhanced ability to translate the momentum developed during the ECC phase into force). Although a significant improvement in maximal strength resulted in changes to SSC function during the ECC phase, the initial strength level did not significantly affect the ECC variables before training or the magnitude of adaptations in individuals exposed to ballistic power training. CONCLUSIONS: Training-induced alterations in SSC function during the ECC phase contributes to improvements in jump performance after both ballistic power training and heavy strength training. © 2010 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Thomas A.,Aberystwyth University | Tod D.A.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Edwards C.J.,University of Worcester | McGuigan M.R.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

This study examined the mediating role of drive for muscularity and social physique anxiety (SPA) in the perceived muscular male ideal physique and muscle dysmorphia relationship in weight training men. Men (N = 146, mean ± SD; age, 22.8 ± 5.0 years; weight, 82.0 ± 11.1 kg; height, 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass index, 25.1 ± 3.0) who participated in weight training completed validated questionnaires measuring drive for muscularity, SPA, perceived muscular male ideal physique, global muscle dysmorphia, and several characteristics of muscle dysmorphia (exercise dependence, diet manipulation, concerns about size/symmetry, physique protection behavior, and supplementation). Perceived ideal physique was an independent predictor of muscle dysmorphia measures except physique protection (coefficients = 0.113-0.149, p ≤ 0.05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted muscle dysmorphia characteristics (except physique protection and diet) through the indirect drive for muscularity pathway (coefficients = 0.055-0.116, p ≤ 0.05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted size/symmetry concerns and physique protection through the indirect drive for muscularity and SPA pathway (coefficients = 0.080-0.025, p ≤ 0.05). These results extend current research by providing insights into the way correlates of muscle dysmorphia interact to predict the condition. The results also highlight signs (e.g., anxiety about muscularity) that strength and conditioning coaches can use to identify at-risk people who may benefit from being referred for psychological assistance © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Alfaro A.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Young T.,Auckland University of Technology | Ganesan A.M.,Auckland University of Technology
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Larval settlement responses of the ribbed mussel, Aulacomya maoriana Iredale 1915, were investigated after exposure to various chemicals and mono-species bacteria. Identification of settlement inductive compounds assists in the elucidation of intermediary biochemical mechanisms involved in the neuronal control of settlement behaviour downstream from primary cue reception. Neuroactive compounds and amino acids (potassium ions, GABA, acetylcholine, l-Phenylalanine, l-Tyrosine, dopamine, epinephrine, l-Tryptophan, and 5-HTP) and planktonic bacteria, biofilms and biofilm exudates of Macrococcus sp. AMGM1, Bacillus sp. AMGB1, and Pseudoalteromonas sp. AMGP1 were tested for their abilities to induce larval settlement. Toxicity effects of each treatment also were simultaneously identified by recording larval mortalities. Results indicate that all chemicals used induced larvae to settle, with acetylcholine being the most effective (~24% at 10 -6M compared to <2% in control assays). Toxicities of treatment compounds were low at optimal settlement inducing concentrations, except for l-Tryptophan (~32%) and GABA (~59%). Our data suggest that catecholamines (and their precursors) play an important role in the biochemical mechanisms of settlement for A. maoriana. While serotonin precursors did induce low levels of larval settlement at some concentrations, high toxicity responses to 5-HTP at 10 -5M, combined with complete settlement inhibition indicate that the mechanism of action may be more complex than can be elucidated in this study. Larval settlement responses to bacterial treatments were low for planktonic and biofilm phases across all three strains, and settlement inhibition was observed when larvae were exposed to biofilm exudates of all bacterial strains. Comparisons of A. maoriana responses to other endemic and worldwide distributed mussel species are provided as a means to highlight potential evolutionary differences in chemoreception mechanisms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Zambas S.I.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Nursing Education | Year: 2010

Although considered an essential nursing skill, systematic physical assessment is rarely visible in everyday practice. Some nurses question whether systematic physical assessment is relevant to nursing, and others complain that they do not see it used in practice. Why is this, when these skills are considered so integral to nursing? This article challenges nurse educators to reflect on the purpose of the systematic physical assessment within nursing by analyzing the underlying assumptions of this apparent sacred cow. © SLACK Incorporated.

Ikeda E.,Auckland University of Technology
Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation | Year: 2014

To review the use of quality of life (QOL) measures utilised in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relevant articles were identified through database searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text and SPORTDiscus with Full Text via EBSCO Health Database, PsycINFO and ProQuest Health and Medicine (from 2000 to May 2013). Original research articles were included that measured QOL in children and youth with ASD aged 5-20 years. Searches were limited to articles from peer-reviewed journals, in English or German, and those available in full text. The search identified 1,165 titles and 13 met the inclusion criteria. The review identified a number of QOL measures used in children and youth with ASD, with the most common one being the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL). QOL measures using self-reports were uncommon, and the reliability and validity of QOL measures were not sufficiently reported for this population. Large discrepancies in QOL scores were found between self-reports and proxy-reports. Despite the differences in study design and methodological quality, there was consistency in the results among studies; children and youth with ASD provided lower QOL scores, particularly for social domains, compared to their healthy counterparts. The PedsQL is likely to be an appropriate QOL measure for use in children and youth with ASD. Future research should focus on examining the appropriateness, reliability and validity of QOL self-reports for use in this population.

Marshall R.N.,Eastern Institute of Technology | McNair P.J.,Auckland University of Technology
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2013

Knee injuries in golf comprise approximately 8% of all injuries, and are considered to result from overuse, technical faults or a combination of those factors. This review examines factors involved in injury, including the structure of the knee joint, kinematics and kinetics of the golf swing, forces sustained by knee joint structures and the potential for joint injury as well as injury prevention strategies. The golf swing generates forces and torques which tend to cause internal or external rotation of the tibia on the femur, and these are resisted by the knee ligaments and menisci. Research has shown that both maximum muscle forces and the forces sustained during a golf swing are less than that required to cause damage to the ligaments. However, the complex motion of the golf swing, involving both substantial forces and ranges of rotational movement, demands good technique if the player is to avoid injuring their knee joint. Most knee injury in golf is likely related to joint laxity, previous injuries or arthritis, and such damage may be exacerbated by problems in technique or overuse. In addition to appropriate coaching, strategies to remedy discomfort include specific exercise programmes, external bracing, orthotics and equipment choices. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Stewart S.,Auckland University of Technology | Dalbeth N.,University of Auckland | Vandal A.C.,Auckland University of Technology | Vandal A.C.,Counties Manukau Health | Rome K.,Auckland University of Technology
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2016

Background: The aim of this review was to qualitatively synthesise studies that have investigated characteristics of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTP) in gout and to undertake a meta-analysis to estimate the average prevalence of acute 1st MTP arthritis across studies in people with gout. Methods: Studies published in English were included if they involved participants who had a diagnosis of gout and presented original findings relating to the following outcome measures associated with the 1st MTP: Epidemiology; clinical features; structural and functional characteristics; and microscopic and imaging features. Results: Forty-five studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. 1st MTP pain was a prominent feature in people with gout. People with 1st MTP gout reported walking- And general-disability. Structural and functional characteristics of 1st MTP gout included hallux valgus, osteoarthritis, and restricted joint motion. Successful crystal aspiration ranged from 81 to 91 % and positive crystal identification via microscopy ranged from 83 to 93 % in patients with a history of 1st MTP gout. Imaging features were common at the 1st MTP including the double contour sign, tophi and erosions. Eleven studies involving 2,325 participants were included in the meta-analysis, providing an estimate of the average prevalence of acute 1st MTP arthritis across studies of 73 % (95 % prediction interval 40-92 %; range 48-97 %; I2 = 93 %). Conclusions: 1st MTP acute arthritis is highly prevalent in people with gout and has a substantial impact on patient-reported pain and disability. Gout affects the structure and function of the 1st MTP. Microscopic and imaging studies have demonstrated crystal deposition and joint damage at the 1st MTP in people with gout. © 2016 Stewart et al.

Kelly P.,University of Oxford | Marshall S.J.,University of California at San Diego | Badland H.,University of Melbourne | Kerr J.,University of California at San Diego | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Technologic advances mean automated, wearable cameras are now feasible for investigating health behaviors in a public health context. This paper attempts to identify and discuss the ethical implications of such research, in relation to existing guidelines for ethical research in traditional visual methodologies. Research using automated, wearable cameras can be very intrusive, generating unprecedented levels of image data, some of it potentially unflattering or unwanted. Participants and third parties they encounter may feel uncomfortable or that their privacy has been affected negatively. This paper attempts to formalize the protection of all according to best ethical principles through the development of an ethical framework. Respect for autonomy, through appropriate approaches to informed consent and adequate privacy and confidentiality controls, allows for ethical research, which has the potential to confer substantial benefits on the field of health behavior research. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Mohemmed A.,Auckland University of Technology | Schliebs S.,Auckland University of Technology | Matsuda S.,Nihon University | Kasabov N.,Auckland University of Technology | Kasabov N.,University of Zürich
International Journal of Neural Systems | Year: 2012

Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) were shown to be suitable tools for the processing of spatio-temporal information. However, due to their inherent complexity, the formulation of efficient supervised learning algorithms for SNN is difficult and remains an important problem in the research area. This article presents SPAN - a spiking neuron that is able to learn associations of arbitrary spike trains in a supervised fashion allowing the processing of spatio-temporal information encoded in the precise timing of spikes. The idea of the proposed algorithm is to transform spike trains during the learning phase into analog signals so that common mathematical operations can be performed on them. Using this conversion, it is possible to apply the well-known WidrowHoff rule directly to the transformed spike trains in order to adjust the synaptic weights and to achieve a desired input/output spike behavior of the neuron. In the presented experimental analysis, the proposed learning algorithm is evaluated regarding its learning capabilities, its memory capacity, its robustness to noisy stimuli and its classification performance. Differences and similarities of SPAN regarding two related algorithms, ReSuMe and Chronotron, are discussed. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Thrimawithana D.J.,Auckland University of Technology | Madawala U.K.,University of Auckland | Neath M.,University of Auckland
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

Bidirectional inductive power transfer (IPT) systems are attractive for applications such as electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid systems which preferably require contactless and two-way power transfer. However, in contrast to unidirectional IPT systems, bidirectional IPT systems require more sophisticated control strategies to control the power flow. An indispensible component of such control strategies is the robust and accurate synchronization between the primary-and pickup-side converters, without which the transfer of real power in any direction cannot be guaranteed. This paper proposes a novel technique that synchronizes converters on both the primary and pickup sides of bidirectional IPT systems. The technique uses an auxiliary winding, located on the pickup side, to produce a synchronizing signal which, in turn, can be utilized to regulate the real power flow. This paper also presents a mathematical model for the proposed technique and investigates its sensitivity for component tolerances. The viability of the technique, which is applicable to both single-and multiple-pickup IPT systems, is demonstrated through both simulations and experimental results of a 1-kW prototype bidirectional IPT system. © 2012 IEEE.

Usman M.,Auckland University of Technology | Pears R.,Auckland University of Technology | Fong A.C.M.,Auckland University of Technology
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013

The integration of data mining techniques with data warehousing is gaining popularity due to the fact that both disciplines complement each other in extracting knowledge from large datasets. However, the majority of approaches focus on applying data mining as a front end technology to mine data warehouses. Surprisingly, little progress has been made in incorporating mining techniques in the design of data warehouses. While methods such as data clustering applied on multidimensional data have been shown to enhance the knowledge discovery process, a number of fundamental issues remain unresolved with respect to the design of multidimensional schema. These relate to automated support for the selection of informative dimension and fact variables in high dimensional and data intensive environments, an activity which may challenge the capabilities of human designers on account of the sheer scale of data volume and variables involved. In this research, we propose a methodology that selects a subset of informative dimension and fact variables from an initial set of candidates. Our experimental results conducted on three real world datasets taken from the UCI machine learning repository show that the knowledge discovered from the schema that we generated was more diverse and informative than the standard approach of mining the original data without the use of our multidimensional structure imposed on it. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nisbet A.,Auckland University of Technology | Woodward A.,Edith Cowan University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Wireless network technology has been available for public and private use for almost two decades. The casual approach to security with the early standards and channel selection began to cause issues when the initial security standard, WEP, was discovered to have serious flaws. The closer examination of security and efficiency that followed led to better security protocols, easier setup and better guidelines to ensure efficiency of radio communications. A survey of 5 areas throughout New Zealand was conducted and this is compared with a survey of 5 areas around Perth in Western Australia. The results indicate that whilst improvements continue to be made in security implementations, a small percentage of users do not implement their networks with the recommended settings. Whilst Australian users are slightly better at complying with recommendations, it is clear that some work still needs to be done in the areas of security and efficiency. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Moskvina A.,Auckland University of Technology | Liu J.,University of Auckland
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

When two social groups merge, members of both groups should socialize effectively into the merged new entity. In other words, interpersonal ties should be established between the groups to give members appropriate access to resource and information. Viewing a social group as a network, we investigate such integration from a computational perspective. In particular, we assume that the networks have equipotent nodes, which refers to the situation when every member has equal privilege. We introduce the network integration problem: Given two networks, set up links between them so that the integrated network has diameter no more than a fixed value. We propose a few heuristics for solving this problem, study their computational complexity and compare their performance using experimental analysis. The results show that our approach is a feasible way to solve the network integration problem by establishing a small number of edges. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Tirumala S.S.,Auckland University of Technology | Narayanan A.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches for medical diagnosis and prediction of cancer are important and ever growing areas of research. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is one such approach that have been successfully applied in these areas. Various types of clinical datasets have been used in intelligent decision making systems for medical diagnosis, especially cancer for over three decades. However, gene expression datasets are complex with large numbers of attributes which make it more difficult for AI approaches to classification and prediction. Prostate Cancer dataset is one such dataset with 12600 attributes and only 102 samples. In this paper, we propose an extended ANN based approach for classification and prediction of prostate cancer using gene expression data. Firstly, we use four attribute selection approaches, namely Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS), RELIEFF, Sequential Backward Feature Section (SFBS) and Significant Attribute Evaluation (SAE) to identify the most influential attributes among 12600. We use ANNs and Naive Bayes for classification with complete sets of attributes as well as various sets obtained from attribute selection methods. Experimental results show that ANN outperformed Naive Bayes by achieving a classification accuracy of 98.2% compared to 62.74% with the full set of attributes. Further, with 21 selected attributes obtained with SFFS, ANNs achieved better accuracy (100%) for classification compared to Naive Bayes. For prediction using ANNs, SFFS was able achieve best results with 92.31% of accuracy by correctly predicting 24 out of 26 samples provided for independent sample testing. Moreover, some of the gene selected by SFFS are identified to have a direct reference to cancer and tumour. Our results indicate that a combination of standard feature selection methods in conjunction with ANNs provide the most impressive results. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Tung C.-H.,Auckland University of Technology | Alfaro A.C.,Auckland University of Technology
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science | Year: 2011

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary nutritional value (protein source and amount) and temperature on shell morphology of cultured abalone juveniles. Morphological variations have long been used by ecologists and evolutionary biologists to identify physiological and/or environmental conditions associated with the growth and health of organisms. Two important factors affecting morphological plasticity are food supply and temperature conditions. Two different experiments were conducted to test the effect of dietary protein (source and amount) and water temperature on shell morphology (length, width, height, thickness and weight) of juvenile abalone (Haliotis iris). In the first experiment, nine different dietary protein sources (white fish and red fish meals, blood meal, meat and bone meal, casein, soybean concentrate, wheat gluten, maize gluten and Spirulina powder) resulted in wider, higher and heavier shells with casein diets and flatter shells with red fish meal. Abalone fed blood meal produced significantly narrower, thinner and lighter shells compared to animals fed the other diets. In the second experiment, six different dietary protein amounts (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 45%) and two temperature regimes (13-21 and 8-16°C) resulted in wider and heavier shells with increasing protein content. However, shell height and thickness were not affected by different protein amounts. Significant differences between temperatures were observed only for shell height and thickness. The results suggest that diet and temperature may be used to manipulate abalone shell morphology in aquaculture environments and they may be potential factors in shell variations of wild populations. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.

Liu D.,University of Auckland | Geng H.,University of Auckland | Klette R.,Auckland University of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Star effects are an important design factor for night photos Progress in imaging technologies made it possible that night photos can be taken free-hand. For such camera settings, star effects are not achievable. We present a star-effect simulation method based on self-calibrated stereo vision. Given an uncalibrated stereo pair (i.e. a base image and a match image), which can be just two photos taken with a mobile phone with about the same pose, we follow a standard routine: Extract a family of feature-point pairs, calibrate the stereo pair by using the feature-point pairs, and obtain depth information by stereo matching. We detect highlight regions in the base image, estimate the luminance according to available depth information, and, finally, render star patterns with an input texture. Experiments show that our results are similar to realworld star effect pho