Fenart L.,University of Artois
Current Alzheimer research | Year: 2013
Ever since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides were first identified in cerebral plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), much research work has focused on the complex mechanisms through which these peptides are synthesized, transported and degraded. Although new information emerges on a regular basis, we consider that the importance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the pathogenesis of AD has been underestimated. In fact, there are a number of obstacles that make it difficult to convince specialists in AD that the BBB indeed plays a key role in this disease: these include the complex physiology of the BBB and the technical difficulty of studying the barrier in vivo and reproducing its main properties in vitro. With these considerations in mind, the present review sets out summarize our current knowledge about the physiology of the BBB and describe recent research findings on the barrier's role in Aβ peptide proteostasis and thus in the mechanism of AD.
Dombu C.Y.,University of Lille Nord de France |
Betbeder D.,University of Lille Nord de France |
Betbeder D.,Lille 2 University of Health and Law |
Betbeder D.,University of Artois
Biomaterials | Year: 2013
Delivery of peptides and proteins via the airways is one of the most exciting potential applications of nanomedicine. These macromolecules could be used for many therapeutic applications, however due to their poor stability in physiological medium and difficulties in delivering them across biological barriers, they are very difficult to use in therapy. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have emerged as one of the most promising technologies to overcome these limitations, owing mainly to their proven capacity to cross biological barriers and to enter cells in high yields, thus improving delivery of macromolecules. In this review, we summarize the current advances in nanoparticle designed for transmucosal delivery of peptides and proteins. Challenges that must be overcome in order to derive clinical benefits are also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Lang J.,University of Paris Dauphine |
Marquis P.,University of Artois
Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2010
In this paper, a fairly general framework for reasoning from inconsistent propositional bases is defined. Variable forgetting is used as a basic operation for weakening pieces of information so as to restore consistency. The key notion is that of recoveries, which are sets of variables whose forgetting enables restoring consistency. Several criteria for defining preferred recoveries are proposed, depending on whether the focus is laid on the relative relevance of the atoms or the relative entrenchment of the pieces of information (or both). Our framework encompasses several previous approaches as specific cases, including reasoning from preferred consistent subsets, and some forms of information merging. Interestingly, the gain in flexibility and generality offered by our framework does not imply a complexity shift compared to these specific cases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marquis P.,University of Artois
IJCAI International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2011
We study the existential closures of several propositional languages L considered recently as target languages for knowledge compilation (KC), namely the incomplete fragments KROM-C, HORN-C, K/H-C, renH-C, AFF, and the corresponding disjunction closures KROM-C[V], HORN-C[V], K/H-C[V], renH-C[V], and AFF[V]. We analyze the queries, transformations, expressiveness and succinctness of the resulting languages L[∃] in order to locate them in the KC map. As a by-product, we also address several issues concerning disjunction closures that were left open so far. From our investigation, the language HORN - C[V, ∃] (where disjunctions and existential quantifications can be applied to Horn CNF formulae) appears as an interesting target language for the KC purpose, challenging the influential DNNF languages.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CS | Phase: JTI-CS-2011-1-SAGE-02-008 | Award Amount: 292.51K | Year: 2012
The project objective is to evaluate the reliability of motor winding technologies able to work at high temperatures. To achieve this goal within the time define in the Clean Sky call sheet, it is necessary to rely on existing technologies, which offer opportunities for rapid implementations on conventional machines, while opening new opportunities towards higher temperatures with innovative technologies. Three sets of technologies will be studied: - The technologies based on enamelled wires associated to polymer impregnation varnishes. - Technologies based on wires wrapped with glass fibber associated to impregnations made with epoxy resins. - The insulation technologies based on ceramics, which offer potential prospects for very high temperatures. The three sets of technologies will be tested for increasing temperatures on representative test vehicles (twisted pairs, transformer coils and motorettes) involving measurement systems able to get the main parameters of the insulation system (DC and AC leakage currents, partial discharge inception voltage, breakdown voltage, ). The analysis of changes in recorded parameters during the test campaigns will estimate the maximum permissible temperature in the heart of the winding for each technology. These data, combined with constraints of implementation of each technology will define recommendations for the design of electrical machines able to operate at high temperatures for each selected technology. The part relating to the use of ceramic insulations opens the way to a major technological leap. With such materials, the maximum operating temperature of electrical machines will no longer be imposed by the winding insulation system but by other parts (magnetic or mechanical), consequently new design methods will have to be developed. It is therefore important to put this new approach against the best we might obtain from other technologies by proposing solutions applicable in the short term.