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Little Rock, AR, United States

The University of Arkansas for Medical science is part of the University of Arkansas System, a state-run university in the U.S. state of Arkansas. The main campus is located in Little Rock and consists of five colleges including one graduate school, seven institutes, a statewide network of community educational centers, and the UAMS Medical Center. Wikipedia.

The endocytic and exocytic/secretory pathways are two major intracellular membrane trafficking routes that regulate numerous cellular functions in a variety of cell types. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts, two major bone cells responsible for bone remodeling and homeostasis, are no exceptions. During the past few years, emerging evidence has pinpointed a critical role for endocytic and secretory pathways in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function. The endosomal membrane provides a platform to integrate bone tropic signals of hormones and growth factors in osteoblasts. In osteoclasts, endocytosis, followed by transcytosis, of degraded bone matrix promotes bone resorption. Secretory pathways, especially lysosome secretion, not only participate in bone matrix deposition by osteoblasts and degradation of mineralized bone matrix by osteoclasts; they may also be involved in the coupling of bone resorption and bone formation during bone remodeling. More importantly, mutations in genes encoding regulatory factors within the endocytic and secretory pathways have been identified as causes for bone diseases. Identification of the molecular mechanisms of these genes in bone cells may provide new therapeutic targets for skeletal disorders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Rossignol D.A.,International Child Development Resource Center | Frye R.E.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Recent studies have implicated physiological and metabolic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other psychiatric disorders, particularly immune dysregulation or inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures ('four major areas'). The aim of this study was to determine trends in the literature on these topics with respect to ASD. A comprehensive literature search from 1971 to 2010 was performed in these four major areas in ASD with three objectives. First, publications were divided by several criteria, including whether or not they implicated an association between the physiological abnormality and ASD. A large percentage of publications implicated an association between ASD and immune dysregulation/inflammation (416 out of 437 publications, 95%), oxidative stress (all 115), mitochondrial dysfunction (145 of 153, 95%) and toxicant exposures (170 of 190, 89%). Second, the strength of evidence for publications in each area was computed using a validated scale. The strongest evidence was for immune dysregulation/inflammation and oxidative stress, followed by toxicant exposures and mitochondrial dysfunction. In all areas, at least 45% of the publications were rated as providing strong evidence for an association between the physiological abnormalities and ASD. Third, the time trends in the four major areas were compared with trends in neuroimaging, neuropathology, theory of mind and genetics ('four comparison areas'). The number of publications per 5-year block in all eight areas was calculated in order to identify significant changes in trends. Prior to 1986, only 12 publications were identified in the four major areas and 51 in the four comparison areas (42 for genetics). For each 5-year period, the total number of publications in the eight combined areas increased progressively. Most publications (552 of 895, 62%) in the four major areas were published in the last 5 years (2006-2010). Evaluation of trends between the four major areas and the four comparison areas demonstrated that the largest relative growth was in immune dysregulation/inflammation, oxidative stress, toxicant exposures, genetics and neuroimaging. Research on mitochondrial dysfunction started growing in the last 5 years. Theory of mind and neuropathology research has declined in recent years. Although most publications implicated an association between the four major areas and ASD, publication bias may have led to an overestimation of this association. Further research into these physiological areas may provide insight into general or subset-specific processes that could contribute to the development of ASD and other psychiatric disorders. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Collins II R.T.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Circulation | Year: 2013

WS is a complex, multisystem disorder with significant cardiovascular manifestations. Arterial stenoses make up the large majority of cardiovascular issues in patients with WS. Although all patients with WS need early and ongoing cardiovascular evaluation and follow-up, most patients will not require cardiovascular interventions. In those patients who do undergo surgical and catheter-based interventions, the results are favorable, although long-segment STA remains very difficult to treat. Sudden death in patients with WS is significantly greater than in the general population, and expert periprocedural care of these patients is paramount. Prolongation of the QTc is common in patients with WS, and conservative management with medications should be considered. The potential for groundbreaking advancements in medical therapies is present in already available pharmaceutical agents; these potential therapies need to be investigated in meaningful ways. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Jilka R.L.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2013

Mice are increasingly used for investigation of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis because their genome is easily manipulated, and their skeleton is similar to that of humans. Unlike the human skeleton, however, the murine skeleton continues to grow slowly after puberty and lacks osteonal remodeling of cortical bone. Yet, like humans, mice exhibit loss of cancellous bone, thinning of cortical bone, and increased cortical porosity with advancing age. Histologic evidence in mice and humans alike indicates that inadequate osteoblast-mediated refilling of resorption cavities created during bone remodeling is responsible. Mouse models of progeria also show bone loss and skeletal defects associated with senescence of early osteoblast progenitors. Additionally, mouse models of atherosclerosis, which often occurs in osteoporotic participants, also suffer bone loss, suggesting that common diseases of aging share pathophysiological pathways. Knowledge of the causes of skeletal fragility in mice should therefore be applicable to humans if inherent limitations are recognized. © 2013 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013. Source

Dienel G.A.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Potential roles for lactate in the energetics of brain activation have changed radically during the past three decades, shifting from waste product to supplemental fuel and signaling molecule. Current models for lactate transport and metabolism involving cellular responses to excitatory neurotransmission are highly debated, owing, in part, to discordant results obtained in different experimental systems and conditions. Major conclusions drawn from tabular data summarizing results obtained in many laboratories are as follows: Glutamate-stimulated glycolysis is not an inherent property of all astrocyte cultures. Synaptosomes from the adult brain and many preparations of cultured neurons have high capacities to increase glucose transport, glycolysis, and glucose-supported respiration, and pathway rates are stimulated by glutamate and compounds that enhance metabolic demand. Lactate accumulation in activated tissue is a minor fraction of glucose metabolized and does not reflect pathway fluxes. Brain activation in subjects with low plasma lactate causes outward, brain-to-blood lactate gradients, and lactate is quickly released in substantial amounts. Lactate utilization by the adult brain increases during lactate infusions and strenuous exercise that markedly increase blood lactate levels. Lactate can be an opportunistic, glucose-sparing substrate when present in high amounts, but most evidence supports glucose as the major fuel for normal, activated brain. © 2012 ISCBFM All rights reserved. Source

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