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Pine Bluff, AR, United States

The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff is a historically black university located in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, United States. Founded in 1873, the second oldest public institution in the state of Arkansas. UAPB is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund. It is known popularly by its moniker the "Flagship of the Delta." Wikipedia.

This paper provides a case study to show how researchers can apply an innovative counterfactual approach for food safety policy evaluations, particularly in small samples. As an extension to prior studies, I utilize comprehensive variable selection algorithms and generate the optimal combination of counterfactuals. To illustrate the method, I measured public health impacts of a historical food safety intervention. Significant health benefit was found associated with implementation of large-scale milk safety regulation in Chicago. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Sink T.D.,University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society

Holding fish at elevated densities with limited water exchange can produce situations where ammonia concentrations are acutely elevated. Ammonia accumulation is considered a major density-limiting factor during transport and holding of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, but unionized ammonia (UIA) toxicity to golden shiners has not been studied in detail. Studies were undertaken to examine 48- and 72-h UIA toxicity to golden shiners in response to ammonia source, pH, calcium concentration, and salinity. Shiners were exposed to geometrically increasing increments of UIA under selective environmental conditions, and monitored for mortality within 48 and 72 h. Probit regression was used to calculate median and 1% lethal concentrations of UIA to golden shiners. No difference in toxicity of ammonium chloride salt or aqueous ammonia hydroxide to golden shiners was found. UIA toxicity to golden shiners was much greater than previously reported, and increased as pH increased (72-h LC50: 1.26 mg/L UIA at pH 7; 0.75 mg/L UIA at pH 8; 0.71 mg/L UIA at pH 9). An increase in environmental calcium (75 mg/L) decreased the toxicity of UIA to shiners by 21.7% at pH 8, whereas salinity had no effect on UIA toxicity. To limit golden shiner losses caused by UIA toxicity, calcium chloride should be added to water sources that contain <100 mg/L hardness, and vats and holding tanks should be flushed if UIA concentrations approach 0.13 (pH 7), 0.11 (pH 8), or 0.10 (pH 9) mg/L at 48 h or 0.12 (pH 7), 0.08 (pH 8), or 0.07 (pH 9) mg/L after 72 h. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010. Source

Adel M.M.,University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
American Journal of Environmental Sciences

Upstream India and downstream Bangladesh share more than 50 international rivers. India has set up water diversion constructions in more than 50% of these rivers, the largest one being on the Bangladesh's northwest upon the Ganges River, puts Bangladesh's Gangetic ecosystem at stake. In some border rivers, India has set up groins on her side of river banks. Also, Indian side pumps Bangladesh river water stealthily from border-rivers. Further, India is constructing another dam and reservoir upstream on the Barak River on the northeast of Bangladesh. Furthermore, India has chalked out a grand plan for river networking. Exploration has been made to assess the degree of the ecosystem degradation both inland and on the coast due to all water diversion constructions around the border, except for the Tipaimukh Dam in which case estimation of projected ecosystem degradation has been mentioned. Finally, Indian grand plan of river networking plan has been briefly touched upon. Site visitations, observations, surveys, measurements and interviews of professionals were made in the project country. Relevant literatures on this issue were reviewed in electronic and print databases. Related published articles in electronic and print media were systematically searched following the key words for the case. Finally, both electronic and print news media have been closely followed to know the latest developments on this issue. The reduced flow of the Ganges in Bangladesh has caused scarcity of fresh water, species endangerment and extinction, obstruction to livestock raising, loss of livelihoods, people's displacement, changes in crop production, reduction in navigable routes, extreme weather, increased flood occurrences, scarcity of potable water, groundwater contamination, reduction in coastal sediment deposition, deterioration of the Ganges water quality and inland intrusion of saline water front. Water diversion constructions in other rivers have caused similar type of ecological problems. The construction of groins on the Indian side of the border rivers has caused bank erosion on the Bangladesh side which changes her map. India benefits herself by occupying the resulting shoal formation within the Bangladesh side of the riverbeds. The Tipaimukh Dam on the Barak River will affect the virgin haor ecosystem the same way as the Ganges basin over a certain time scale. India's river networking plan is going to create a widespread ecocide in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. Water, if not the most, is one of the most important components in an ecosystem. Living being cannot survive without it. Ecocide occurs in its absence. Obstruction to the downstream natural flow of rivers by the upstream country unilateral actions is tantamount to violations of human rights which is a crime. With the dilapidated ecosystem, Bangladesh's national security is at stake. Bangladesh's internal immunity is not strong enough to face the threats of climate change events. Bangladesh government should take a tough stand for the country's interests. Since she has failed to save her interests on a bilateral basis with India, she should take immediate steps for fair share of the pirated river water under the UN supervision. Also, she should approach the UN for getting back the river shoals captured by India. Bangladesh should have a master plan of dredging rivers and canals for water storage and inland distribution to the depleted surface water bodies to reestablish the wetland ecosystem. This will help, to some extent, in the gradual mitigation of all the problems including groundwater arsenic contamination, fish scarcity, erratic climate. It is due for Bangladesh to charge the upstream country for the dredging cost of the rivers and canals since upstream country's water piracy has regionally silted her rivers and canals. Since the saving of the biodiversity is an international slogan of the time, Bangladesh should ask the UN to enforce strict international laws to stop any means of upstream water piracy including new constructions of dams, barrages, reservoirs, link canals upon international rivers to save the downstream biodiversity. Sanctions should be put in place for the violators of the law. Bangladesh's approach to international court may be an option, too. © 2012 Science Publication. Source

Adel M.M.,University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Environmental Justice

Arsenic contamination has affected the groundwater of the Ganges, Indus, and Mekong basins, afflicting millions of people with arsenicosis. In the Ganges basin, 20% of deaths are related to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Site visitations to and surveys of surface water resources at the affected sites have identified land use and land cover changes as anthropogenic factors that have contributed to this disaster in the river basins. It was also found that due to the construction of dams and barrages upstream of the affected sites, the downstream water supply has been affected by water piracy and has consequently been reduced drastically to about 60%, with surface water resources, such as distributaries, flood plains, ponds, etc., becoming dry. The source of the arsenic contamination is attributed to alluvium-mixed arsenopyrites that are inactive under water but, as the groundwater table sinks following the continued absence of recharging water, form water-soluble compounds of arsenic after contact with atmospheric oxygen. Every season, the contamination is exacerbated because of the scarcity of fresh recharging water with dissolved oxygen that would help to remove arsenic from the groundwater. This is enhanced further when groundwater is overextracted to meet water needs, which exposes more arsenopyrites to atmospheric oxygen. In addition, the movement of groundwater in different spatial and temporal scales spreads contamination to unaffected areas. To help solve this problem, naturally established virgin stream channels should be preserved, and the demolition of dams and barrages is required to restore depleted channels by redistributing water where it had previously been abundant. Finally, upstream water piracy should be minimized in order to preserve the downstream ecosystem. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROJECTS - CISE | Award Amount: 324.07K | Year: 2014

The notion of the cloud is really the integration of applications delivered as a service over existing cyberinfrastructure. A key component of most cloud ecosystems, a hypervisor, is a unique entity that manages virtual machines with cloud systems. This project develops protocols and algorithms to provide security services in the form of enhanced intrusion detection and prevent services (IDPS) capable of detecting multistage intrusion attacks within cloud resources. The project focuses on one particular type of cloud ecosystem, that of infrastructure as a service (IaaS), because of its unique dominance within the cloud community. Another unique contribution of this project is the development of an hypervisor-based intrusion detection and prevention architecture that can be implemented in most cloud ecosystems.

This project is a collaborative effort with an undergraduate majority-minority university leading the project efforts, the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (UAPB); North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (NCAT), HBCUs; Louisiana State University; and IBMs Center for Advanced Studies (CAS) as an industry partner. This effort will ensure the curriculum of undergraduate-oriented majority minority institution is greatly enhanced by developing models for the introduction of curriculum topics in cloud computing and cloud computing security, as well as enhancing faculty exposure at HBCUs to big data and cloud computing resources and research/educational opportunities.

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