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Heinzel P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Kleint L.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Astrophysical Journal Letters

We present a novel observation of the white light flare (WLF) continuum, which was significantly enhanced during the X1 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in its near-UV channel show that at the peak of the continuum enhancement, the contrast at the quasi-continuum window above 2813 A˚ reached 100%-200% and can be even larger closer to Mg II lines. This is fully consistent with the hydrogen recombination Balmer-continuum emission, which follows an impulsive thermal and non-thermal ionization caused by the precipitation of electron beams through the chromosphere. However, a less probable photospheric continuum enhancement cannot be excluded. The light curves of the Balmer continuum have an impulsive character with a gradual fading, similar to those detected recently in the optical region on the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. This observation represents a first Balmer-continuum detection from space far beyond the Balmer limit (3646 A˚), eliminating seeing effects known to complicate the WLF detection. Moreover, we use a spectral window so far unexplored for flare studies, which provides the potential to study the Balmer continuum, as well as many metallic lines appearing in emission during flares. Combined with future ground-based observations of the continuum near the Balmer limit, we will be able to disentangle various scenarios of the WLF origin. IRIS observations also provide a critical quantitative measure of the energy radiated in the Balmer continuum, which constrains various models of the energy transport and deposit during flares. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kuentz M.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies

In the last decade there has been a growing interest in lipid-based formulations to deliver challenging compounds such as lipophilic drugs. Following a brief clarification of the nomenclature, this review stresses the different mechanisms of how lipid-based excipients and formulations interact with the absorption process. Case studies are presented in which enhanced bioavailability was demonstrated in vivo using this pertinent formulation approach. It is emphasized that lipid-based delivery of challenging drugs requires a development in consecutive steps. Such a structured formulation development is crucial for optimal allocation of resources. Thus, lipid-based excipients are first evaluated in view of drug solubility, phase behavior, as well as with respect to known biological effects. Mixtures can be screened in simple dilution tests and are subsequently studied in more advanced biopharmaceutical tests. Once a lipid-based formulation principle is identified, different technologies are presented to encapsulate the fill mass either in soft or hard capsules. It is also possible to formulate lipid-based systems as a solid dosage form. Even though such solid lipid technologies seem very attractive, one has to assure that the final dosage form does not impair the biopharmaceutical potential of the lipid formulation principle. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Burtscher H.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland | Schuepp K.,University of Western Australia
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews

Interest in ultrafine particles (UFP) has been increasing due to their specific physico-chemical characteristics. Ultrafine particles are those with an aerodynamic diameter of. <. 0.1. μm and are also commonly know as nanoparticles (0.1. μm. =. 100. nm). Due to their small size UFP contribute mostly to particle number concentrations and are therefore underestimated in actual pollution measurements, which commonly measure mass concentration. Children represent the most vulnerable group in regard to particulate exposure due to their developing status and different exposures compared to adults. This review discusses the sources of ultrafine particles as well as the specific exposures of children highlighting the importance and uniqueness of this age group. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pimmer C.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Journal of medical Internet research

Despite the widespread use and advancements of mobile technology that facilitate rich communication modes, there is little evidence demonstrating the value of smartphones for effective interclinician communication and knowledge processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different synchronous smartphone-based modes of communication, such as (1) speech only, (2) speech and images, and (3) speech, images, and image annotation (guided noticing) on the recall and transfer of visually and verbally represented medical knowledge. The experiment was conducted from November 2011 to May 2012 at the University Hospital Basel (Switzerland) with 42 medical students in a master's program. All participants analyzed a standardized case (a patient with a subcapital fracture of the fifth metacarpal bone) based on a radiological image, photographs of the hand, and textual descriptions, and were asked to consult a remote surgical specialist via a smartphone. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions/groups. In group 1, the specialist provided verbal explanations (speech only). In group 2, the specialist provided verbal explanations and displayed the radiological image and the photographs to the participants (speech and images). In group 3, the specialist provided verbal explanations, displayed the radiological image and the photographs, and annotated the radiological image by drawing structures/angle elements (speech, images, and image annotation). To assess knowledge recall, participants were asked to write brief summaries of the case (verbally represented knowledge) after the consultation and to re-analyze the diagnostic images (visually represented knowledge). To assess knowledge transfer, participants analyzed a similar case without specialist support. Data analysis by ANOVA found that participants in groups 2 and 3 (images used) evaluated the support provided by the specialist as significantly more positive than group 1, the speech-only group (group 1: mean 4.08, SD 0.90; group 2: mean 4.73, SD 0.59; group 3: mean 4.93, SD 0.25; F2,39=6.76, P=.003; partial η(2)=0.26, 1-β=.90). However, significant positive effects on the recall and transfer of visually represented medical knowledge were only observed when the smartphone-based communication involved the combination of speech, images, and image annotation (group 3). There were no significant positive effects on the recall and transfer of visually represented knowledge between group 1 (speech only) and group 2 (speech and images). No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding verbally represented medical knowledge. The results show (1) the value of annotation functions for digital and mobile technology for interclinician communication and medical informatics, and (2) the use of guided noticing (the integration of speech, images, and image annotation) leads to significantly improved knowledge gains for visually represented knowledge. This is particularly valuable in situations involving complex visual subject matters, typical in clinical practice. Source

Hermann K.,University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Simulation and Gaming

Purpose. The purpose of this article is to show how the group-dynamic approach, as developed by the social psychologist Kurt Lewin in his field theory, deepens learning during the debriefing phase. Design/Methodology/Approach. This article offers insight into Lewin’s field theory and its main principles for social learning within groups by addressing the group dynamics of simulation and gaming. We discuss the potential gains of using emerging group dynamics, and present concrete methodological suggestions. Findings. Seen from a systemic-constructivist view, group conflicts often mirror those in organizational, contextual, or social settings. These conflicts and contradictions can be made visible through emotions. Connecting emotions and simulation dynamics makes the insights for participants more relevant and easily transferable to real life situations. Limitations/Implications. Lewin’s ideas have spread widely, and many researchers have worked to develop them further. Lewin’s thoughts seem to be integral to Simulation & Gaming, although links to his work are not often cited or mentioned explicitly. Despite his theory’s apparent impact on much of gaming and simulation, many gamers still fail to integrate principles of group dynamics in game and debriefing design. Originality/Value. Group dynamics during simulations are often close to real life experiences and can be very demanding. Facilitators may link group dynamics to the content of the simulation, thereby deepening social learning and the understanding of complex systems. © 2015, © 2015 SAGE Publications. Source

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