Schultes K.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel
Public Health Forum | Year: 2017
Until now, few findings about health literacy of German students exist. Therefore, health literacy was investigated in connection with self-assessed health status and health-related behaviors among students in Fulda. The results show an association between health literacy and self-assessed health status. Health literacy and health behaviors are only associated with single variables. © 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.
The financial crisis and health care systems in Europe: Universal care under threat? Trends in health sector reforms in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Spain [Crise financeira europeia e sistemas de saúde: Universalidade ameaçada? Tendências das reformas de saúde na Alemanha, Reino Unido e Espanha] [Crisis financiera y sistemas de salud europeos: ¿universalidad amenazada? Tendencias de las reformas de salud en Alemania, Reino Unido y España]
Giovanella L.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca |
Stegmuller K.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2014
The paper analyzes trends in contemporary health sector reforms in three European countries with Bismarckian and Beveridgean models of national health systems within the context of strong financial pressure resulting from the economic crisis (2008-date), and proceeds to discuss the implications for universal care. The authors examine recent health system reforms in Spain, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Health systems are described using a matrix to compare state intervention in financing, regulation, organization, and services delivery. The reforms’ impacts on universal care are examined in three dimensions: breadth of population coverage, depth of the services package, and height of coverage by public financing. Models of health protection, institutionality, stakeholder constellations, and differing positions in the European economy are factors that condition the repercussions of restrictive policies that have undermined universality to different degrees in the three dimensions specified above and have extended policies for regulated competition as well as commercialization in health care systems.
Meyer E.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel
Forum Logopadie | Year: 2017
The iPad® app DiaTrain is available in app store (iOS) since January 2017. The app has been developed as an adjunct for regular aphasia therapy and is suitable for people with language and communication disorders, as it may occur following stroke. DiaTrain contains structured video clips of every day verbal scripts which can be trained using different cues. Verbal scripts are defined as "screenplays" for stereotypes and often-repeated situations. The aim of the training is to increase the number of verbal utterances and, thus, to improve verbal communication skills. The following article provides an overview of the development and scientific evaluation of the video based script training DiaTrain. Layout and use of the evidence-based app are described in detail. Furthermore an example how to combine DiaTrain with regular aphasia therapy is given. KEY WORDS: Aphasia - teletherapy - app - script training.
Hahn D.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel
Public Health Forum | Year: 2017
Nowadays there is a dangerous tendency to individualize responsibility for health in old age. This means in fact to make the disadvantaged responsible for their own health problems. From public health ethics, a society's responsibility can be derived to enable people to live a good life and create conditions for health. Martha Nussbaum's approach to justice is helpful. It defines capabilities for which society should help people to enable all their members to live a dignified live in old age.
Ehlert H.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel
Forum Logopadie | Year: 2014
Assessment is a crucial part in speech and language therapy. All clinical decisions made are based on this central area of work. Speech and language therapists use assessment information for different purposes including detailed description of the impairment, predicting and evaluating therapy outcome. A variety of formal and informal instruments and tests are available to serve these purposes. In the paper advantages and disadvantages of different assessment approaches are discussed and strength are highlighted with regard to the assessment process.© Schulz-Kirchner Verlag.
Wiedebusch S.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel |
Petermann F.,University of Bremen
Kindheit und Entwicklung | Year: 2011
Early promotion of social-emotional skills as a preventive intervention in order to support this key development area shows short- and long-term effects on positive social behavior, learning motivation, and academic success, as well as physical and mental health of children. In this paper, structured programs for different target and age groups, i. e., caregivers of toddlers, preschoolers, and elementary school children are presented. Opportunities and limits of early promotion are highlighted. Thus, children at risk particularly benefit from an early promotion of social-emotional competence. Finally, recommendations for the use of developmental screenings and programs in (early) educational institutions are pronounced on the basis of evaluation results. A three-tiered model, which allows an individual and need-based support planning, is introduced. © Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen 2011.
Vossel S.,Jülich Research Center |
Weiss P.H.,Jülich Research Center |
Weiss P.H.,University of Cologne |
Eschenbeck P.,Jülich Research Center |
And 3 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2013
Introduction: Right-hemispheric stroke can give rise to manifold neuropsychological deficits, in particular, impairments of spatial perception which are often accompanied by reduced self-awareness of these deficits (anosognosia). To date, the specific contribution of these deficits to a patient's difficulties in daily life activities remains to be elucidated. Methods: In 55 patients with right-hemispheric stroke we investigated the predictive value of different neglect-related symptoms, visual extinction and anosognosia for the performance of standardized activities of daily living (ADL). The additional impact of lesion location was examined using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Results: Step-wise linear regression revealed that anosognosia for visuospatial deficits was the most important predictor for performance in standardized ADL. In addition, motor-intentional and perceptual-attentional neglect, extinction and cancellation task performance significantly predicted ADL performance. Lesions comprising the right frontal and cingulate cortex and adjacent white matter explained additional variance in the performance of standardized ADL, in that damage to these areas was related to lower performance than predicted by the regression model only. Conclusion: Our data show a decisive role of anosognosia for visuospatial deficits for impaired ADL and therefore outcome/disability after stroke. The findings further demonstrate that the severity of neglect and extinction also predicts ADL performance. Our results thus strongly suggest that right-hemispheric stroke patients should not only be routinely assessed for neglect and extinction but also for anosognosia to initiate appropriate rehabilitative treatment. The observation that right frontal lesions explain additional variance in ADL most likely reflects that dysfunction of the supervisory system also significantly impacts upon rehabilitation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Posenau A.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel |
Peters T.,Ruhr University Bochum
GMS Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Ausbildung | Year: 2016
Aim: Interprofessional education (IPE) istakingon increasing importance in our complex healthcare system and receiving ever greater attention in the teaching of health science. The majority of concepts and methods employed in this area are based on normative ideas about interprofessional cooperation and only seldom based on empirical research. This paper is an initial attempt to augment this deductive approach with an inductive perspective for the purpose of subsequently providing empirical support for IPE teaching methods. Method: Drawingon the qualitative approach to linguistic conversation analysis, language-based professional markers are identified on the basis of recorded classroom simulations with nursing and midwifery students; it is assumed that these markers are significant in relevant interprofessional communication processes and, as a result, influence actual collaboration between the health professions. These markers are classified and commented on, and their importance to teaching and practical implementation in interprofessional interaction is emphasized. Results: Students routinely use various professional markers in simulations. However, these occur much less frequently than initially expected, except when marking difference in relation to physicians. At the same time, all the interactions are shaped by pronounced self-presentation among the students, and this comprises a large aspect of the interactions observed here. Profession-specific communication and differentiation processes also appear to be slow in estab ishing themselves in terms of students delegatingtasks or voicing expectations. In addition, the role of “student” has a function that should not be underestimated in these interactions. Conclusion: Professional markers are an essential component of interprofessional communication and are based on numerous, observable linguistic phenomena, of which only a few are presented here. This empirical approach has not yet appeared in the discourse surrounding IPE; however, it is, in the authors’opinion, not only necessary to compare interprofessional interactions with lived reality, but also to be in a position to operationalize interprofessional practice and ultimately assign it to competency areas. For this reason, further empirical observations and analyses are needed to tighten the still unclear definition of interprofessional communication and to develop empirically founded, measurable criteria for teachingand testing. © 2016 Posenau et al.
Blattner B.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel
Public Health Forum | Year: 2012
Since its foundation, one aim of the teaching commission of the German association of public health is to ensure that all study programmes in Public Health offered in Germany are of comparable level and meet international standards. The criteria for comparison have changed in course of the Bologna process: Instead of the course content, the competencies that graduates have acquired when they enter the labour market are now relevant.
Bilda K.,University of Applied Health Sciences at Bochum-Hordel
Aphasiology | Year: 2011
Background: Chronic aphasia is a lifelong handicap that often leads to social isolation, loss of autonomy, and restricted social activities. Hence it is essential to develop cost-effective therapeutic approaches that enable people with aphasia to practise language skills in reallife contexts. Over the last several years there has been a shift from impairment-oriented language therapy to functional approaches that train language skills in more realistic contexts. Studies performed in the cognitive neurosciences have produced evidence that massed practice and forced use are essential for achieving sustained learning success in patients with aphasia. Conversational script training is based on the theory that massed practice of a whole task is likely to result in automatic and effortless language output that may facilitate participation in everyday life activities. To enhance automatisation of script use cue-based massed drilling is required. Computers are an ideal and cost-effective medium for the implementation of this massed practice and drill. Several studies have documented the positive effects of computer treatment for people grappling with the effects of long-lasting aphasia. Aims: The study involved the development of a video-based script training programme. The objective was to show the positive effects and usefulness of the programme. Methods & Procedures: The study is a case series consisting of a pre-test, 10 days of computer-based therapy with 3 hours of daily training, and two follow-up evaluations at 4 weeks and 6 months respectively. The material included 50 conversational scripts that were presented in video scenes filmed at original locations. The baseline and posttreatment scripts were audio taped, transcribed, and compared with the target scripts on the point scale of the subtest "classification of sentences" of the Aachener Aphasia Test (AAT). Additionally, language skills were tested with the AAT and various questionnaires were filled out together with the participants and their partners to evaluate the effects of the training in the patients' everyday lives. Five participants with chronic aphasia took part in the study. All were German speakers aged 45 and upwards. They exhibited a variety of types and degrees of severity of aphasia. Word-finding difficulties accounted for a significant part of their aphasia. Outcomes & Results: The quality and quantity of production of script-related words improved in every patient. Three positive themes were identified from the questionnaires and interviews: increased verbal communication skills, improvement in communication skills evident in various everyday situations, and increased confidence. Conclusions: Video-based script training was found to be an effective treatment for chronic aphasia. © 2010 Psychology Press.