Antsiranana, Madagascar

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Macron C.,University of Burgundy | Richard Y.,University of Burgundy | Garot T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bessafi M.,University of Reunion Island | And 3 more authors.
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2016

Using daily rain gauge records for Madagascar and nearby islands, this paper investigates rainfall intraseasonal variability at local and regional scales during the austral summer season (November-February), as well as the respective influences of recurrent convective regimes over the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) and the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). The results show a general consistency between local-scale rainfall variability in Madagascar and regional-scale features of climate variability. The influence of tropical temperate troughs in their mature phase and/or their easternmost locations is first underlined. The development of such systems over southern Africa and the Mozambique Channel can be considered as precursors for Malagasy wet spells, especially over the southern part of the island. Regional and local effects of the MJO are weaker on average, and only concern the northwest of the island and the north of the Mozambique Channel. MJO and convective regimes are finally shown to explain distinct fractions of regional rainfall variability. © 2016 American Meteorological Society.

Reuter K.E.,Temple University | Randell H.,Temple University | Wills A.R.,Mpingo Conservation and Development Initiative | Janvier T.E.,University of Antsiranana | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (<10 km) in rural areas; (3) most wild meat was procured from free sources (hunting, gifts), though urban respondents who consumed bats and wild pigs were more likely to purchase those meats; and (4) wild meat was consumed at lower rates than domestic meat, though urban respondents consumed wild meat twice as much per year compared to rural respondents. Apart from the hunting stage, the consumption and trade of wild meat in Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought. © 2016 Reuter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Fenoradosoa T.A.,University Blaise Pascal | Fenoradosoa T.A.,University of Antsiranana | Ali G.,University Blaise Pascal | Delattre C.,University Blaise Pascal | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2010

Matrix polysaccharide from the brown algae Sargassum turbinarioides collected in the coastal waters of Nosy Be (Madagascar) in the Indian Ocean was isolated and its structure was studied by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, SEC-MALLS and HPAEC. An alginate with a molecular weight of 5.528 × 105 g mol-1 was identified as sole polysaccharide. Values of the M/G ratio, FGG, FMM and FGM (or FGM) blocks were measured at respectively 0.94, 0.39, 0.36 and 0.25 and compared with those of alginates from other Sargassum species. This sodium alginate appeared similar to some of the other Sargassum alginates with M/G > 1, high values of homopolymeric blocks (η > 1) and significant polyguluronic block content. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jaomiary A.,University of Antsiranana | Mze S.,University of Antsiranana | Saandy T.A.,University of Antsiranana
IEEE AFRICON Conference | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a mathematical predictive model of power energy consumption per household in the district of Antsiranana. Based on the national statistical institute INSTAT, the power consumption depends on the demographic population category. Based on the general daily life equipment per household, the ordinary, medium and rich categories are defined in this investigation. Indeed, the trend from the last two decades yearly survey illustrates how the energy consumption in the district of Antsiranana varies. Based on the time dependent fitting approach, the mathematical model of the energy needs as established. The reliability of the proposed model was assessed with the correlation coefficient R2. Based on the data from the last decade, the relevance of the model was investigated. Then, prediction of the energy needs up to 2023 was proposed with 5% relative inaccuracy. Thanks to its simplicity, the method can be useful for the sustainable development. However, further improvement is still needed in order to forecast the energy consumption for tens future decades. © 2015 IEEE.

Rakotomanana L.,University of Rennes 1 | Rajaonah R.,University of Antsiranana
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 | Year: 2011

The goal of this paper is to undertake a modal analysis of thermoelastic plates. We focus on the interaction of both in-plane displacement, out-of-plane displacement, and temperature distribution. Coupling terms between in-plane and out-of-plane displacements are analytically pointed out. We calculate the linear thermoelastic vibration modes, governed by a coupled parabolic-hyperbolic equations. The spectrum includes propagating and evanescent elastic and thermal modes. Examples of rectangular plates are treated. Analytical solutions are also developed based on the semigroup formulation, together with the modal decomposition (on the Laplacian eigenmodes).

David Razafimahefa T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | David Razafimahefa T.,University of Antsiranana | Heraud N.,Institute Superieur Of Technology | Sambatra E.J.R.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Proceedings of the 18th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference: Intelligent and Efficient Technologies and Services for the Citizen, MELECON 2016 | Year: 2016

Most cases of electrical machines are connected directly to the low voltage power system without inverter, which can be subjected to a harmonic pollution at any time. The presence of these harmonics can compromise the reliability of the fault detection. In this paper, we present the winding fault diagnosis of induction machine connected to a harmonically polluted low voltage power system. The detection method is based on the Hilbert transform. This proposed approach allows the suppression of the harmonics from the network while keeping all possible clues to the presence of winding fault in the induction machine. The proposed approach is tested experimentally to an induction machine subjected to a 2.5% of inter-turns short circuit fault. © 2016 IEEE.

Menard F.,IRD Montpellier | Benivary H.D.,University of Antsiranana | Bodin N.,IRD Montpellier | Coffineau N.,IRD Montpellier | And 4 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2014

We measured the stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition of tissues of micronektonic organisms (fishes, squids, crustaceans and gelatinous organisms) collected in the Mozambique Channel during two scientific cruises in 2008 and 2009. The oceanic circulation in the Mozambique Channel is dominated by mesoscale cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies which play a key role in biological processes of less-productive deep-sea ecosystems. We investigated the potential impact of mesoscale features on the δ13C and δ15N values of 32 taxa of micronekton. Fishes, squids, crustaceans and gelatinous organisms encompassed a wide range of isotopic niches, with large overlaps among species. Our results showed that mesoscale features did not really influence the isotopic signatures of the sampled organisms, although cyclonic eddies can occasionally impact the nitrogen signatures of micronekton. We show that δ13C values were intermediate between standard offshore and nearshore signatures, suggesting that pelagic production in the Mozambique Channel could be partly supported by the transport and export of inorganic and organic particles from the Mozambican coast toward the offshore area. Trophic levels calculated from δ15N values ranged from 2.6 to 4.2, showing that micronekton taxa can be tertiary consumers in the Mozambique Channel. Our findings evidenced clusters of micronektonic organisms according to their δ15N or δ13C isotopic signatures, but variations in stable isotope values reflect a complex set of embedded processes linked to physical mesoscale dynamics (rotational dynamics of eddies) and basic biology and ecology of micronektonic organisms (vertical habitat, migration pattern, dietary habits, body length) that are discussed with regard to the stable isotope method based on time-integrated assimilated food. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Razafinjaka J.N.,University of Antsiranana | Andrianantenaina T.P.,University of Antsiranana
IJCCI 2015 - Proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence | Year: 2015

This paper deals with a study of hybridization based on fuzzy logic controller and a polynomial RST one. This new controller is applied on a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) dedicated in a chain of wind power conversion. These two types or controller have completely different structures: the RST controller uses directly the input and the output to form the command law and the fuzzy logic one needs the error and its variation as inputs. The new proposal consists first to make leave the a priori command from the RST structure and then to form the error and the difference of two consecutive error values for the fuzzy logic controller. The results of simulation show that this technique is realizable and leads to good performances on tracking test, disturbance rejection and robustneb with respect of operating variation and parametric variation. © Copyright 2015 by SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, Lda.

PubMed | University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, e State Veterinary Laboratory for Animal Health and Safety, University of Antananarivo and University of Antsiranana
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Natural product research | Year: 2015

The purpose of this work was to evaluate chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Artabotrys hildebrandtii, an endemic medicinal plant from Madagascar. Ethanol extracts from the leaves and stem bark were tested to evaluate DPPH free radical scavenging, using butylated hydroxytoluene and quercetin as standard antioxidants. An high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed to investigate the presence of phenolic compounds in the studied samples; gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetol, apigenin and luteolin were identified. Total polyphenolic content was determined by a spectrophotometric method using Folin-Cioclteu reagent. Results showed the efficiency of A. hildebrandtii leaves extract against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, as the inhibitory activity is more powerful compared to Gentamicin, used as the standard drug. The leaves of A. hildebrandtii can be considered an important source of polyphenols, especially of rutin, with good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

PubMed | University of Toamasina, University of Antananarivo and University of Antsiranana
Type: | Journal: The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2016

Transcranial Doppler is an effective diagnostic tool to detect sickle cell children at risk for stroke.We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of Malagasy children aged between 24 months and 15 years (group 1: 57 sickle cell diseases, group 2: 43 controls) to assess the cerebral artery velocimetry in the patient population. Transcranial doppler ultrasound with analysis of cerebral blood flow was performed in children of both groups.In subjects with sickle cell disease, the mean velocity (MV) in the middle cerebral artery was 100.9 26.8 cm/s, pulsatility index (PI) was 0.73 0.20, the difference between the right and left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was 19.8 21.5 cm/s, anterior cerebral artery/middle cerebral artery flow velocity ratio (ACA / MCA) was 0.7 0.2. In children without sickle cell disease, MV: 80.6 19.3 cm/s, IP: 0.79 0.14, ACMr: 17 20.1 cm/s, ACA/ACM: 0,8 0,2. The velocity in children with sickle cell disease was higher than in the control group. Velocities were correlated with hemoglobin and age but not with sex and mean corpuscular volume.Cerebral Circulation Speeds are higher in children with sickle cell disease and are influenced by hemoglobin levels and age.

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