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Antofagasta, Chile

The University of Antofagasta is a public research university located in Antofagasta, Chile. It is a derivative university part of the Chilean Traditional Universities. Wikipedia.

This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking. Source

Classic IRES sequences are notorious for exerting biased expression in favor of upstream coding regions when placed into polycistronic vectors. Here, we report the development of a bicistronic lentiviral system based on the 1D/2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus that is able to maintain tightly balanced control of upstream and downstream protein expression for several days at a stoichiometry very closely approaching 1.0. Our results suggest that the 1D/2A sequence can be optimized in an FUGW lentiviral setting to coordinate expression of multiple polypeptides, presenting a potentially valuable tool to signaling network researchers and to the gene therapy community. Source

Davila A.F.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Zamorano P.,University of Antofagasta
Physical Biology | Year: 2013

Cancer disease is inherent to, and widespread among, metazoans. Yet, some of the hallmarks of cancer such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, lack of apoptosis, hypoxia, fermentative metabolism and free cell motility (metastasis) are akin to a prokaryotic lifestyle, suggesting a link between cancer disease and evolution. In this hypothesis paper, we propose that cancer cells represent a phenotypic reversion to the earliest stage of eukaryotic evolution. This reversion is triggered by the dysregulation of the mitochondria due to cumulative oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. As a result, the phenotype of normal, differentiated cells gradually reverts to the phenotype of a facultative anaerobic, heterotrophic cell optimized for survival and proliferation in hypoxic environments. This phenotype matches the phenotype of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that resulted from the endosymbiosis between an α-proteobacteria (which later became the mitochondria) and an archaebacteria. As such, the evolution of cancer within one individual can be viewed as a recapitulation of the evolution of the eukaryotic cell from fully differentiated cells to LECA. This evolutionary model of cancer is compatible with the current understanding of the disease, and explains the evolutionary basis for most of the hallmarks of cancer, as well as the link between the disease and aging. It could also open new avenues for treatment directed at reestablishing the synergy between the mitochondria and the cancerous cell. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Ortiz M.,University of Antofagasta | Levins R.,Huntington University
Oikos | Year: 2011

We constructed eco-social models with different levels of complexity in order to represent the activities that fishermen operating under two different regimes, Chilean Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries (TURFs) and Open Access Areas (OAAs). We used Levins's loop analysis as a theoretical framework for assessing the local stability or sustainability of the models and management strategies represented by the scenarios. Our results suggest that the current harvest dynamics (scenario 1 of all models) cannot be locally stable or sustainable unless they meet the following conditions: (1) the abundance of Concholepas concholepas adults fluctuates close to its carrying capacity (K); and (2) the demand (market) presents some type of control (i.e. taxes). Likewise, simultaneous re-stocking of C. concholepas adults and juveniles in TURFs seems to be sustainable only if the demand is controlled, thus, under current conditions it is not recommended as a management strategy. Alternatively, the simultaneously exploiting C. concholepas and re-stocking juveniles can lead to stability, but again if the demand is controlled. The sustainability of illegal fishing of C. concholepas from OAAs (for re-stocking into TURFs and for the local market) is not reached independent of the self-dynamics of demand and the abundance of wild meta-populations. Moreover, habitat destruction caused during the search for C. concholepas individuals in OAAs causes instability in the system and, therefore, educational efforts should be aimed at the fishermen as a way to avoid these practices. Given the results obtained, we find it difficult to consider TURFs - as a whole - to be a conservationist administrative measure. On the contrary, we believe that, as currently practiced, TURFs better resemble a simple program of C. concholepas mariculture, in which case they are comparable to traditional intensive agriculture, which is itself far from conservationist. The approach developed here is proposed as a general strategy for examining the consequences of natural changes and human interventions in marine coastal ecosystems. © 2011 Nordic Society Oikos. Source

1. Dynamic and spatial models of the kelp forest off northern Chile (SE Pacific coast) were constructed using the Ecosim and Ecospace theoretical frameworks based on a previously mass-balanced trophic model using Ecopath II software. 2. The biomass of Macrocystis integrifolia and Lessonia trabeculata blades constituted the most relevant compartments or variables of the ecosystem studied. 3. The relative ascendency (A/C) of 35.5% suggests that this ecosystem is immature, but resistant to disturbances (e.g. fisheries). 4. The results obtained using mixed trophic impacts (MTI) show that both brown macroalgae produced relatively similar quantitative and qualitative effects, however, the predictions based on Ecosim clearly show that L. trabeculata experienced the most relevant direct and indirect effects. 5. The highest values of system recovery time obtained by Pinguipes chilensis and the other seastar group suggest that both compartments could be considered to be top predator species with strong top-down control. 6. The exploitation of kelp blades as a new harvest strategy appears to be ecologically sustainable. 7. The Ecospace trophic-spatially explicit model shows that exploitation exerted separately by habitat generates a similar pattern of direct and indirect effects. These results suggest that a habitat rotation of fisheries would not be justified. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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