Ar Ramadi, Iraq
Ar Ramadi, Iraq

The University of Anbar is an Iraqi university located in Ramadi, Anbar, Iraq. It was founded in 1987 with a college of education and a college of girls education, and then expanded until it reached university status in 2011 with 19 colleges. The university experienced a hostage crisis in 2014 when gunmen linked to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant briefly took students hostage at the Ramadi campus. Wikipedia.

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Patel S.,San Diego State University | Rauf A.,University of Anbar
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2017

Ginseng, an herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Araliaceae is a traditional medicinal herb. Also, it is emerging as a functional food and potent adjunct medicine. Saponin ginsenosides (protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol) are the signature phytochemicals of this plant. With the surfacing of scientific validations, ginseng is gaining unprecedented attention from consumers as well as researchers. As a number of drug-herb interaction-caused health issues have emerged, the medicinal relevance of this plant has been critically assessed here. In this regard, the recent publications on health benefits of ginseng have been extracted from NCBI and ScienceDirect database. The claimed antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue, antidiabetic, antitumor, immunomodulation, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, neuroprotective and aphrodisiac properties have been analyzed. This review presents a fair assessment and insights on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) potential of this herb. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS

Concrete structures, sometimes, need to be evaluated in terms of concrete quality which commonly assessed by employing nondestructive tests (NDTs). However, concrete compressive strength is wanted when the evaluation should be structurally carried out. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) test is the common NDT that used in evaluating concrete quality and determining concrete compressive strength. This test is recommended to be carried out in direct arrangement, but this is not always can be conducted. There are many models in the literature established based on direct UPV alone or in a combination with Rebound Number (RN) obtained from Schmidt hammer test. In this study, single and double-variable regression models (UPV and RN) were used in predicting concrete compressive strength. The suggested models were experimentally evaluated in both laboratory and full scales. It was found that the Indirect Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (IUPV) test can be used in a combination with RN test to provide a double-variable linear regression model (ISonReb). This model was built using analysis of variance (ANOVA) which was found to provide more accurate results than single ones regardless the UPV test arrangements (DUPV or IUPV). © 2017

Barakat N.A.M.,Chonbuk National University | Barakat N.A.M.,Minia University | Motlak M.,University of Anbar
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2014

In this study, CoxNiy-decorated graphene is introduced as novel, super effective and stable non-precious electro-catalyst for methanol oxidation. The obtained results have indicated that utilizing graphene as a support strongly enhances the electro-catalytic activity as the current density was doubled ten times, moreover a negative onset potential (-40mV vs. Ag/AgCl) was obtained which is a distinct progress in the non-precious electro-catalysts research field. The electronic structure which is controlled by the alloy composition showed strong influence on the electro-catalytic activity; Co0.2Ni0.2 alloy nanoparticles revealed the best performance while Co0.1Ni0.3 nanoparticles were the worst. Due to the alloy structure, the introduced graphene-supported electro-catalyst reveals distinguished stability. In-situ decoration of graphene by CoxNiy alloy nanoparticle is utilized to produce the introduced electro-catalyst. Briefly, cobalt acetate and nickel acetate were added to the reaction media during graphene preparation using a modified chemical route. Later on, the resultant material was calcined in argon atmosphere at 850°C. The utilized physicochemical characteristics affirmed formation of multi-layer graphene sheets decorated by solid solution CoxNiy alloy nanoparticle. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ahmed H.E.,University of Anbar
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

Enhancing the thermal design of plate-fin heat sink (PFHS) leads to minimize their size and weight, and then improve the heat removal in consequently increase the speed of electronic devices. In this numerical study, an innovative thermal design of PFHS is suggested by inserting ribs in between channels in different sizes, positions, numbers and orientations in order to get an optimal thermal design of this kind of heat sinks. The two main objectives of this study are; investigating the effect of ribs on PFHS while the number of fins is kept constant, second is inserting ribs with reducing the number of fins simultaneously. Two types of reductions are investigated here, first is substrate material reduction by reducing the number of fins and adding ribs simultaneously, second is pumping power reduction by keeping the number of fins and inserting ribs with reducing the pumping of air flow to get the same thermal performance of the original heat sink (without ribs). The concrete findings show that ribbed plate-fin heat sink (RPFHS) provides thermal performance of 1.55 times greater than PFHS under corresponding conditions. But this enhancement reduces when the number of ribs increases. For the same thermal performance, the pumping power of RPFHS is reduced to 69.65% compared to PFHS case. In addition, RPFHS having five channels with 15 ribs shows hydrothermal performance of 1.37 times better than PFHS having nine channels, with reduction in the substrate material of 27.24%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ahmed H.E.,University of Anbar | Mohammed H.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Yusoff M.Z.,University of Tenaga Nasional
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

The subject of heat transfer enhancement has significant interest to develop the compact heat exchangers in order to obtain a high efficiency, low cost, light weight, and size as small as possible. Therefore, energy cost and environmental considerations are going on to encourage attempts to invent better performance over the existence designs. Streamwise vortices can be generated using small flow manipulators or protrusions such as wings and winglets configurations. Single-pair, single row, or two dimensional array of vortex generators (VGs) can be punched, mounted, attached or embedded in the boundary layer of flow channel. VGs generate longitudinal and transverse vortices, while longitudinal vortices are more efficient for heat transfer enhancement than transverse vortices. A dramatic augmentation in thermal performance of the thermal system can be achieved but pressure drop penalty is existed. Several parameters have been overviewed in this paper, which have pronounced effect on the convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop penalty. These parameters are: attack angle of VG, geometry of VG, standard and novel types of VG, spacing between the VG tips, number of pairs of VGs in the flow direction, rectangular or circular array arrangement of VGs, common-flow upper (CFU) or common-flow down (CFD) configuration of VG, pointing up (PU) or pointing down (PD) arrangement of VG with flow direction, Re number, channel aspect ratio, number of tubes of fin-tube heat exchanges (HE), circular or oval tubes of fin-tube HE, and location of VG respect to the tube of HE or from leading edge of the channel. This paper gives an overview about the early studies done in order to improve the performance of thermal systems with minimal pressure losses to derive systems with less negative impact on the environment and high level of energy economic. This study also provides an outlook for future work using nanofluids with vortex generators. This article is also summarizes the recent experimental and numerical developments on the thermal conductivity measurements of nanofluids, thermal conductivity enhancement, convection and conduction heat transfer, some applications, main problems and suggestions for future works. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Improving thermal performance of external load-bearing walls in residential buildings could be the most effective way in reducing energy consumption for air-conditioning purpose in housing sector. The aim of this study is to characterize the already existing external load-bearing walls in the residential buildings, in Iraq, in terms of the thermo-physical properties of the used materials. In addition to that, the assemblies of these materials, i.e. wall configurations have been evaluated regarding the steady-state thermal performance and dynamic thermal admittance parameters. Different scenarios were suggested in order to improve the thermal performance of the existing walls. The effect of the binding material (cement mortar) on the global thermal performance of the wall fabrics has also been investigated by utilizing image analysis to calculate the percentage of this material from whole wall. The results showed that binding material has no significant effect on the thermal performance for the studied walls. Gypsum coating layer can be removed as it has marginal effect on the evaluated properties. It was found that involving two air-cavities (internally and externally) has much effect on the walls thermal performance than other approaches. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ahmed T.M.,University of Anbar
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2016

This study investigates the fatigue performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) tested using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) under controlled stress test mode. Cylindrical DSR samples of 12 mm in diameter and 50 mm in height were prepared from a full HMA using coring technique to be used in fatigue test. Regarding fatigue evaluation, a fatigue index (FIR) has been developed based on the relationship of stress–pseudo strain hysteresis loop to be used in evaluating fatigue performance. The average values of FIR, in the relationship of FIR against normalised shear modulus, were calculated in the range of normalised shear modulus (0.85–0.20) to be used in evaluating the fatigue performance of tested samples. The FIR outcomes were in agreement in respect to the ranking order with the results from well-known approaches that have also been used for evaluating the fatigue performance, such as the energy ratio and the traditional approaches. In this study, limestone and granite aggregates were used with two binder grades: 40/60 and 160/220 to prepare four mixtures with two different gradations: gap-graded hot rolled asphalt and continuously graded dense bitumen macadam. The study demonstrated that the DSR instrument could be used to perform fatigue testing of full HMA. Also, limestone mixes showed better fatigue performance than granite. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

The study of groundwater impact on the hydrochemical characteristic of groundwater within Mullusi aquifer, west Iraq was conducted using the chemical analysis results in 14 production wells and groundwater levels observation in 17 water wells. The interpretation of hydrochemical phenomena related to ions sources was determined based on spatial analysis maps of various hydrochemical ratios using ArcGis software. The study also determined the relation of groundwater velocity and static water levels with the hydrochemical ratios using statistical application of Curve expert v1.3 program. The variations of ion concentration were examined using the statistical significant differences for chemical constituents of water within Mullusi aquifer. The impact of dewatering due to high exploitation was explained by increasing the magnesium and chloride concentrations and lowering static water levels. Magnesium and chloride concentration may reach their maximum limits for drinking at a groundwater level of 485 m asl. Accordingly, any decline in the water level of Mullusi aquifer that occurs from 4.5 to 30.5 m may cause deterioration in groundwater quality. This study modeled the effect of groundwater depletion on the groundwater quality in a theoretical equations approach. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Najim K.B.,University of Anbar | Hall M.R.,University of Nottingham
Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions | Year: 2013

The interfacial-bonding, interfacial transition zone (ITZ), and porosity are regarded as the key factors affecting hardened concrete properties. The aim of this study was to experimentally improve the bonding between the rubber aggregate and cement paste by different methodologies including water washing, Na(OH) pre-treatment, and both cement paste and mortar pre-coating. All methods were assessed by determining mechanical and dynamic properties, then correlating this with ITZ porosity and interfacial gap void geometry, along with quantification of the fracture energy during micro crack propagation using fractal analysis. The results indicated that pre-coating the rubber by mortar gave the best results in terms of fracture toughness and energy absorption showing good agreement between observations made at both micro and macro scales. © 2013 RILEM.

Aldelaimi T.N.,University of Anbar
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2011

Surgical treatment of nasal bone fractures in children is a complex and challenging task not only to maxillofacial surgeons but exceeding to ears, nose, and throat and plastic surgeons. Twelve child patients including 9 boys (75%) and 3 girls (25%) with nasal bone fractures were seen at the Maxillofacial Surgery Department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital during the period of December 2009 to December 2010. Fractured nasal bone is reduced to its anatomic position with Walsham forceps, and the dislocated or disrupted nasal septum with Asch forceps. The most common cause of the injury was road traffic accident and motorcycle accident 5 (42%); nasal deviation was found in 9 cases (75%), and depression in 2 (17%). In 9 patients (75%), injuries were isolated, and 3 (25%) were associated with other facial bone fractures. Significant advances have been made in the management of these injuries, decreasing the incidence of secondary deformities. © 2011 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

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