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Hoek van Holland, Netherlands

Scheibel M.G.,University of Gottingen | Abbenseth J.,University of Gottingen | Kinauer M.,University of Gottingen | Heinemann F.W.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 3 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2015

The redox series [Irn(NHx)(PNP)] (n = II-IV, x = 3-0; PNP = N(CHCHPtBu2)2) was examined with respect to electron, proton, and hydrogen atom transfer steps. The experimental and computational results suggest that the IrIII imido species [Ir(NH)(PNP)] is not stable but undergoes disproportionation to the respective IrII amido and IrIV nitrido species. N-H bond strengths are estimated upon reaction with hydrogen atom transfer reagents to rationalize this observation and are used to discuss the reactivity of these compounds toward E-H bond activation. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Monk K.R.,University of Washington | Hamann J.,University of AmsterdamAmsterdam | Langenhan T.,University of Wurzburg | Nijmeijer S.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The adhesion family of G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) comprises 33 members in humans. aGPCRs are characterized by their enormous size and complex modular structures. While the physiologic importance of many aGPCRs has been clearly demonstrated in recent years, the underlying molecular functions have only recently begun to be elucidated. In this minireview, we present an overview of our current knowledge on aGPCR activation and signal transduction with a focus on the latest findings regarding the interplay between ligand binding, mechanical force, and the tethered agonistic Stachel sequence, as well as implications on translational approaches that may derive from understanding aGPCR pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

Boles G.C.,University of Utah | Coates R.A.,University of Utah | Berden G.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Oomens J.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2015

Complexes of glutamine (Gln) cationized with Zn2+ and Cd2+ were examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy using light generated from a free-electron laser. Electrospray ionization yielded complexes of deprotonated Gln with Zn2+, [Zn(Gln-H)]+, and intact Gln with CdCl+, CdCl+(Gln). For each complex, the spectra obtained were compared with those for low-energy conformers found using quantum chemical calculations to identify the structures present experimentally. Calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for [Zn(Gln-H)]+ and at the B3LYP/def2-TZVP level with an SDD effective core potential on cadmium for CdCl+(Gln). The main binding motif observed for the Cd2+ complex was a charge-solvated, tridentate [N,CO,COsc] structure in which the metal binds to the backbone amino group and the carbonyl oxygens of the carboxylic acid and side-chain amide groups. The Zn2+ system similarly preferred a [N,CO-,COsc] binding motif, where binding was observed at the carboxylate site along with the backbone amino and side-chain carbonyl groups. In both cases, the theoretically determined lowest-energy conformers explain the experimental [Zn(Gln-H)]+ and CdCl+(Gln) spectra well. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Spruyt A.,Ghent University | Spruyt A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Lemaigre V.,Gasthuisberg University Hospital | Salhi B.,Ghent University | And 8 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2015

Abstract Rationale: It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues and long-term relapse in abstaining smokers. Methods: Implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues were assessed by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the evaluative priming task (EPT). Both measures were completed by a group of smokers who volunteered to quit smoking (patient group) and a group of nonsmokers (control group). Participants in the patient group completed these measures twice: once prior to smoking cessation and once after smoking cessation. Relapse was assessed by means of short telephone survey, 6 months after completion of the second test session. Results: EPT scores obtained prior to smoking cessation were related to long-term relapse and correlated with self-reported nicotine dependence as well as daily cigarette consumption. In contrast, none of the behavioral outcome measures were found to correlate with the IAT scores. Conclusions: These findings corroborate the idea that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues are critically involved in long-term relapse. A potential explanation for the divergent findings obtained with the IAT and EPT is provided. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Koch S.B.J.,University of AmsterdamAmsterdam | van Zuiden M.,University of AmsterdamAmsterdam | Nawijn L.,University of AmsterdamAmsterdam | Frijling J.L.,University of AmsterdamAmsterdam | And 3 more authors.
Depression and Anxiety | Year: 2016

Background: About 10% of trauma-exposed individuals develop PTSD. Although a growing number of studies have investigated resting-state abnormalities in PTSD, inconsistent results suggest a need for a meta-analysis and a systematic review. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in four online databases using keywords for PTSD, functional neuroimaging, and resting-state. In total, 23 studies matched our eligibility criteria. For the meta-analysis, we included 14 whole-brain resting-state studies, reporting data on 663 participants (298 PTSD patients and 365 controls). We used the activation likelihood estimation approach to identify concurrence of whole-brain hypo- and hyperactivations in PTSD patients during rest. Seed-based studies could not be included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Therefore, a separate qualitative systematic review was conducted on nine seed-based functional connectivity studies. Results: The meta-analysis showed consistent hyperactivity in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and the parahippocampus/amygdala, but hypoactivity in the (posterior) insula, cerebellar pyramis and middle frontal gyrus in PTSD patients, compared to healthy controls. Partly concordant with these findings, the systematic review on seed-based functional connectivity studies showed enhanced salience network (SN) connectivity, but decreased default mode network (DMN) connectivity in PTSD. Conclusions: Combined, these altered resting-state connectivity and activity patterns could represent neurobiological correlates of increased salience processing and hypervigilance (SN), at the cost of awareness of internal thoughts and autobiographical memory (DMN) in PTSD. However, several discrepancies between findings of the meta-analysis and systematic review were observed, stressing the need for future studies on resting-state abnormalities in PTSD patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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