Mahomed K.,Right to Care |
Evans D.,University of Witwatersrand |
Sauls C.,University of Witwatersrand |
Richter K.,University of Pretoria |
And 2 more authors.
The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2014
INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cervical cancer is treatable if detected timeously, yet only 20% of South African women have ever been for a Pap smear in their lifetime due to limited access to screening, transport or child care responsibilities.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collection for cervical cancer screening. We aimed to identify which self-collection device women prefer and if they would consider using them for routine cervical cancer screening.METHODS: HIV-positive women (>18 years) from urban and rural HIV clinics were interviewed following an education session on HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Participants were shown three self-collection devices; (i) an Evalyn cervical brush, (ii) a Delphilavager and (iii) a tampon-like plastic wand before completing a short questionnaire.RESULTS: A total of 106 women from the urban (n = 52) and rural (n = 54) clinic were interviewed. Overall 51% of women preferred the cervical brush, while fewer women preferred the tampon-like plastic wand (31%) or lavage sampler (18%). More than 75% of women from the rural site preferred the cervical brush, compared to 22% from the urban site (p < 0.001). Women from the urban clinic preferred the tampon-like plastic wand (45%) and then the lavage sampler (33%), as compared to women from the rural clinic (19% and 4%, respectively).CONCLUSION: Women from urban or rural settings had different preferences for the various self-collection devices. Patient self-collection with HPV testing may be an acceptable way to improve coverage to cervical cancer screening in high risk HIV-seropositive women.
Strong W.L.,University of North America
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2014
Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands were sampled in central Yukon, Canada (61.5-64°N latitude), which represented the northernmost 9% of the tree's North American range. Within this area, lodgepole pine occupied only ̃ 2% of the landscape. This study determined: 1) what forest sociations occurred (i.e. structural dominance-types); 2) how plant growth form composition and richness differed from the central portion of the species' geographical range and 3) if stands were biased towards occurring on more thermally favorable south-facing slopes. Five lodgepole pine sociations were recognized among 100 relevés: Rhododendron groenlandicum (Labrador tea); Cladonia arbuscula (green reindeer lichen); Calamagrostis purpurascens (purple reedgrass); Hylocomium splendens (stairstep moss) and Alnus viridis (green alder, n = 4 relevés). Rhododendron stands were proportionally more common on low gradient sites and had more total plant cover than the other sociations. Cladonia and Calamagrostis stands were typically associated with dry coarse-textured soils and warm dry sites, respectively; whereas the composition of the Hylocomium sociation reflected the detrimental influences of atypically dense forest canopies on understory vascular plants. Only the Calamagrostis sociation was unique to the study region. Species richness among common northern lodgepole pine sociations averaged 16-19 taxa per relevé (p > 0.05). Northern compared to central range (n = 1394) relevés were compositionally different based on little overlap of their datasets in the ordination space. Northern vegetation had less (p < 0.001) total plant (129% vs 184%), deciduous shrub (9% vs 26%), broad-leaved herb (5% vs 25%), and bryophyte (27% vs 54%) cover; had greater macro-lichen cover (13% vs 5%) and lower floristic richness (11 vs 24 taxa) and was less than half as phytosociological diverse. Lodgepole pine stands in the northernmost portion of their range were not biased towards occurring on south-facing slopes, which suggested an ecological potential for range expansion. © 2013 The Authors.
Strong W.L.,University of North America |
Jung T.S.,Environment Canada
Canadian Field-Naturalist | Year: 2012
Large-scale fires are anticipated to increase in frequency in the boreal forest under global climate warming scenarios. To understand concomitant responses by wildlife to fire-induced habitat changes, fecal pellet counts were used to assess Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) use of four age-classes of boreal forest after fire in central Yukon, Canada. Use of stands across a chronosequence of 8-177 years was bimodal. Post-fire Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands ≤20 years old had greater densities of Snowshoe Hare pellets (median 156 pellets/dam2) than Trembling Aspen stands 21-70 years old, mixedwood stands 71-120 years old (<17 pellets/dam2), or Western White Spruce (Picea albertiana) -dominated stands 121-170 years old (71 pellets/dam2). Forty stand-level compositional and structural variables were assessed as possible predictors of Snowshoe Hare pellet densities. Multidimensional scaling was used to identify variables (n = 10) that were most strongly related to pellet densities and was followed by multiple regression. Canopy cover of Trembling Aspen <50 cm tall and Western White Spruce ≤1 m tall, and deadfall depth, in combination, were the best estimators of Snowshoe Hare pellet densities among stands in the chronosequence (P <0.001, 64.5% variance explained). Although Trembling Aspen <50 cm tall explained the most variance, its canopy cover did not exceed 10%. More Trembling Aspen cover <50 cm tall and greater deadfall depths within the chronosequence were associated with stands ≤20 years old. Peak Snowshoe Hare use occurred in early (≤20 years old) rather than mid-successional (21-120 years old) stands, contrary to use patterns reported elsewhere. The lack of tall understory shrubs likely limited the use of mid-successional stands.
Golebiowska E.,University of Maine, United States |
Blakeley A.,University of North America |
Bousfield D.,University of Maine, United States |
Gramlich W.,University of Mainey
Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2015 | Year: 2015
•Post coating staining is unsuccessful •Successful tagging method for starch and latex •Tagged starch and latex coatings can be imaged with the CLSM •Intensity data can be obtained from the CLSM analysis. © Copyright 2015 by the TAPPI Press. All rights reserved.
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