The Federal University of Amazonas is a public university located in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. It is the largest university in the state of Amazonas and in the northern region of Brazil. It offers a wide array of degrees, with 645 research groups and 65 graduate courses. Wikipedia.
Pedrollo C.T.,National Institute of Amazonian Research |
Kinupp V.F.,Federal University of Amazonas |
Heinrich M.,University College London
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016
Study background The Amazon basin is a mosaic of different environments. Flooded riparian and upland forests play a significant role for the establishment of human settlements. Riparian communities in the Amazon have evolved depending on the use of plants applied for therapeutic purposes, thus developing important knowledge about their management and preparation. Aim of the study This paper describes and analyzes the use and management of medicinal plants in order to establish links to environmental conservation. The categorization of habitats of occurrence and categories of diseases were held in five riparian communities at Rio Jauaperi, in the border between Roraima and Amazonas states in Brazil. The study sight is poorly investigated in terms of scientific research. Materials and methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including observations, individual and focus group discussions, individual interviews, preference ranking by free listing tasks, guided tours and community mapping were applied. Sutrop's cognitive salience index was applied in order to check the most important ethnospecies and diseases. The survey was conducted from February to December 2012. Results A total of 62 informants were interviewed, resulting in 119 botanical species documented. The most salient medicinal species are usually wide distributed and recognized transculturally. Arboreal habit was the most important corresponding to 47% of total species used. The most frequent accessed environments were terra-firme (upland forest), vargeado (flooded forest), poultry (regenerating forest) and restinga (seasonally flooded forest) which together provides 59% of the total medicinal plant species. Exotic species played a secondary role with only 20% of the total. Thirty seven percent of the species were cultivated. Plants at homegardens are usually associated with children's or women's disease. Xixuaú is the community with improved ability to environmental preservation using more forestry species. The most worrying disease was malaria. Biomedical assistance is precarious in the region and many diseases and healing rituals are culturally built. Conclusions Ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants can indicate the level of biodiversity conservation and human health by integrating social and ecological analytical elements. Considering a predominance of management for subsistence, the higher richness of native medicinal species availability indicates that biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge are better preserved. The methods applied here might contribute for the decision-making process regarding conservation public policies and medical assistance in remote areas of the Amazon basin. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Francesconia F.,Federal University of Amazonas |
Lupi O.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2012
Myiasis is defined as the infestation of live vertebrates (humans and/or animals) with dipterous larvae. In mammals (including humans), dipterous larvae can feed on the host's living or dead tissue, liquid body substance, or ingested food and cause a broad range of infestations depending on the body location and the relationship of the larvae with the host. In this review, we deeply discuss myiasis as a worldwide infestation with different agents and with its broad scenario of clinical manifestations as well as diagnosis techniques and treatment. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
da Costa A.G.,Federal University of Amazonas
Journal of immunology research | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory process, including the biomarker production, and the intense activation of innate immune responses are greater in the malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax than other species. Here, we examined the levels of serum biomarkers and their interaction during acute malaria.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from P. vivax-infected patients at admission and from healthy donors. Levels of serum biomarkers were measured by Cytometric Bead Assay or ELISA.RESULTS: P. vivax infection triggered the production of both inflammatory and regulatory biomarkers. Levels of IL-6, CXCL-8, IFN-γ, IL-5, and IL-10 were higher in P. vivax-infected patients than in healthy donors. On the other hand, malaria patients produced lower levels of TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-2 than healthy individuals. While the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were found independent on the number of malaria episodes, higher levels of these cytokines were seen in patients with higher parasite load.CONCLUSION: A mixed pattern of proinflammatory and regulatory biomarkers is produced in P. vivax malaria. Analysis of biomarker network suggests that IL-10 and IL-6 are a robust axis in malaria patients and that this interaction seems to be associated with the parasite load.
Castro M.M.,Federal University of Amazonas
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2011
Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the primary causes of mortality by cancer in northern Brazil. Sexually active women from Manaus, Amazonas, without cytological alterations and women with pre-malignant and malignant cytological alterations were examined for HPV virus, identified via PCR and sequencing. The target region for this study was part of the L1 capsid gene of HPV. Twenty-three samples that were PCR-positive were sequenced. Analysis of 336 bp demonstrated a high incidence of high-risk HPV types in the population of Manaus, identified as HPVs 16, 33, 58, 66, 68. HPV type 16 was the most prevalent, presenting two variants similar to the Asian-American (AA) and East-Asian type (As) variants. A rare HPV type 13 related to "Heck's disease" was also detected. This preliminary provides important information about the HPV circulating in Amazonas State.
de Aquino P.F.,Federal University of Amazonas
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012
Gastric cancer is one of most frequent causes of death in Brazil. The city of Manaus has one of the highest incidences of this disease in Brazil. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We obtained biopsies from 6 control subjects and 10 patients with gastric carcinomas living in Manaus. In the patients, the samples were taken from tumors and from adjacent non-cancerous mucosa. These samples were screened for EBV DNA by PCR to amplify the 288-bp fragments from the Bam M region. The EBV DNA was detected in 8 of the 10 tumor cases and in none of the 6 control subjects. In the positively identified samples, EBV DNA was detected in five corresponding resection margins. Previous research indicated only a weak association between EBV and gastric cancer. We suggest that EBV should be considered as a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinomas in Manaus.
Silva Rd.e C.,Federal University of Amazonas |
Silva Rd.e C.,University of Brasilia
Journal of proteomics | Year: 2014
UNLABELLED: In the present study we have identified and characterized the proteins expressed during different developmental stages of Elaeis guineensis calli obtained from zygotic embryos. We were interested in the possible proteomic changes that would occur during the acquisition of somatic embryogenesis and therefore samples were collected from zygotic embryos (E1), swollen explants 14days (E2) in induction medium, primary callus (E3), and pro-embryogenic callus (E4). The samples were grinded in liquid nitrogen, followed by total protein extraction using phenol and extraction buffer. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Interestingly, we have identified proteins, which can be used as potential candidates for future studies aiming at the development of biomarkers for embryogenesis acquisition and for the different stages leading to pro-embryogenic callus formation such as type IIIa membrane protein cp-wap13, fructokinase and PR proteins. The results obtained shed some light on the biochemical events involved in the process of somatic embryogenesis of E. guineensis obtained from zygotic embryos. The use of stage-specific protein markers can help monitor cell differentiation and contribute to improve the protocols for successfully cloning the species.BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Understanding the fate and dynamics of cells and tissues during callus formation is essential to understand totipotency and the mechanisms involved during acquisition of somatic embryogenesis (SE). In this study we have investigated the early stages of somatic embryogenesis induction in oil palm and have identified potential markers as well as proteins potentially involved in embryogenic competence acquisition. The use of these proteins can help improve tissue culture protocols in order to increase regeneration rates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Environmental and structural proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Figueiredo Neto E.M.,Federal University of Amazonas
Revista brasileira de reumatologia | Year: 2011
To evaluate the quality of life and its association with daily physical activity in different contexts of life in osteoarthritis patients referred from Basic Health Care Units to a university-affiliated service. This is a crosssectional, case series study in which physical activity was evaluated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and quality of life was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study 36 Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC), and Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN). To evaluate pain intensity, a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was also used. One hundred patients (92 women and eight men; mean age 59.9 ± 9.4 years) were included. The most affected joints were the knees and hands. Ten patients had only a single joint affected, 69 patients had two, eight patients had three, and 13 patients had four joints affected. The IPAQ showed that 70 patients were active or very active, while 30 were insufficiently active or sedentary. Physical activity was positively associated with the SF-36 domains that assess physical health (physical functioning, physical role, pain, general health perceptions). There was an association between physical activity and quality of life assessed by WOMAC, and the more severe the pain, the worse the quality of life. In most patients in this population, the physical aspects of the quality of life are worse, but they maintain their daily physical activities.
Galiceanu M.,Federal University of Amazonas
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012
We focus on polymer networks with a scale-free topology. In the framework of generalized Gaussian structures, by making use of the eigenvalue spectrum of the connectivity matrix, we determined numerically the averaged monomer displacement under external forces and the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus). First, we monitor these physical quantities and additionally the eigenvalue spectrum for structures of different sizes, but with the same γ, which is a parameter that measures the connectivity of the structure. Second, we vary the parameter γ, and we keep constant the size of the structures. This allows us to study in detail the crossover behavior from a simple linear chain to a starlike structure. As expected we encounter a more chainlike behavior for high values of γ, while for small values of γ a more starlike behavior is observed. In the intermediate time (frequency) domain, we encounter regions of constant slope for some intermediate values of γ. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Figueiredo L.C.,Federal University of Amazonas
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2011
The current intense production of biological data, generated by sequencing techniques, has created an ever-growing volume of unanalyzed data. We reevaluated data produced by the guarana (Paullinia cupana) transcriptome sequencing project to identify cDNA clones with complete coding sequences (full-length clones) and complete sequences of genes of biotechnological interest, contributing to the knowledge of biological characteristics of this organism. We analyzed 15,490 ESTs of guarana in search of clones with complete coding regions. A total of 12,402 sequences were analyzed using BLAST, and 4697 full-length clones were identified, responsible for the production of 2297 different proteins. Eighty-four clones were identified as full-length for N-methyltransferase and 18 were sequenced in both directions to obtain the complete genome sequence, and confirm the search made in silico for full-length clones. Phylogenetic analyses were made with the complete genome sequences of three clones, which showed only 0.017% dissimilarity; these are phylogenetically close to the caffeine synthase of Theobroma cacao. The search for full-length clones allowed the identification of numerous clones that had the complete coding region, demonstrating this to be an efficient and useful tool in the process of biological data mining. The sequencing of the complete coding region of identified full-length clones corroborated the data from the in silico search, strengthening its efficiency and utility.
Cordeiro L.,Federal University of Amazonas |
Fischer B.,University of Southampton |
Marques-Silva J.,University College Dublin
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering | Year: 2012
Propositional bounded model checking has been applied successfully to verify embedded software, but remains limited by increasing propositional formula sizes and the loss of high-level information during the translation preventing potential optimizations to reduce the state space to be explored. These limitations can be overcome by encoding high-level information in theories richer than propositional logic and using SMT solvers for the generated verification conditions. Here, we propose the application of different background theories and SMT solvers to the verification of embedded software written in ANSI-C in order to improve scalability and precision in a completely automatic way. We have modified and extended the encodings from previous SMT-based bounded model checkers to provide more accurate support for variables of finite bit width, bit-vector operations, arrays, structures, unions, and pointers. We have integrated the CVC3, Boolector, and Z3 solvers with the CBMC front-end and evaluated them using both standard software model checking benchmarks and typical embedded software applications from telecommunications, control systems, and medical devices. The experiments show that our ESBMC model checker can analyze larger problems than existing tools and substantially reduce the verification time. © 2012 IEEE.