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Alicante, Spain

The University of Alicante was established in 1979 on the basis of the Center for University Studies , which was founded in 1968. The University main campus is located in San Vicente del Raspeig/Sant Vicent del Raspeig, bordering the city of Alicante to the north. As of 2011/12 academic year, there are approximately 27,500 students studying there.The University inherits the legacy of the University of Orihuela that was established by Papal Bull in 1545 and remained open for two centuries .The University of Alicante offers courses in more than fifty degrees. It comprises over seventy departments and research groups in areas of Social Science and Law, Experimental science, Technology, Liberal Arts, Education and Health science, and five research institutes. Almost all classes are taught in Spanish language, some are in English, in particular, in computer science and in business degrees, and a few are in Valencian language. Spanish language courses are offered for foreign students throughout the year and during the summer. The University offers English Language versions to PhD level including religion. Julian Havell was the first to graduate from this scheme.The Department of Economics runs, in Europe, a well-known Graduate Program in Economics which is an American-style full-time program taught entirely in English. The program provides students with a thorough theoretical and practical training in microeconomics, macroeconomics and econometrics, as well as specialization in applied fields. The aim of the program is to prepare students for professional careers in universities, public and private research organizations, international institutions, consultancy and business.The University has a modern campus of one square kilometer. La Rabassa airfield was located on these lands until the opening of El Altet Airport in 1967.University of Alicante is part of European University Association, Compostela Group of Universities, Spanish La Conferencia de Rectores de las Universidades Españolas, and Catalan network Xarxa Vives d'Universitats.The University hosts Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. It is the largest open-access repository of digitised Spanish-language historical texts and literature from the Ibero-American world.Apertium, a free software for machine translation, is being developed at the University in cooperation with Spanish and Catalonian governments. The software is distributed under GNU GPL license. Wikipedia.

Campello L.,University of Alicante
Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2013

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the main intracellular pathway for modulated protein turnover, playing an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It also exerts a protein quality control through degradation of oxidized, mutant, denatured, or misfolded proteins and is involved in many biological processes where protein level regulation is necessary. This system allows the cell to modulate its protein expression pattern in response to changing physiological conditions and provides a critical protective role in health and disease. Impairments of UPS function in the central nervous system (CNS) underlie an increasing number of genetic and idiopathic diseases, many of which affect the retina. Current knowledge on the UPS composition and function in this tissue, however, is scarce and dispersed. This review focuses on UPS elements reported in the retina, including ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), and alternative proteasome assemblies. Known and inferred roles of protein ubiquitination, and of the related, SUMO conjugation (SUMOylation) process, in normal retinal development and adult homeostasis are addressed, including modulation of the visual cycle and response to retinal stress and injury. Additionally, the relationship between UPS dysfunction and human neurodegenerative disorders affecting the retina, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, are dealt with, together with numerous instances of retina-specific illnesses with UPS involvement, such as retinitis pigmentosa, macular degenerations, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and aging-related impairments. This information, though still basic and limited, constitutes a suitable framework to be expanded in incoming years and should prove orientative toward future therapy design targeting sight-affecting diseases with a UPS underlying basis. Source

Serrano-Ruiz J.C.,University of Alicante | Dumesic J.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011

Concerns about diminishing fossil fuel reserves along with global warming effects caused by increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are driving society toward the search for new renewable sources of energy that can substitute for coal, natural gas and petroleum in the current energy system. Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant, and it has the potential to significantly displace petroleum in the production of fuels for the transportation sector. Ethanol, the main biomass-derived fuel used today, has benefited from production by a well-established technology and by partial compatibility with the current transportation infrastructure, leading to the domination of the world biofuel market. However, ethanol suffers from important limitations as a fuel (e.g., low energy density, high solubility in water) than can be overcome by designing strategies to convert non-edible lignocellulosic biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels (LHF) chemically similar to those currently used in internal combustion engines. The present review describes the main routes available to carry out such deep chemical transformation (e.g., gasification, pyrolysis, and aqueous-phase catalytic processing), with particular emphasis on those pathways involving aqueous-phase catalytic reactions. These latter catalytic routes achieve the required transformations in biomass-derived molecules with controlled chemistry and high yields, but require pretreatment/hydrolysis steps to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose. To be economically viable, these aqueous-phase routes should be carried out with a small number of reactors and with minimum utilization of external fossil fuel-based hydrogen sources, as illustrated in the examples presented here. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Bueno-Lopez A.,University of Alicante
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2014

Different aspects of the ceria-catalyzed Diesel soot combustion reactions have been critically discussed, such as the high catalytic activity of ceria for Diesel soot combustion in comparison to some other potential catalysts, the potential ceria-catalyzed Diesel soot combustion mechanisms (the so-called NO2-assisted mechanism and the active oxygen mechanism) and the effect of ceria doping with suitable cations like those of Pr, La or Zr. Ceria must be doped in order to enhance thermal stability, but ceria doping also changes different physicochemical and catalytic properties of ceria. Zr-doping, for instance, has a double role on ceria as soot combustion catalyst: enhances ceria oxidation capacity of the adsorbed NOx species (positive effect) but stabilizes NO2 on surface (negative effect). The surface properties of a ceria catalyst are usually more important than those of bulk: high surface area/small crystal size usually has a positive effect on the catalyst performance and, in mixed oxides, the surface composition also plays a role. The optimal dopant loading depends on the foreign cation being, for instance, around 5-10%, 20-30% and 50 mol% for La3+, Zr4+, and Pr3+/4+, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chinchilla R.,University of Alicante | Najera C.,University of Alicante
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

An overview of the use of alkynes as starting materials for the preparation of compounds, using procedures carried out under palladium catalysis, is studied. The transition metal-catalyzed conversion of internal and terminal alkynes to substituted benzene derivatives by a cyclotrimerization process is an old procedure that has been achieved using palladium species as catalysts. Benzynes have been generated and react with internal alkynes in the presence of an aryl iodide to give substituted phenanthrenes under Pd2(dba) 3 catalysis. Highly substituted indenes have been obtained by palladium-catalyzed carboannulation of internal alkynes using appropriately functionalized aryl halides. Despite all of these developments, plenty of work is still ahead to achieve low loadings of catalytic systems, supported or not, applicable to the reaction of alkynes. Source

Chinchilla R.,University of Alicante | Najera C.,University of Alicante
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

The coupling of aryl or vinyl halides with terminal acetylenes catalysed by palladium and other transition metals, commonly termed as Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction, is one of the most important and widely used sp 2-sp carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in organic synthesis, frequently employed in the synthesis of natural products, biologically active molecules, heterocycles, molecular electronics, dendrimers and conjugated polymers or nanostructures. This critical review focuses on developments in the Sonogashira reaction achieved in recent years concerning catalysts, reaction conditions and substrates (352 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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