Aleppo, Syria
Aleppo, Syria

University of Aleppo is a public university located in Aleppo, Syria. It is the second largest university in Syria after the University of Damascus. During 2005-2006 the University had over 61,000 undergraduate students, over 1,500 graduate students and approximately 2,400 faculty members. The university currently has 25 faculties and 10 intermediate colleges. Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: www.theguardian.com

Tamim Chalati remembers an Aleppo where you could get pizza at 3am. “I had a good salary and social life,” the scientist says, recalling how he used to take his two children out for “hot and crispy barbecue food”, their favourite, several times a week. They lived a comfortable life, with his wife a doctor, and he head of the Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology at the University of Aleppo. When war broke out in 2011, first only cracks appeared in Chalati’s world – the electricity would go off, they’d be without water for a few days. But on one summer day in 2012, they found the streets empty and the hospital closed. “We then saw many people walking west [away from a battle in the eastern part of the city], and they told us the war had reached us.” That night there were air strikes, and the family watched in horror as the security situation spiralled out of control, food became scarce and the value of money plummeted. Only 10 students out of 100 were now attending his classes, and when by the end of the year many colleagues had left the country, Chalati and his wife debated if they should too. But they held out until January 2013, when two blasts at the University of Aleppo killed 80 people. Chalati was in his office. His mind went immediately to his children, who were in school, just a few kilometres from the blast. “I couldn’t reach [them] to find out if they were still alive – it was really terrible,” he says. They were safe, but one of the explosions destroyed the kiosk where he often picked up coffee on the school run. The academic began frantically applying for positions at universities in Turkey, Jordan and the UAE – any posting that could give his family a route out of Syria. There would be another two tense years before he finally secured a fellowship through the Institute of International Education’s (IIE) Scholar Rescue Fund. Today the Chalitis are living in England and he is a research associate in the chemistry department at the University of York. Chalati is one of the lucky ones. The IIE, which has helped rescue persecuted scholars since 1919, currently has an acceptance rate of less than 20% for qualified Syrian scholars. It is not the only organisation offering support to academics in danger, but “the needs still far outstrip the resources available,” says James King, assistant director of the Scholar Rescue Fund. The organisation estimates that among the millions who fled Syria there are 2,000 university professionals. Many are still stuck in makeshift camps, and even if resettled, are unable to work. They fly under the radar as academics are not considered one of the most at-risk refugee groups. Yet more than 450 have been assassinated in Iraq since 2003, and an analysis by Scholars at Risk of 158 reported attacks against university professionals in 35 countries from May 2015 to September 2016 found threats ranged from travel restrictions to wrongful prosecutions, forced disappearances and murder. “Scholars, scientists and human rights activists are targeted from every direction,” says Radwan Ziadeh, a senior analyst at the Arab Centre in Washington DC. He should know – the former dentist left Syria in 2007 after receiving threats from the Assad’s security forces after calling for government reform, and he’s currently on an Isis kill list. His asylum case in the US has been pending for three years. So why don’t host countries do more to make the most of these scientists, medics, engineers and other skilled workers? “The main obstacle is the lack of political will, with the rise of the populist movements around the world,” Ziadeh says, explaining that politicians too often treat refugees as a homogenous group. King thinks that a lack of awareness about their educational qualifications, as well as practical challenges related to cost, language barriers, and qualifications assessment, are issues. “Governments and higher education institutions are beginning to recognise the opportunity here,” he says. “But we have a real responsibility to ensure that refugee scientists are supported to continue their academic work because these are the very individuals who will be rebuilding their countries, who will build healthy diaspora communities, and who will really contribute to their host communities.” Chalati experienced the issue of getting his qualifications recognised first-hand. He has a master’s and PhD from a French university but his BA in pharmacy is from a Syrian university, so in the UK he cannot be employed permanently at a school of pharmacy, unless he redoes some exams – a process that could take three years. “In Syria I was a senior academic, but when I came to the UK I had to start from scratch as a postdoc, as if the previous five years of my career did not exist,” he says. Still, scientific institutions can play an important role in helping refugee scientists integrate into their new communities. “Our scholars often don’t consider themselves refugees: when they are integrated into a lab they’re scientists again, and it’s very important for them to be able to move beyond this reductionist label of refugee,” King says. In March, a workshop was convened by The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) to discuss how to better support refugee scientists. They recommended that scientific communities establish relations with refugee processing centres, and that host governments accelerate the approval of asylum applications from scientists. TWAS also discussed how to rebuild scientific communities in countries returning to stability, suggesting governments provide tax exemptions and laboratory facilities to persuade skilled workers to return. Eqbal Mohammed Dauqan, a Yemeni scientist now on a scholarship at the National University of Malaysia, is sceptical about these recommendations. In March 2015, she was head of the medical laboratory sciences department at Al-Saeed University of Taiz, but had spent eight months without the internet, electricity or salary, and a bomb hit her house. “When students and researchers finish their fellowships how are they coming back here?” she says. “We don’t even have an airport, and even if they [get here] they are not going to have a stipend for research, because what remains of the government has no money.” Personally, she is not sure of what her next move should be – her scholarship will run out in 2018. “Now I am not a refugee scientist, I am a visiting scholar, but maybe I’ll be a refugee next year.” Join our community of development professionals and humanitarians. Follow @GuardianGDP on Twitter.


Abdelwahed W.,University of Aleppo
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate formulation and process parameters that could impact freeze drying of loperamide-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (Loperamide loaded SLN). Methods: Loperamide loaded SLN was prepared by high shear homogenization method and freeze dried in vials without and with different types and concentrations of cryoprotectants (lactose, glucose, mannitol and povidon) using pilot freeze dryer. Results: The best result has been obtained by using 5% of monosaccharide glucose solution, although Nanoparticles size has been increased 6 folds. However, the total concentration of loperamide hydrochloride (Loperamide HCl) remained unchanged after freeze drying. It has been found that the type and ratio of surfactants adsorbed at the surface of SLN have impact on the success of the drying process. Conclusion: Results revealed that polymeric nanoparticles could withstand freeze drying stress more than SLN because polymers have higher mechanical resistance in comparison with waxes and lipids. © 2015 International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All Rights Reserved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: SiS-2010-2.1.3.1 | Award Amount: 2.36M | Year: 2011

The overall objective of this proposal is enhancing research cooperation on gender and science between the European Union and the Mediterranean countries. Research cooperation is aimed at better understand the roots of gender inequality in science in the area, taking into account cultural diversities and traditions, and analyse how the Mediterranean countries are addressing this issue. It will deal with gender equality from a twofold perspective: the representation of women in scientific research and technological development and the integration of the gender dimension in research policy. The project will provide state of the art description, data collection and relevant comparative analysis on gender and science in all the Mediterranean countries, focusing on three key themes: statistics on women in science, gender equality policies and research on gender inequalities in science careers. These results will be made accessible to the research community and policy makers via an online database, publishable reports and workshops. With the overall purpose of enhancing networking and steering policy-making on gender and science in the years to come, the project will finally develop recommendations for policy-makers aimed at enhancing the presence of women in scientific research and technological development at all levels and ensuring a better integration of the gender dimension in research policy. The Mediterranean countries included in the proposal are the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs), i.e. the Mediterranean countries included in the list of International Co-operation Partner Countries: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian-administered areas, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia.


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Mohammed Rasheed Alnajjar, MD, FACP, Internal Medicine Physician, to their prestigious organization with his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. Dr. Mohammed Rasheed Alnajjar is a highly trained and qualified internist with an extensive expertise in all facets of his work, especially diabetes care. Dr. Alnajjar has been in practice for more than 20 years and is currently serving patients within El Paso Internal Medicine Care in El Paso, Texas. He is also affiliated with Providence Memorial Hospital, Sierra Medical Center, and Las Palmas Medical Center. Dr. Alnajjar attended the University of Aleppo Faculty of Medicine in Aleppo, Syria, graduating with his Medical Degree in 1994. Upon relocating to the United States, Dr. Alnajjar subsequently completed his internship at Saint Barnabas Medical Center in New Jersey, before undertaking his residency training at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York. Dr. Alnajjar provides a comprehensive range of internal medicine care, and is renowned as a specialist in diabetes. He is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine, and has earned the coveted title of Fellow of the American College of Physicians. To keep up to date with the latest advances in his field, Dr. Alnajjar maintains a professional membership with the American Diabetes Association and the American Medical Association. He attributes his success to the support and influence of his parents, and when he is not assisting his patients, Dr. Alnajjar enjoys spending quality time with his family. Learn more about Dr. Alnajjar by reading his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit http://www.findatopdoc.com


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Dima Adl, MD, Pulmonologist, Critical Care Physician, and Sleep Medicine Physician, to their prestigious organization with her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. Dr. Adl is a highly-trained and qualified physician with an extensive expertise in all facets of her work. Dr. Adl has been in practicing for over 12 years and is currently serving patients at Madison Medical in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Dr. Adl graduated with her Medical Degree from the University of Aleppo in Aleppo, Syria. Upon relocating to the United States, she completed her residency and then fellowship at the University of Tennessee, Memphis. Dr. Adl is board certified in Internal Medicine with subspecialties in Pulmonary and Critical Care by the American Board of Internal Medicine, and is also board certified in Sleep Medicine by the American Board of Sleep Medicine. To keep up to date with the latest advances in her field, Dr. Adl maintains a professional membership with the American College of Chest Physicians. Dr. Adl attributes her great success to her family’s support and encouragement. Learn more about Dr. Adl here and read her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit: http://www.findatopdoc.com.


Lajin B.,University of Aleppo | Alachkar A.,University of California at Irvine
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background:Evidence is increasingly emerging about multiple roles for the NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 enzyme in cancer. The C609T (rs1800566, Pro187Ser) null polymorphism of the NQO1 gene contributes significantly to the variation in enzymatic activity across different populations. NQO1 C609T polymorphism was thoroughly investigated with respect to cancer susceptibility. The results were inconsistent partly due to low sample sizes. The aim of the present work was to perform a meta-analysis to assess association for all common cancer sites separately and in combination.Methods:Our meta-analysis involved 92 studies including 21 178 cases and 25 157 controls. Statistical analysis involved individual cancer sites and the combined cancer risk. Association was tested under different genetic models.Results:We found a statistically significant association between the variant T allele and overall cancer risk in the worldwide population (for the TT vs CC model, OR=1.18 (1.07-1.31), P=0.002, I 2 =36%). Stratified analysis revealed that this association was largely attributed to the Caucasian ethnicity (for the TT vs CC model, OR=1.28 (1.12-1.46), P=0.0002, I 2 =1%). Stratification by tumour site showed significant association for bladder cancer in the worldwide population (for the TT vs CC model, OR=1.70 (1.17-2.46), P=0.005, I 2 =0%), and in the Asian population (for the TT vs CC model, 1.48 (1.14-1.93), P=0.003, I 2 =16%). Positive association was also found for gastric cancer in the worldwide population under the dominant model (OR=1.34 (1.09-1.65), P=0.006, I 2 =15%).Conclusion:Our results indicate that the C609T polymorphism of the NQO1 gene is an important genetic risk factor in cancer. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.


Kalaji F.R.,University of Aleppo
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2012

Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) levels are considered as important diagnostic tools in acute coronary events. They could be of predictive value in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of increased cTnI and cTnT in HD patients and their prognostic relevance to all-cause mortality. We measured cTnT and cTnI at baseline in 145 asymptomatic HD patients. We used three different cut-off criteria to define elevated cardiac troponin levels as follows: the 99 th percentile of a reference population, the lowest concentration to give a 10% imprecision [10% coefficient of variation (10% CV)] and the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve-determined value optimized for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for detection of myocardial injury (MI). These concentrations were 0.01 ng/mL, 0.03 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL for cTnT and 0.2 ng/mL, 0.6 ng/mL and 1 ng/mL for cTnI, respectively. Patients were followed for all-cause mortality (median follow-up 551 days). Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log-rank test and Cox models were employed to determine whether baseline cTnT and cTnI levels were predictive of mortality. Greater percentages of patients had an increased cTnT versus cTnI at each cut-off as follows: 99 th percentile, 90.3% versus 35.2%; 10% CV, 73.1% versus 2.1%; and ROC, 20.7% versus 0.7%. During follow-up, 40 patients died. Elevated cTnT levels above the ROC concentration were associated with increased mortality, although it was not significant after adjustment for other risk factors. Univariate and adjusted hazard ratios were 2.3 [confidence intervals (CI), 1.2-4.5; P = 0. 01] and 1.9 (CI, 0.9-3.9; P = 0.07). No differences were found for cTnI levels. Diabetes mellitus was also an independent predictor of mortality. There is a high prevalence of positive cTnT and cTnI in asymptomatic HD patients, with a greater number of patients having an increased cTnT. Elevated troponin T, but not cTnI, seems to be associated with poor prognosis.


Salman S.M.,University of Aleppo
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2011

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD) is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years) on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG). Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.


Objective: To assess the net dentofacial effects of the fixed lingual mandibular growth modificator (FLMGM). Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 38 patients with Class II/1 malocclusion and retrognathic mandible. All were in the pubertal growth spurt. Whereas FLMGM was applied to the treatment group (n = 21, mean age = 13.2 years), no treatment was performed on the control group (n = 17, mean age = 12.5 years). Skeletal and dentoalveolar changes were assessed on digital lateral cephalograms obtained at the beginning and end of the treatment/observation period of 8 months. Paired and independent t-tests were used to assess the differences within and between groups. Results: Maxillary growth was not affected by FLMGM treatment, which resulted in a significant overjet reduction of 4.1 mm, an increase in total mandibular length (Co-Gn) of 2.3 mm, chin advancement of 1.6°, and upper incisor retroclination of 4.0°. A reduction of 2.4° in ANB was largely due to an increase of 1.8° in SNB. Favorably, the lower incisors were obviously retroclined by 4.5°. The changes in the vertical skeletal relationships were negligible. Conclusion: FLMGM was effective in treating growing Class II/1 patients and produced favorable dentofacial effects, with the matched untreated sample showing minimal changes. Lower incisor retroclination was a benefit of FLMGM treatment. © 2014 by The EH Angle Education and Research Foundation, Inc.


Malhis M.,University of Aleppo
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2010

Increased dispersion of QT intervals is known to predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. To assess the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on QT and corrected QT (QTc) intervals and their dispersions in chronic hemodialyzed patients we studied 85 patients (male/female = 48/37; mean age 44 +/- 17 year) on chronic hemodialysis. Simultaneous 12-lead ECG was recorded before and after HD in a standard setting. The QT intervals for each lead were measured manually by one observer using calipers. Each QT interval was corrected for heart rate: QTc= QT/ mean square root of R-R (in milliseconds [ms]). ECG parameters, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++, phosphate), urea, and creatinine were measured before and after HD. The mean of pre and post dialysis cycle intervals was 828 +/- 132 ms and 798 +/- 122 ms respectively; the difference was not significant. The mean of QTmax intervals changed significantly from 446 +/- 47 to 465 +/- 72 ms (P < 0.05). The mean of corrected QTcmax intervals increased significantly from 472 +/- 38 to 492 +/- 58 ms (P < 0.05). The mean of QT dispersions and the corrected QT interval dispersions changed from 60 +/- 29 to 76 +/- 32 ms (P < 0.05) from 72 +/- 46 to 98 +/- 56 ms (P < 0.05), respectively. During HD, the serum potassium and phosphate levels decreased whereas the calcium levels increased. We conclude that QT and QTc interval and dispersion increase in HD patients.

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