University of AlbertaAlberta

Medicine Hat, Canada

University of AlbertaAlberta

Medicine Hat, Canada
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Boccardi M.,University of Geneva | Boccardi M.,Laboratory of Alzheimers Neuroimaging and Epidemiology LANE | Gallo V.,Queen Mary, University of London | Yasui Y.,University of AlbertaAlberta | And 12 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2017

Biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not yet validated for use in clinical settings. We aim to provide a methodological framework for their systematic validation, by reference to that developed for oncology biomarkers. As for this discipline, the steps for the systematic validation of AD biomarkers need to target analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. However, the premises are different from oncology: the nature of disease (neurodegeneration vs. cancer), the purpose (improve diagnosis in clinically affected vs. screening preclinical individuals), and the target population (mild cognitive impairment patients referring to memory clinics vs. general population) lead to important differences, influencing both the design of validation studies and the use of selected biomarkers. This framework is applied within a wider initiative to assess the current available evidence on the clinical validity of biomarkers for AD, for the final aim to identify gaps and research priorities, and to inform coordinated research efforts boosting AD biomarkers research. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Mokdad F.,Ryerson University | Chen D.L.,Ryerson University | Li D.Y.,University of AlbertaAlberta
Materials and Design | Year: 2017

The objective of this study was to identify twinning characteristics and mechanisms in an extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy under favorable conditions of profuse 101¯2 extension twinning using in-situ optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The propagation of a single twin variant led to a relatively fast saturation of twin nucleation after which the increase in strain was predominantly accommodated by the growth of existing twin lamellas. For distinct twin variants, the intersecting twins led to the confinement of the spaces constrained by the fine twin lamellas. Embryonic twin structures acknowledged theoretically or through atomistic simulations were experimentally observed, including the vanishing of primary112¯1 embryonic twin via the nucleation and growth of either single or multiple 101¯2 secondary extension twin variants during deformation. Newly identified twin-twin interaction scenarios included the ladder-like and branching-like twinning structures which occurred depending on the applied strain, incoming twin paths, and their impingement on the pre-existing twin boundaries. The formation of the branching-like structures involved three or more non-co-zone 101¯2 extension twin variants where the activation and growth of one variant among them were found to be favored by the external stresses via Schmid factor analysis. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Hansen M.,University of California at Berkeley | Villanger G.D.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | Bechshoft T.,University of AlbertaAlberta | Levin M.,University of Connecticut | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2017

Blood was sampled from nine free-ranging white whales (beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Total concentrations of eleven thyroid hormones and metabolites were measured in serum using a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analytical method. Measurements of these compounds in plasma gave the same results as in serum. The three hormones found in highest concentrations were 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4). Traces of associated metabolites were also found. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Sun Y.-F.,University of AlbertaAlberta | Li J.-H.,Xiamen University | Li J.-H.,Changji University | Wang M.-N.,University of AlbertaAlberta | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2015

For the first time, an iron doped lanthanum strontium chromite with A-site deficiency (A-LSCFe) was fabricated and utilized as an effective bi-functional catalyst for the growth of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The introduction of A-site deficiency significantly facilitates the in situ exsolution of nano-iron particles on which considerable amounts of MWCNTs are grown. The material was also used as the anode catalyst for SOFCs and proved to be a very effective anode catalyst in comparison with the stoichiometric material (sto-LSCFe). The exsolved nano-iron particles on A-LSCFe provide many more active sites for the oxidation reaction of fuel, leading to sharp enhancement of the electrochemical performance of the cell. It is also discovered that the growth of MWCNTs with high electron conductivity leads to a further improvement of the electricity output. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Prasad M.,Mercer University | Kaur J.,Mercer University | Pawlak K.J.,Mercer University | Bose M.,University of Florida | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Steroid hormones are essential for carbohydrate metabolism, stress management, and reproduction and are synthesized from cholesterol in mitochondria of adrenal glands and gonads/ovaries. In acute stress or hormonal stimulation, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports substrate cholesterol into the mitochondria for steroidogenesis by an unknown mechanism. Here, we report for the first time that StAR interacts with voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) at the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) prior to its translocation to the mitochondrial matrix. In the MAM, StAR interacts with mitochondrial proteins Tom22 and VDAC2. However, Tom22 knockdown by siRNA had no effect on pregnenolone synthesis. In the absence of VDAC2, StAR was expressed but not processed into the mitochondria as a mature 30-kDa protein. VDAC2 interacted with StAR via its C-terminal 20 amino acids and N-terminal amino acids 221-229, regulating the mitochondrial processing of StAR into the mature protein. In the absence of VDAC2, StAR could not enter the mitochondria or interact with MAM-associated proteins, and therefore steroidogenesis was inhibited. Furthermore, theNterminus was not essential for StAR activity, and the N-terminal deletion mutant continued to interact with VDAC2. The endoplasmic reticulum-targeting prolactin signal sequence did not affect StAR association with the MAM and thus its mitochondrial targeting. Therefore, VDAC2 controls StAR processing and activity, and MAM is thus a central location for initiating mitochondrial steroidogenesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Schiffrin E.L.,McGill University | Campbell N.R.C.,University of Alberta | Feldman R.D.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Kaczorowski J.,University of Montréal | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Global Health | Year: 2016

Canada has an extremely successful hypertension detection and treatment program. The aim of this review was to highlight the historic and current infrastructure and initiatives that have led to this success, and the outlook moving forward into the future. We discuss the evolution of hypertension awareness and control in Canada; contributions made by organizations such as the Canadian Hypertension Society, Blood Pressure Canada, and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program; the amalgamation of these organizations into Hypertension Canada; and the impact that Hypertension Canada has had on hypertension care in Canada. The important contribution that public policy and advocacy can have on prevention and control of blood pressure in Canada is described. We also highlight the importance of population-based strategies, health care access and organization, and accurate blood pressure measurement (including ambulatory, home, and automated office modalities) in optimizing hypertension prevention and management. We end by discussing how Hypertension Canada will move forward in the near and longer term to address the unmet residual risk attributable to hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension Canada will continue to strive to enhance hypertension prevention and control rates, thereby improving the quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes of Canadians, while at the same time creating a hypertension care model that can be emulated across the world. © 2016 The Authors

Tahreen N.,Ryerson University | Zhang D.F.,Chongqing University | Pan F.S.,Chongqing University | Pan F.S.,Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2016

Texture evolution and deformation activity of an extruded Mg-Zn-Mn (ZM31) alloy containing different amounts of yttrium subjected to hot compression along the extrusion direction at 200 °C and 300 °C were studied via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A typical basal texture with (0001) planes and 〈011¯0〉 directions of most grains oriented parallel to the extrusion direction was observed. With increasing Y content, the basal texture was weakened and grain orientations became more random. The occurrence of extension twinning was characterized by the formation of {1¯21¯0}〈0001〉 and {011¯0}〈0001〉 textures, indicating that the c-axes in most grains were rotated towards the anti-compression direction. The maximum intensity of twinned textures decreased with increasing deformation temperature, and the extent of decrease was less significant in the alloy with a higher amount of Y. Visco-plastic self-consistent simulation, along with EBSD and XRD analyses, revealed that with increasing deformation temperature the relative contribution of non-basal slip increased and the relative contribution of extension twinning decreased. With increasing Y content the relative contribution of pyramidal slip increased, while the relative contribution of basal slip decreased. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Zarekani M.,University of AlbertaAlberta | Panna M.,University of AlbertaAlberta | Bouferguene A.,University of Alberta | Al-Hussein M.,University of AlbertaAlberta
ICCREM 2015 - Environment and the Sustainable Building - Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management | Year: 2015

Quality of life (QOL) has been an ongoing subject of discussion in the field of urban planning and development in recent decades. Measuring QOL of residents through fundamental neighborhood metrics provides information on the living conditions of citizens and helps to promote sustainable social development. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood design on the QOL of residents. The metrics used to measure the QOL include availability and accessibility to goods and services. For the this paper, Edmonton, Canada, as an example of a growing city that brings challenges for urban planners in terms of sustainable development, is chosen for the case study. The methodology underlying this contribution relies on a comparative study of four neighborhoods located in four different parts of Edmonton having similar densities. The results of this study provide further insight into land development patterns and can assist decision makers involved in urban development. © 2015 ASCE.

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