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The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta, and Henry Marshall Tory, its first president. Its enabling legislation is the Post-secondary Learning Act.The university comprises four campuses in Edmonton, the Augustana Campus in Camrose, and a staff centre in downtown Calgary. The original north campus consists of 150 buildings covering 50 city blocks on the south rim of the North Saskatchewan River valley, directly across from downtown Edmonton. More than 39,000 students from across Canada and 150 other countries participate in nearly 400 programs in 18 faculties.The University of Alberta is a major economic driver in Alberta. The university’s impact on the Alberta economy is an estimated $12.3 billion annually, or five per cent of the province’s gross domestic product. With more than 15,000 employees, the university is Alberta's fourth-largest employer.The university has been recognized by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as one of the top five universities in Canada and one of the top 100 universities worldwide.According to the 2014 QS World University Rankings the top Faculty Area at the University of Alberta is Arts and Humanities , and the top-ranked Subject is English Language and Literature .The University of Alberta has graduated more than 260,000 alumni, including Governor General Roland Michener, Prime Minister Joe Clark, Chief Justice of Canada Beverley McLachlin, Alberta premiers Peter Lougheed, Dave Hancock and Jim Prentice, Edmonton Mayor Don Iveson and Nobel laureate Richard E. Taylor.The university is a member of the Alberta Rural Development Network, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education and the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System. Wikipedia.

This protocol outlines steps for optimizing the transfection of adherent primary mammalian cells using the readily available off-the-shelf cationic polymer, 25-kDa branched polyethylenimine (bPEI25). Transfection efficiency of cationic polymers varies among cell lines and is highly dependent on the conditions and environment in which complexes are formed. Factors requiring optimization include the salt concentration, volume, incubation time, mixing order and ratio of polymer to DNA. In this transfection protocol, complexes are prepared in 30 min, with analysis 24 h later; thus, experiments can be completed in 2 d. In this protocol, as an example, we describe the parameters we have optimized for the transfection of bone marrow stromal cells and normal human foreskin fibroblasts. By using this protocol, we have obtained transfection efficiencies comparable to lipofection. An appropriately optimized protocol enhances the utility of cationic polymers in transfecting mammalian cells, thereby providing an effective alternative to expensive commercial reagents. Source

Schindler D.W.,University of Alberta
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The management of eutrophication has been impeded by reliance on short-term experimental additions of nutrients to bottles and mesocosms. These measures of proximate nutrient limitation fail to account for the gradual changes in biogeochemical nutrient cycles and nutrient fluxes from sediments, and succession of communities that are important components of whole-ecosystem responses. Erroneous assumptions about ecosystem processes and lack of accounting for hysteresis during lake recovery have further confused management of eutrophication. I conclude that long-term, whole-ecosystem experiments and case histories of lake recovery provide the only reliable evidence for policies to reduce eutrophication. The only method that has had proven success in reducing the eutrophication of lakes is reducing input of phosphorus. There are no case histories or long-term ecosystem-scale experiments to support recent claims that to reduce eutrophication of lakes, nitrogen must be controlled instead of or in addition to phosphorus. Before expensive policies to reduce nitrogen input are implemented, they require ecosystem-scale verification. The recent claim that the 'phosphorus paradigm' for recovering lakes from eutrophication has been 'eroded' has no basis. Instead, the case for phosphorus control has been strengthened by numerous case histories and large-scale experiments spanning several decades. © 2012 The Royal Society. Source

Houghton M.,University of Alberta
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2011

Summary: Encouraging efficacy data have been obtained in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) chimpanzee model using prophylactic vaccines comprising adjuvanted recombinant envelope gpE1/gpE2 glycoproteins or prime/boost immunization regimens using defective adenoviruses and plasmid DNA expressing non-structural genes. While usually not resulting in sterilizing immunity after experimental challenge, the progression to chronic, persistent infection (which is responsible for HCV-associated pathogenicity in human) is inhibited. These and other vaccine candidates are in clinical development for both prophylactic as well as possible therapeutic applications. Given that other vaccines tested in the chimpanzee model may be possibly increasing the rate of chronicity, it is very important that this model continues to be available and used prior to initiation of clinical development. Several vaccine monotherapy trials in chronically infected HCV patients are resulting in small declines in viral load, suggesting that in future, combining vaccination with antiviral drug treatment may be beneficial. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Frolov V.P.,University of Alberta
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We study a spherical gravitational collapse of a small mass in higher-derivative and ghost-free theories of gravity. By boosting a solution of linearized equations for a static point mass in such theories we obtain in the Penrose limit the gravitational field of an ultrarelativistic particle. Taking a superposition of such solutions we construct a metric of a collapsing null shell in the linearized higher-derivative and ghost-free gravity. The latter allows one to find the gravitational field of a thick null shell. By analyzing these solutions we demonstrate that in a wide class of the higher dimensional theories of gravity as well as for the ghost-free gravity there exists a mass gap for mini-black-hole production. We also found conditions when the curvature invariants remain finite at r=0 for the collapse of the thick null shell. © 2015 American Physical Society. Source

Richards J.P.,University of Alberta
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2013

Giant ore deposits contain anomalously large quantities of metal and are priority targets for mineral exploration companies. It is debated whether these giant deposits have a unique mode of formation. Alternatively they may simply represent the extreme end of a spectrum of deposit sizes, formed by an optimum coincidence of common geological processes to build unusually large accumulations of metal. If formed by unique processes, the occurrence of giant ore deposits may be difficult to predict. Conversely, if formed by common processes, understanding the mechanisms that lead to optimum circumstances for giant metal deposits could help with exploration. A review of several giant porphyry copper-molybdenum-gold and epithermal gold-silver deposits reveals that many have characteristics consistent with formation during the optimization of normal ore-forming processes. In several cases, the large size of the deposit reflects specific factors, such as distinct tectonic configurations, reactive host rocks or focused fluid flow, that are not unusual by themselves but have helped to enhance the overall process. Thus, I suggest that effective exploration for giant deposits should seek distinct conditions within fundamentally prospective geological settings that might lead to enhanced ore-forming processes. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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