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Giweli A.,University of Belgrade | Giweli A.,University of Al Gabel Al Garbe | Dzamic A.M.,University of Belgrade | Sokovic M.,University of Belgrade | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002-0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001-0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil. © 2012 by the authors. Source


Stojkovic D.,University of Belgrade | Reis F.S.,Polytechnic Institute of Braganca | Ferreira I.C.F.R.,Polytechnic Institute of Braganca | Barros L.,Polytechnic Institute of Braganca | And 6 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Desert truffle, Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malençon from Libya was chemically characterized in nutritional value, primary and secondary metabolites. Antioxidant (scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and antibacterial activity of its methanolic extract alone and in combination with potassium metabisulfite (E224) were evaluated under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on the control of Staphylococcus aureus was examined in a contaminated soup under in situ conditions. T. pinoyi was shown to be rich in carbohydrates (82.60. g/100. g dw) and proteins (8.06. g/100. g dw), being identified four free sugars (rhamnose, fructose, trehalose and mannitol) and three tocopherol isoforms (β-, δ- and γ-tocopherols). Oleic (32.29%), linoleic (29.72%) and palmitic (27.97%) acids were the main fatty acids. p-Hydroxybenzoic (300.65. μg/100. g dw) and cinnamic (8.30. μg/100. g dw) acids were quantified, as also four organic acids: quinic (0.83. g/100. g dw), malic (0.35. g/100. g dw), fumaric (0.05. g/100. g dw) and citric (1.26. g/100. g dw) acids. The methanolic extract of the mushroom showed in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Sterilized distillated water containing 0.02% Tween 80 proved to be the most convenient solvent for in situ antimicrobial activity; the extract successfully inhibited the growth of S. aureus in chicken soup in a dose dependent manner. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Giweli A.A.,University of Belgrade | Giweli A.A.,University of Al Gabel Al Garbe | Dzamic A.M.,University of Belgrade | Sokovic M.,University of Belgrade | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The composition of essential oil isolated from Salvia fruticosa, wild growing in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-five compounds could be identified. The essential oil contained 1,8-cineole (49.34%), camphor (7.53%), ß-pinene (7.38%), myrcene (7.38%), a-pinene (5.15%), ß-caryophyllene (4.13%) and a-terpineol (3.25). Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the DPPH free radical scavenging method and low antioxidant activity was found (IC50 = 15.53 mg/ml). The oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacteria (four Gram-negative and four Gram-positive) and eight fungi. The essential oil of S. fruticosa showed minimal inhibitory activity (MIC) at 0.125-1.5 mg/ml and bactericidal (MBC) at 0.5-2.0 mg/ml. In addition, it exhibited fungistatic (MIC) at 0.125-1.0 mg/ml and fungicidal effect (MFC) at 0.125-1.5 mg/ml. Source


Al Sheef N.B.,University of Science and Arts of Iran | Duletic-Lausevic S.,University of Belgrade | Janosevic D.,University of Belgrade | Budimir S.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Micromorphological and ultrastructural analyses of the leaf trichomes of Salvia fruticosa Mill. were performed by light and electron microscopy. The leaves bear numerous non-glandular unbranched trichomes, and peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes. Very elongated flagelliform non-glandular trichomes densely covered the leaf surfaces, with especially abundance on the leaf margins. Peltate trichomes consist of a basal epidermal cell, a very short stalk cell and a large round head of eight secretory cells arranged in a circle. Capitate trichomes can be divided into two main types, short-stalked and long-stalked, and further into five subtypes according to the number of stalk cells, morphology and number of glandular head cells. Digitiform trichomes consist of one basal cell, one or two stalk cells and one apical secretory cell, which are of similar diameter and approximately equal length. Source


Giweli A.A.,University of Al Gabel Al Garbe | Dzamic A.M.,University of Belgrade | Sokovic M.D.,University of Belgrade | Ristic M.S.,Serbian Institute for Medicinal Plant Research Dr Josif Pancic | Marin P.D.,University of Belgrade
Central European Journal of Biology | Year: 2013

The composition of essential oil isolated from Thymus algeriensis growing wild in Libya was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized with thymol (38. 50%) as the major component. The oil was screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and compared to thymol and carvacrol. Antioxidant activity was high, with the IC50 of 0. 299 mg/ml, compared to 0. 403 and 0. 105 mg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, and 0. 0717 mg/ml for BHA. In addition, antimicrobial activity was tested against eight bacteria and eight fungi. T. algeriensis oil showed inhibitory activity against tested bacteria at 0. 001-0. 05 mg/ml, while bactericidal activity (MBC) was achieved at 0. 0025-0. 05 mg/ml. For antifungal activity MICs ranged 0. 0005-0. 025 mg/ml and MFC 0. 001-0. 05 mg/ml. High antimicrobial activity against the fungi in particular suggests that the essential oil of Thymus algeriensis could have a useful practical application. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

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