University of Al Gabel Al Garbe

Az Zintān, Libya

University of Al Gabel Al Garbe

Az Zintān, Libya
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Nikolic M.,University of Belgrade | Glamoclija J.,University of Belgrade | Markovic T.,Serbian Institute for Medicinal Plant Research Dr Josif Pancic | Markovic D.,University of Belgrade | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

Aromatic plant species of genus Thymus are important medicinal plants, highly recommended due to a range of therapeutic properties of their essential oils, commonly known as thyme oil: antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, cardiac, carminative, diuretic and expectorant. The oil is also beneficial in boosting the immune system and helps to fight colds, flu, infectious diseases and chills. It is proved to be a urinary antiseptic, being very helpful for cystitis and urethritis. Scientific validation of traditional uses, and phytochemical and bioactivity evaluation of essential oils from Thymus serpyllum, Thymus algeriensis and Thymus vulgaris were performed.GC/MS analysis revealed thymol as a major component of T. algeriensis, T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum, with its contribution to the oil 56.0%, 48.9% and 38.5%, respectively. All three essential oils (EOs) exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity against all tested strains, the T. serpyllum oil being the most potent one (MIC 2.5-5μg/mL, MBC 5-10μg/mL; MIC 1-2μg/mL, MFC 2-4μg/mL). In addition, the T. serpyllum oil revealed the highest antioxidant activity in all conducted assays and it was the most effective one against all tested cell lines, presenting GI50 values of 7.02-52.69μg/mL. Moreover, none of the EOs showed toxicity at tested concentrations (>400μg/mL) for porcine liver primary cell culture. In addition to their well-known traditional use in food and cosmetics, the great potential of tested Thymus essential oils for application in oral diseases and anticancer treatments, encourage further investigation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Giweli A.,University of Belgrade | Giweli A.,University of Al Gabel Al Garbe | Dzamic A.M.,University of Belgrade | Sokovic M.,University of Belgrade | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002-0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001-0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil. © 2012 by the authors.


Stojkovic D.,University of Belgrade | Reis F.S.,Polytechnic Institute of Bragança | Ferreira I.C.F.R.,Polytechnic Institute of Bragança | Barros L.,Polytechnic Institute of Bragança | And 6 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Desert truffle, Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malençon from Libya was chemically characterized in nutritional value, primary and secondary metabolites. Antioxidant (scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and antibacterial activity of its methanolic extract alone and in combination with potassium metabisulfite (E224) were evaluated under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on the control of Staphylococcus aureus was examined in a contaminated soup under in situ conditions. T. pinoyi was shown to be rich in carbohydrates (82.60. g/100. g dw) and proteins (8.06. g/100. g dw), being identified four free sugars (rhamnose, fructose, trehalose and mannitol) and three tocopherol isoforms (β-, δ- and γ-tocopherols). Oleic (32.29%), linoleic (29.72%) and palmitic (27.97%) acids were the main fatty acids. p-Hydroxybenzoic (300.65. μg/100. g dw) and cinnamic (8.30. μg/100. g dw) acids were quantified, as also four organic acids: quinic (0.83. g/100. g dw), malic (0.35. g/100. g dw), fumaric (0.05. g/100. g dw) and citric (1.26. g/100. g dw) acids. The methanolic extract of the mushroom showed in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Sterilized distillated water containing 0.02% Tween 80 proved to be the most convenient solvent for in situ antimicrobial activity; the extract successfully inhibited the growth of S. aureus in chicken soup in a dose dependent manner. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Giweli A.A.,University of Al Gabel Al Garbe | Dzamic A.M.,University of Belgrade | Sokovic M.D.,University of Belgrade | Ristic M.S.,Serbian Institute for Medicinal Plant Research Dr Josif Pancic | Marin P.D.,University of Belgrade
Central European Journal of Biology | Year: 2013

The composition of essential oil isolated from Thymus algeriensis growing wild in Libya was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized with thymol (38. 50%) as the major component. The oil was screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and compared to thymol and carvacrol. Antioxidant activity was high, with the IC50 of 0. 299 mg/ml, compared to 0. 403 and 0. 105 mg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, and 0. 0717 mg/ml for BHA. In addition, antimicrobial activity was tested against eight bacteria and eight fungi. T. algeriensis oil showed inhibitory activity against tested bacteria at 0. 001-0. 05 mg/ml, while bactericidal activity (MBC) was achieved at 0. 0025-0. 05 mg/ml. For antifungal activity MICs ranged 0. 0005-0. 025 mg/ml and MFC 0. 001-0. 05 mg/ml. High antimicrobial activity against the fungi in particular suggests that the essential oil of Thymus algeriensis could have a useful practical application. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Giweli A.A.,University of Belgrade | Giweli A.A.,University of Al Gabel Al Garbe | Dzamic A.M.,University of Belgrade | Sokovic M.,University of Belgrade | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The composition of essential oil isolated from Salvia fruticosa, wild growing in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-five compounds could be identified. The essential oil contained 1,8-cineole (49.34%), camphor (7.53%), ß-pinene (7.38%), myrcene (7.38%), a-pinene (5.15%), ß-caryophyllene (4.13%) and a-terpineol (3.25). Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the DPPH free radical scavenging method and low antioxidant activity was found (IC50 = 15.53 mg/ml). The oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacteria (four Gram-negative and four Gram-positive) and eight fungi. The essential oil of S. fruticosa showed minimal inhibitory activity (MIC) at 0.125-1.5 mg/ml and bactericidal (MBC) at 0.5-2.0 mg/ml. In addition, it exhibited fungistatic (MIC) at 0.125-1.0 mg/ml and fungicidal effect (MFC) at 0.125-1.5 mg/ml.


Al Sheef N.B.,University of Science and Arts of Iran | Duletic-Lausevic S.,University of Belgrade | Janosevic D.,University of Belgrade | Budimir S.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Micromorphological and ultrastructural analyses of the leaf trichomes of Salvia fruticosa Mill. were performed by light and electron microscopy. The leaves bear numerous non-glandular unbranched trichomes, and peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes. Very elongated flagelliform non-glandular trichomes densely covered the leaf surfaces, with especially abundance on the leaf margins. Peltate trichomes consist of a basal epidermal cell, a very short stalk cell and a large round head of eight secretory cells arranged in a circle. Capitate trichomes can be divided into two main types, short-stalked and long-stalked, and further into five subtypes according to the number of stalk cells, morphology and number of glandular head cells. Digitiform trichomes consist of one basal cell, one or two stalk cells and one apical secretory cell, which are of similar diameter and approximately equal length.


Janosevic D.,University of Belgrade | Budimir S.,University of Belgrade | Alimpic A.,University of Belgrade | Marin P.,University of Belgrade | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

We performed a comprehensive study of trichomes considering the medicinal importance of the essential oils produced in glandular trichomes of Salvia aegyptiaca L. and lack of data about leaf trichome characteristics. Micromorphological and histochemical analyses of the trichomes of S. aegyptiaca were carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. We report that the leaves contained abundant non-glandular unbranched trichomes and two types of glandular trichomes, peltate and capitate, on both leaf surfaces. The abaxial leaf side was covered with numerous peltate and capitate trichomes, while capitate trichomes were more abundant on the adaxial leaf side, where peltate trichomes were rarely observed. The non-glandular trichomes were unicellular papillae and multicellular, uniseriate, two-to-six-celled, erect or slightly leaning toward the epidermis. Peltate trichomes were composed of a basal cell, a short cylindrical stalk cell and a broad head of eight secretory cells arranged in a single circle. Capitate trichomes consisted of a one-celled glandular head, subtended by a stalk of variable length, and classified into two types: Capitate trichomes type I (or short-stalked glandular trichomes) and capitate trichomes type II (or long-stalked glandular trichomes). Histochemical tests showed that the secreted material in all types of S. aegyptiaca glandular trichomes was of a complex nature. Positive reactions to lipids for both types of glandular trichomes were obtained, with especially abundant secretion observed in peltate and capitate trichomes type II.

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