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Khan S.,Banasthali University | Vaishali,University of Agriculture and Technology | Sharma V.,Banasthali University
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2010

This study represents the agro-ecological zone wise surveys of molecular variation of important medicinal tree Syzygium cumini Linn. (Jamun) which is native to India. It is used world wide in treatment of diabetes. Despite of its diverse medicinal properties no molecular data is available about the pattern of variation in its natural range. Populations of S. cumini in India are located in different habitats which differ from each other with regard to ecological factors. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to detect inter and intra levels of genetic variations of sixteen S. cumini genotypes collected from three major agro-ecological zones of India. A total of 220 amplification products were scored of which 87.50 % were polymorphic. The level of polymorphism ranged from 47.69 % to 74.87 % polymorphic bands per population and was correlated with population size. Different measures of diversity: Shannon's index of phenotypic diversity (I) = 0.451 ± 0.230; Nei's genetic diversity (h) = 0.300 ± 0.172; effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) = 1.51 ± 0.347; total species diversity (Hsp) = 0.315 ± 0.031 and within population diversity (Hpop) = 0.158 ± 0.104 showed high genetic diversity at species level. Coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst =0.498; Nm = 0.503) revealed significant genetic differentiation among the populations. Most of the genetic variations are contained among the populations. The results of cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) give only little evidence for an ecotypic differentiation of S. cumini populations. Present genetic structure of population suggests ex situ conservation in seed banks in which seeds from at least five populations need to collected and conserved. Secondly, our study provides practical information to herbal drugs manufactures who use Jamun as a raw material. © 2010 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.

Singh A.,University of California at Davis | Singh A.,Navsari Agricultural University | Liang Y.-C.,University of California at Davis | Kumar P.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid technique for the analysis of gene function during plant growth and development. We attempted to use VIGS for the functional analysis of genes associated with floral senescence and abscission in Four O'Clock plants (Mirabilis jalapa).Plants infected with a Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) vector containing a fragment of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene did not show the expected photo-bleaching phenotype. We hypothesised that the failure of VIGS in this species might be due to the presence of the Mirabilis antiviral protein (MAP) which is known to have potent activity in preventing viral infection. Plants infected with a TRV vector containing fragments of both the PDS and MAP genes showed the typical photo-bleaching phenotype in photosynthetic tissues, and this was accompanied by reductions in the abundance of PDS and MAP transcripts. We also demonstrated reduced transcript abundance (and the expected phenotypes) when VIGS with a TRV-MAP vector was used to silence the chlorata42 (Ch42) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) genes. Silencing of the 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine 5-glucosyl transferase (DOPA5GT) gene reduced pigmentation in stems, leaves, and flowers. This is the first direct demonstration of the role of an enzyme that has been proposed to be a key step in the synthesis of betalain pigments. Co-silencing of endogenous anti-viral proteins may increase the range of taxa that are amenable to the use of VIGS for functional gene analysis.

Kumar A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Suri V.K.,University of Agriculture and Technology
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The current experiment was conducted at Palampur, India during 2009-11 in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)-pea (Pisum sativum L.) cropping system in RBD replicated thrice with 14 treatments comprising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), applied-P (50, 75 and 100% recommended P dose) and irrigation regimes (40 and 80% available water holding capacity). At active growth period (50-100 DAS), AMF imbedded treatments exhibited 7 and 20% higher absolute growth rate (AGR) in okra and pea over non-AMF counterparts, while relative growth rate (RGR) both in okra and pea was not affected significantly by AMF application. Net assimilation rate (NAR) and crop growth rate (CGR) in okra were higher by 17 and 3%, respectively with AMF inoculation, though, effect on pea was inconspicuous. At both irrigation regimes, 'AMF + 75% soil-test based P dose' registered statistically similar okra fruit and pea pod yields as that obtained under '100% soil-test based P dose', thus, indicating an economy of about 25% soil-test based P dose. AMF inoculated plants also showed nominally higher succulence level (moisture) in okra fruits and pea pods at their picking stages compared to their non-AMF counterparts, again demonstrating a positive impact of AMF on quantitative vegetable freshness and plant water relations as well. AMF significantly enhanced the various indices of P-use efficiency in both crops. The increase in partial factor productivity (PFP), crop recovery efficiency (CRE) and % recovery (PR) of applied-P in okra under AMF inoculation was 9, 36 and 20%, respectively over non-AMF counterparts. In pea, AMF inoculation exhibited respective increase of 12, 61 and 27% in PFP, CRE and PR of applied-P over non-AMF counterparts. Production and monetary efficiencies in okra-pea cropping system were also enhanced by AMF inoculation. Overall, utilization of AMF in okra-pea cropping system indicated an economy of about 25% in soil-test based applied-P dose besides improved plant growth. AMF also revealed a tremendous potential in enhancing P-use efficiency, which otherwise is very low in acid Alfisol. Further, AMF inoculation may lead to improved fruit succulence to fetch better prices in market.

Singh S.,Sunbeam | Singh T.N.,University of Agriculture and Technology | Chauhan J.S.,Lml Post Graduate College
Journal of New Seeds | Year: 2010

Knowledge of the location and magnitude of resistance to water flow in a plant is fundamental for describing whole-plant response to water deficit as the water after absorption by roots has to pass through various magnitudes of resistance offered by the stem and leaf sheath tissues before reaching the transpiring surfaces, i.e., laminae. Therefore, the hydraulic resistance to water flux was studied in aboveground portions of excised rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) by incubating them with their cut ends under water. The findings suggest that the hydraulic resistance occurs in every organ of the plant, though in varying degrees, the order of its magnitude being greatest in the stem followed by leaf sheath and lamina in that order, i.e., stem > leaf sheath > lamina. Pressurization of water to force entry through the cut end into the detached plant was used to elucidate the temporal dynamics of shoot hydraulic properties in rice cultivars. For this, the time taken for unrolling of leaves that roll back following release of pneumatic pressure by "stop-flow" technique, i.e., pressure application and its release, was used as a yardstick for measuring shoot hydraulic resistance. Drought-adaptable cultivars 'N-22' and 'Baranideep' were found to have maximal shoot hydraulic resistance as they took the maximum time, i.e., 67 and 64 min respectively, for complete leaf unrolling on account of increased water status under pneumatic pressure. The cultivars 'Jal-priya' and 'Jal-lahari', suited to waterlogged ecosystem, took the least time (38 to 36 min) for leaf unrolling, indicating low hydraulic resistance thereof. The responses of cultivars 'NDRH-2' and 'NDR-359', suitable for irrigated conditions, were intermediate, which took 52 to 48 min for leaf unfolding under pressure. It was assumed that the more the time taken for leaf unrolling by a cultivar, the more was its shoot hydraulic resistance. Higher shoot resistance appears to be an important trait that could enhance the ability of plants to compete advantageously for stored moisture in the soil. It is suggested that this new stop-flow technique, a move meant for the beyond the confines of laboratory making a significant departure from other techniques of measuring shoot hydraulic resistance, could be used for screening large number of germplasm and breeding materials of rice to enable plant breeders to select and develop varieties having increased shoot hydraulic resistance, a water-saving trait, for sustainable crop production under reduced water supply ecosystem across the globe. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Singh N.P.,University of Agriculture and Technology | Vaishali,University of Agriculture and Technology
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

Today, the ecological cycle is changing day by day due to some environmental changes, therfore, efficient efforts should be made to develop improved crops which can give better yield with good quality. Stay green trait is one of the major characters of the crop to sustain under abiotic stresses. The stay green trait directly maintain the longer photosynthetic period and chlorophyll content by delaying leaf senescence. In the present study, ten wheat varieties viz. HUW 510, C 306, Sonalika, HD 2135, HD 2177, VL 401, K 9162, RAJ 3765, K 68, K 7410 were collected to develop the stay green genotype. The seeds of these ten wheat varieties were treated with 1.25% EMS for 60 minutes. After EMS treatment, the two wheat varieties K 7410 and RAJ 3765, performed better in terms of yield components like seeds per spike, 1000 grain weight. The photosynthesis rate was found to be maintained or somewhat increased in K 7410 and RAJ 3765 from 24.43 to 26.00μmol/m2sec and from 22.57 to 24.57μmol/m2sec respectively after the treatment. So, the EMS treatment is found to be significant for developing stay green genotypes which may be resistant to abiotic stress like drought, high temperature etc.

Pedigree method was adopted for development for Vallabh Basmati-22 and Vallabh Basmati-23, the varieties of specialty rice. The slow growing segregants of a cross P1121xType3 were selected on the basis of disease resistance and grain quality. As a consequence of evaluation of such selections in following generations the improved varieties of Basmati rice were developed. Introgression of genes for dwarfism and resistance against blast and blight diseases was evaluated in artificial epiphytotic condition followed by confirmation using respective molecular markers.

Jakhar M.S.,University of Agriculture and Technology | Pathak S.,University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of pre-harvest bagging and spray of CaCl2 and K2SO4 on quality and shelf life of mango fruits cv. Amrapali during two succeeding years. Trees of Amrapali mango were sprayed three times at 30, 20, and10 days before harvesting and bagging with brown paper bag 20 days before harvesting of fruits. Harvested fruits were stored under the ambient temperature (storage at room temperature) and observations were taken at three days intervals upto 18 days. The results indicated that the pre-harvest treatment of 2% CaCl2+1% K2SO4+bagging was found superior to improve the quality of fruits in respect of highest fruits weight, firmness, TSS, ascorbic acid, total sugars, and β-carotene content with minimum black spotted fruits per cent and maintained it throughout the storage period upto 18 days. Fruits treated with 2% CaCl2+1% K2SO4+bagging showed shelf life up to 12 days with lowest weight loss and highest organoleptic quality as against 6 days of untreated fruits (control). © 2016, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Pandiaraj T.,University of Agriculture and Technology | Selvaraj S.,University of Agriculture and Technology | Ramu N.,University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of pulses in crop sequences, crop residue management, and application of fertilizer N on soil nitrogen content, soil organic carbon, nutrient uptake, and its consequences for wheat yields. The field experiments were carried out from 2009 to 2012 in the sub-humid and sub-tropical zone of northern India. The treatments were (i) crop residue retained (+Residue) or (ii) removed (-Residue), (iii) 120 kg N ha-1 applied to wheat, (iv) 150 kg N ha-1 to maize, and (v) a control with no nitrogen applied to either wheat or maize. The cropping systems consisted of a rotation of wheat and maize or wheat and green gram. Postharvest incorporation of crop residues significantly (P< 0.05) increased the wheat grain and straw yields during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. On average, crop residues incorporation increased the wheat grain yield by a factor of 1.31 and straw yield by 1.38. The wheat crop also responded strongly to the previous legume (green gram); grain yield increased by a factor of 1.89 and straw yield by 2.05, compared to the control. Application of fertilizer N to the preceding maize crop exerted a strong carryover effect on grain (1.18) and straw yield (1.26) wheat. Application of N fertilizer to wheat increased grain and straw yields by, respectively, a factor of 1.69 and 1.79 on average. The overall conclusion is that an improved crop residue management, combined with application of fertilizer N or incorporation of legumes greatly improves the N economy of cereal cropping systems and enhances crop productivity in soils with a low N content on the short term. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Kumari R.,Hindu College Moradabad | Singh A.,Hindu College Moradabad | Kumar P.,Hindu College Moradabad | Kumar N.,University of Agriculture and Technology
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Soil salinity is a major restriction to crop production in many areas of the world. Crops growing in salt-affected soils may suffer from many physiological stress and ion toxicity which then lead to reduced growth and productivity. The present study was under taken on the effect of salinity and rhizobium inoculated seeds on plant growth and productivity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-greacum L.) cultivars (NDM-17 and Pusa Kasauri). The pot experiment was conducted in completely randomized block design with three replicates. Two sets of pot trails were maintained in which one inoculated with effective rhizobium strain (Rhizobium meliloti) while other set was uninoculated. Both sets were irrigated with saline water of different electrical conductivities (0, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12 and 14 dS/m). Salinity stress registered the highest detrimental effects on growth and productivity. Present findings revealed that the inoculated seeds with effective rhizobium strain minimized the deleterious effect of salinity at all levels. The maximum growth and productivity was found in NDM-17 in both sets inoculated and uninoculated with rhizobium as compared to Pusa Kasauri.

PubMed | University of Agriculture and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fish physiology and biochemistry | Year: 2013

Proteolytic activity of sea trout hatching liquid was examined towards casein and azocazein as a function of pH and temperature. The optimum pH for caseinolytic and azocaseinolytic activities were 9.4, and 9.0, respectively. At alkaline pH the enzyme was activated by low concentrations of Zn(2+) ions (10(-5) M). Maximum proteolytic activity of the hatching liquid was observed at 25C. Temperatures exceeding 30C caused a rapid reduction in enzyme activity. Proteolytic activity observed at 10C was approximately 50% of that observed at 25C. In general, a pseudo-Arrhenius plot indicated a Q10 of 1.6 between 6 and 25C.

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