University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Karnataka, India
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Gadad H.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Vastrad A.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Krishnaraj P.U.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Annual Research and Review in Biology | Year: 2017

Gut bacterial diversity in field and laboratory strain of S. litura and H. armigera was studied USING Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Results showed that field collected larvae found to be had more diverse of gut bacterial community with greater Shannon diversity index and Operational Taxonomic Units (OUT’s) as compared to laboratory strain. Shannon diversity index of field collected S. litura and H. armigera larvae recorded were 1.89 and 2.60 for the primer pair PRBA338-PRUN518 respectively. While another primer pair E1052-E1193 recorded Shannon diversity index of 2.65 and 2.03 respectively. On the contrary laboratory reared larvae of S. litura recorded Shannon diversity index of 1.60 for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer pair and 2.20 for E1052-E1193 primer pair. Shannon diversity index for H. armigera was 2.02 and 1.09 againstPRBA338-PRUN518 and E1052-E1193 primer pairs respectively. With respect to Operational Taxonomic Units (OUT’s) again field collected test insect larvae shown higher OUT’s for both primer pairs. Field collected S. litura larvae shown 17.20 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 13.60 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair. Similarly Field collected H. armigera larvae shown 21.00 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 15.00 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair. Whereas laboratory reared larvae of S. litura recorded 9.00 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 11.40 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair and another test insect H. armigera recorded 11.00 OUT’s for PRBA338-PRUN518 primer and 7.40 OUT’s for E1052-E1193 primer pair. DGGE analysis indicated that field strains of both test insects showed more diversity in gut bacteria as compared to laboratory reared strains. © 2017 Gadad et al.

Guled M.B.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Plant Archives | Year: 2017

The field experiment was conducted at college of Agriculture Farm, Vijayapur during kharif season 2013-14 to study the performance of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. Under the different plant population and nutrient levels in Zai method of cultivation under dry land situation.Twelve treatments under Zai method of cultivationwith four levels of plant population (22, 18, 14 and 10 seeds per Zai pit) and three levelsof fertilizer application (25: 50: 0, 31.5: 62.5:0 and 37.5: 75: 0 kg N: P2O5: K2O ha-1, respectively) were compared with recommended practice. Thirteen treatments weretested in randomized complete block design with three replications. Nutrient uptake was found that there was significantly higher uptake of nitrogen (117.25 kg/ ha), phosphorus (13.20 kg/ha) and potassium (87.55 kg/ha) in Zai method of in situ moisture conservation practice as compared to recommended (76.30 kg/ha), (9.16 kg/ha) and (60.95 kg/ha), respectively. And, it was higher to an extent of 53.67, 44.15 and 43.64 per cent respectively over recommended practice. Zai method of cultivation was found to be efficient increase in the fertility status of the soil. Hence, it may be advocated for up scaling among the farming community.

Janagoudar B.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2017

The study was conducted in Uttara Kannada districts during the year 2012-2014. The study area lies between 13.92° N to 15.52° N latitude and 74.08° E to 75.09° E longitude with an area of 10,215 km2. The Indian satellite IRS P6 LISS-III imageries were used to classify the land use land cover classes with ground truth data collected with GPS through supervised classification in ERDAS software. The land use and land cover classes identified were dense forest, horticulture plantation, sparse forest, forest plantation, open land and agriculture land. The dense forest covered an area of 63.32 % (6468.70 sq km) followed by agriculture 12.88 % (1315.31 sq. km), sparse forest 10.59 % (1081.37 sq. km), open land 6.09 % (622.37 sq. km), horticulture plantation and least was forest plantation (1.07 %). Settlement, stony land and water body together cover about 4.26 percent of the area. The study indicated that the aspect and altitude influenced the forest types and vegetation pattern. The NDVI map was prepared which indicated that healthy vegetation is represented by high NDVI values between 0.1 and 1. The non-vegetated features such as water bodies, settlement, and stony land indicated less than 0.1 values. The decrease in forest area in some places was due to anthropogenic activities. The thematic map of land use land cover classes was prepared using Arc GIS Software.

Chowti S.P.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Basavaraja H.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2017

The present study was conducted in Haveri district of Karnataka state. For evaluating the objectives of the study, the required primary data for the year 2011-12 was collected from sample of 120 farmers fallowing multistage random sampling technique through personal interview method with the help of pre-tested and well structured schedule. Study attempted to examine the technical and allocative efficiency in major maize hybrids in the study area. Cobb-Douglas production function was estimated to analyze relationship between resources and productivity of maize. The production elasticities for seeds and fertilizers in CP-818 hybrid were positive and significant whereas, in NK-6240 hybrid, the production coefficients for plant protection chemicals and seeds were positive and significant. The average technical efficiency was slightly higher for NK-6240 hybrid (82%) as compared to that of CP-818 hybrid (79%). The ratio of MVP to MFC for seed, fertilizer and PPC was more than one in CP-818 hybrid whereas, in NK-6240 the ratio was greater than one for seed and PPC indicating under utilization of resources. Copyright © EM International.

Dambal G.I.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Patil R.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Plant Archives | Year: 2017

The present study was made to evaluate safflower germplasm accessions for resistance against Alternaria leaf spot. Natural disease screening was carried out during rabi 2014-15 at College of Agriculture, Vijayapur, U.A.S., Dharwad by growing a total of 80 safflower germplasm accessions in an augmented design. Based on intensity of disease scoring 61 germplasms were shown susceptible reaction with the disease intensity of 50 -70 per cent and remaining all germplasms along with checks were classified under highly susceptible group with more than 70 per cent disease intensity. This study further substantiates the lack of high and stable sources of resistance to alternaria leaf spots among the germplasms in safflower.

Hadimani B.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Kulkarni S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Plant Archives | Year: 2017

Optimization of Bacillus subtilis growth conditions for mass production under laboratory conditions was investigated as part of a biological control programme. Aspects such as increasing yield using various culture media, pH, temperatures and carrier materials were studied. Nutrient broth (100×108) and 20 g molasses and 10 g yeast extract based media (98.60×108) gave the highest yield and 20 g molasses and 10g yeast extract broth was the most economical. pH of 7-8, temperature of 30-350C and talc as carrier material were proved to best for mass production of B. subtilis.

Sarvamangala C.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Sarvamangala C.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sarvamangala C.,Agharkar Research Institute | Gowda M.V.C.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Varshney R.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Field Crops Research | Year: 2011

Very few efforts have been made to improve the nutritional quality of groundnut, as biochemical estimation of quality traits is laborious and uneconomic; hence, it is difficult to improve them through traditional breeding alone. Identification of molecular markers for quality traits will have a great impact in molecular breeding. An attempt was made to identify microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for important nutritional traits (protein content, oil content and oil quality in terms of oleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic/linoleic acid ratio) in a mapping population consisting of 146 recombinant inbreed lines (RILs) of a cross TG26 × GPBD4. Phenotyping data analysis for quality traits showed significant variation in the population and environment, genotype × environment interaction and high heritability was observed for all the traits. Negative correlation between protein content and oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid indicated their antagonistic nature. After screening >1000 SSR markers, a partial genetic linkage map comprising of 45 SSR loci on 8 linkage groups with an average inter-marker distance of 14.62. cM was developed. QTL analysis based on single marker analysis (SMA) and composite interval mapping identified some candidate SSR markers associated with major QTLs as well as several minor QTLs for the nutritional traits. Validation of these major QTLs using a wider genetic background may provide the markers for molecular breeding for improving groundnut for nutritional traits. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Upadhyaya H.D.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Mukri G.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Nadaf H.L.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Singh S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Crop Science | Year: 2012

The nutritional quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) products depends on the protein content, oil content, and composition of oil. Low genetic variability has been a major bottleneck in genetic enhancement of these nutritional traits in commercial cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify stable genotypes with better nutritional traits and good agronomic performance for use in future breeding programs. The 184 mini core accessions and four control cultivars were evaluated for nutritional traits for two seasons at two locations and for agronomic traits at one location. Signifi cant genotypic and genotype × environment interactions were observed for all the nutritional and agronomic traits in the entire mini core collection and within each A. hypogaea subspecies of fastigiata Waldron and hypogaea. Eighteen accessions with higher nutritional traits such as protein content, oil content, oleic acid, and oleic to linoleic acid ratio with superior agronomic traits were identifi ed and their stability analysis resulted in identifi cation of a high oleic acid content (>73%) accession (ICG 2381). On the basis of higher nutritional and agronomic traits 11 subsp. fastigiata and 10 subsp. hypogaea diverse accessions were identifi ed with more than two trait combinations for use in peanut breeding programs for genetic enhancement of nutritional traits. © Crop Science Society of America.

Kandagal A.S.,TGP Science College | Khetagoudar M.C.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2013

Larvicidal activity of various concentrations of crude aqueous leaf extracts of E. triplinerve were studied against S. litura following the treatment on fourth instar larvae. The results of the total percent mortality (from fourth instar to adult) demonstrated that the mortality rate progressively increased (41.42, 58.57, 69.80, 84.49, 86.77, 90.55, 91.30, 90.54) as the extract concentrations increased (1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 12.5, 15, 17.5%). The maximum of 92 % total mortality was observed at 15 % concentration of the extract. It was significant to note that the percent mortality observed from 5 % onwards was more than 85 %. Results of adult emergence inhibition indicated that the EI50 of E triplinerve was more effective at 4.07 %. Interestingly the calculated EI90 value was 14.10 %. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of agricultural pest, S. litura. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

Gunaga S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Rajeshwari N.,Sahyadri Science College | Vasudeva R.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Tropical Ecology | Year: 2012

A comparative description of tree diversity of community-protected kaan forests and state-managed reserve forests influenced by the level of disturbance and rainfall was assessed in Sagar taluk, Shimoga district, Karnataka, India. Kaan forests and state-managed reserve forests in regions of high and low rainfall were assessed for tree diversity. In each sampled site, a transect of 1 km and two 25 m2 regeneration quadrats were laid. Kaan forests possessed a higher species richness, with 85 tree species, than the reserve forests (57). Basal area and tree density were also higher in the kaan forests, although the difference was only marginal in some instances. Richness of endemic, rare, endangered and threatened species, as well as species of medicinal or economic importance, was higher in the kaan forests than in the reserve forests. The total number of species, and the number of evergreen species, were negatively correlated with the level of disturbance. Further, with increased disturbance, the number of rare, endangered and threatened species also decreased, as did the number of endemics. © International Society for Tropical Ecology.

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