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Kassahun B.,Jimma University | Bidinger F.R.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Hash C.T.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Kuruvinashetti M.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Euphytica | Year: 2010

Reduced leaf senescence (stay-green) has been demonstrated to improve tolerance of post-flowering moisture stress in grain sorghum. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with stay-green have been identified in sorghum, to facilitate transfer of this trait into adapted genetic backgrounds. This study reports initial evaluations, in both well watered and post-flowering stress environments, following partial introgression (BC2F3/BC1F4 generations) of four stable stay-green QTLs (StgB, Stg1, Stg3 and Stg4) from donor parent B35 to senescent variety R 16. The majority of the introgression lines had higher leaf chlorophyll levels at flowering (a distinctive trait of the donor parent) and a greater percentage green leaf area during the latter part of grain filling, than did R 16, indicating that the stay-green QTLs were expressed phenotypically in the R 16 background. None of the QTL introgression lines achieved the same level of stay-green as B35, however. Maintenance of a greater relative green leaf area during the latter half of grain filling was related to a greater relative grain yield in two of three post-flowering moisture deficit environments in which the materials were evaluated (r2 = 0.34 in 2004-2005 and r2 = 0.76 in 2005-2006), as was a direct measure of leaf chlorophyll in one of the post-flowering stress environments in which this was measured (r2 = 0.42, P < 0.05). Thus the study provided useful evidence that the marker-assisted backcross transfer of stay-green QTLs from B35 into an adapted, but senescent background has the potential to enhance tolerance of post-flowering drought stress in sorghum. © 2009 The Author(s).

Poddar R.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Qureshi M.E.,CSIRO | Shi T.,PIRSA Agribusiness and Regions
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014

A comparative analysis of irrigation related issues and effectiveness of water policies in India and Australia is conducted to help share the learning from each other's experience in sustainable irrigation management. Keeping in pace with the global trend of implementing a sustainable water management program, India has adopted the concept of participatory irrigation management (PIM) while Australia has adopted irrigation management transfer (IMT) program. PIM in India is regarded as experimentation in diverse socio-economic settings with mixed results while IMT in Australia has achieved a high level of water use efficiency. Australian irrigation industry is currently driven by market mechanisms where water trading is expected to lead to greater efficiency. However, there are concerns that sole reliance on water use (or economic) efficiency objective may conflict with the objectives of social equity and ecological sustainability. Similar to Australia, there is an opportunity for water markets in India. However, conflict in the objectives of efficiency, equity and sustainability constrain the debate of establishing water markets in India. The comparative analysis indicates that despite both countries have a common goal of sustainable water management, their strategies differ. Nevertheless, India can emulate many of the Australian experiences in water policy reforms, entitlements, institutional arrangements, and corporate style of management while Australia can adopt the best Indian traditions of decentralized participatory and community management for sustainable irrigation water management. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Kandagal A.S.,TGP Science College | Khetagoudar M.C.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2013

Larvicidal activity of various concentrations of crude aqueous leaf extracts of E. triplinerve were studied against S. litura following the treatment on fourth instar larvae. The results of the total percent mortality (from fourth instar to adult) demonstrated that the mortality rate progressively increased (41.42, 58.57, 69.80, 84.49, 86.77, 90.55, 91.30, 90.54) as the extract concentrations increased (1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 12.5, 15, 17.5%). The maximum of 92 % total mortality was observed at 15 % concentration of the extract. It was significant to note that the percent mortality observed from 5 % onwards was more than 85 %. Results of adult emergence inhibition indicated that the EI50 of E triplinerve was more effective at 4.07 %. Interestingly the calculated EI90 value was 14.10 %. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of agricultural pest, S. litura. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

Ashtaputre S.A.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Pestology | Year: 2014

Azoxystrobin 23% SC at., 500,1000 and 2000 ml/ha, was evaluated for two seasons kharif 2013 and 2014 against early blight of tomato. The efficacy of azoxystrobin 23% SC was compared with commonly used chemicals like mancozeb and an untreated control. Azoxystrobin at all concentrations was found significantly effective in reducing the disease and in increasing the yield as compared to metalaxyl MZ, mancozeb and control. In the first season, azoxystrobin treated plots recorded a PDI ranging from 13.5 to 14.03 and an yield of 25.7 to 27.23 tons/ha as compared to a PDI of 35.33 and yield of 16.13 tons/ha in control. In the second season, azoxystrobin treated plots recorded a PDI ranging from 13.53 to 14.83 and an yield of 27.3 to 2S.3 tons/ha as compared to a PDI of 34.37 and yield of 17.5 tons/ha in control. Azoxystrobin at 500,1000 and 2000 ml/ha did not cause any phytotoxicity symptoms in terms of chlorosis, necrosis, wilting, scorching, hyponasty and epinasty.

Upadhyaya H.D.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Mukri G.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Nadaf H.L.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Singh S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Crop Science | Year: 2012

The nutritional quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) products depends on the protein content, oil content, and composition of oil. Low genetic variability has been a major bottleneck in genetic enhancement of these nutritional traits in commercial cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify stable genotypes with better nutritional traits and good agronomic performance for use in future breeding programs. The 184 mini core accessions and four control cultivars were evaluated for nutritional traits for two seasons at two locations and for agronomic traits at one location. Signifi cant genotypic and genotype × environment interactions were observed for all the nutritional and agronomic traits in the entire mini core collection and within each A. hypogaea subspecies of fastigiata Waldron and hypogaea. Eighteen accessions with higher nutritional traits such as protein content, oil content, oleic acid, and oleic to linoleic acid ratio with superior agronomic traits were identifi ed and their stability analysis resulted in identifi cation of a high oleic acid content (>73%) accession (ICG 2381). On the basis of higher nutritional and agronomic traits 11 subsp. fastigiata and 10 subsp. hypogaea diverse accessions were identifi ed with more than two trait combinations for use in peanut breeding programs for genetic enhancement of nutritional traits. © Crop Science Society of America.

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