Adelaide, Australia

University of Adelaide
Adelaide, Australia

The University of Adelaide is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia. It is associated with five Nobel laureates, 104 Rhodes scholars and is a member of the Group of Eight, as well as the sandstone universities.Its main campus is on North Terrace in the Adelaide city centre, adjacent to the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. The university has five campuses throughout the state: North Terrace; Roseworthy College at Roseworthy; The Waite Institute at Urrbrae; Thebarton; and the National Wine Centre in the Adelaide Park Lands. It has a sixth campus, the Ngee Ann – Adelaide Education Centre , in Singapore.The 20th Vice-Chancellor of the University is Professor Warren Bebbington. Formerly Deputy Vice-Chancellor at the University of Melbourne, he commenced in July 2012. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 19, 2017

Infertile couples have a major opportunity to achieve a successful pregnancy without the need for IVF, thanks to new research into a 100-year-old medical technique. The now lesser known technique -- which involves flushing the woman's fallopian tubes with an iodized poppy seed oil -- has been proven to have significant benefits for fertility, according to the largest study undertaken by a team involving researchers in the Netherlands and Australia. The results of the study will today be published in The New England Journal of Medicine. They will also be presented at the 13th World Congress on Endometriosis in Vancouver, Canada, by project leader Professor Ben Mol, from the University of Adelaide's Robinson Research Institute, and a member of the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute's Healthy Mothers, Babies and Children theme. Known as the H2Oil study, the project compared the benefits of flushing the fallopian tubes with either an oil-based or water-based solution in 1119 women. With Professor Mol, this work was conducted by Dr Kim Dreyer and Dr Velja Mijatovic from the Department of Reproductive Medicine, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, and a research team from 27 medical centres in the Netherlands. The procedure, known as hysterosalpingography (HSG), is a dye test of the fallopian tubes conducted under X-ray. The procedure was first carried out in 1917, and since the 1950s both water-based and oil-based solutions have been used. "Over the past century, pregnancy rates among infertile women reportedly increased after their tubes had been flushed with either water or oil during this X-ray procedure. Until now, it has been unclear whether the type of solution used in the procedure was influencing the change in fertility," says Mol, who himself was conceived after his mother underwent such a procedure. "Our results have been even more exciting than we could have predicted, helping to confirm that an age-old medical technique still has an important place in modern medicine," he says. Almost 40 percent of infertile women in the oil group and 29 percent of infertile women in the water group achieved successful pregnancies within six months of the technique being performed. The oil-based product used in the study was Lipiodol Ultra-Fluid, an iodized solution of fatty acids from poppy seeds. This product is currently available in 47 countries around the world. "The rates of successful pregnancy were significantly higher in the oil-based group, and after only one treatment. This is an important outcome for women who would have had no other course of action other than to seek IVF treatment. It offers new hope to infertile couples," Mol says. "It was long believed that testing a woman's fallopian tubes could have fertility benefits through 'flushing out' the kind of debris that hinders fertility. The reality is, we still don't really understand why there is a benefit, only that there is a benefit from this technique, in particular for women who don't present with any other treatable fertility symptoms," Mol says. "Further research would need to be conducted into the mechanisms behind what we're seeing. For now, and considering the technique has been used for 100 years without any known side-effects, we believe it is a viable treatment for infertility prior to couples seeking IVF. "Not only is there a known benefit, but this flushing procedure is also a fraction of the cost of one cycle of IVF. Considering that 40 percent of women in the oil-based group achieved a successful pregnancy, that's 40 percent of couples who could avoid having to go through the huge costs and emotions associated with IVF treatment," he says. Until he embarked on this study,  Mol had no idea that he himself was the result of a successful pregnancy following such a procedure. In the 1960s, after being considered infertile for nine years, Mol's mother underwent an HSG which, coincidentally, also used Lipiodol. "It was only after I started researching this technique that my family told me what had happened,"  Mol says. "My mother went from being infertile for many years to becoming pregnant, and I was born in 1965. I also have a younger brother. So it's entirely possible - in fact, based on our team's research, it's highly likely - that my brother and I are both the result of this technique helping my mother to achieve fertility." What can infertile couples do? "The use of used Lipiodol itself is not currently practiced widely, so the first thing couples need to do is to speak with their doctor about it,"  Mol says. "Professional bodies responsible for guidelines, funders of health care, and fertility clinics all have a role to play in assisting infertile couples to make this intervention available to couples before IVF is started," he says.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2013

This paper presents results of an experimental study on the behavior of square and rectangular high-strength concrete (HSC)-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (HSCFFT) under concentric compression. The effects of the tube thickness, sectional aspect ratio, and corner radius on the axial compressive behavior of concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFT) were investigated experimentally through the tests of 24 CFFTs that were manufactured using unidirectional carbon fiber sheets and high-strength concrete with 78 MPa average compressive strength. As the first experimental investigation on the axial compressive behavior of square and rectangular HSCFFTs, the results of the study reported in this paper allow a number of significant conclusions to be drawn. First and foremost, test results indicate that sufficiently confined square and rectangular HSCFFTs can exhibit highly ductile behavior. The results also indicate that confinement effectiveness of FRP tubes increases with an increase in corner radius and decreases with an increase in sectional aspect ratio. It is also observed and discussed that HSCFFTs having tubes of low confinement effectiveness may experience a significant strength loss at the point of transition on their stress-strain curves. Furthermore, it is found that the behavior of HSCFFTs at this region differ from that of normal-strength CFFTs and that it is more sensitive to the effectiveness of a confining tube. Examination of the test results have also lead to a number of important observations on the influence of the key confinement parameters on the development and distribution of the hoop strains on the tubes of CFFTs, which are presented and discussed in the paper. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2013

This paper reports on the development and testing of three new concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube (CFFT) systems. These CFFT systems were designed to enhance the effectiveness of square and rectangular FRP tubes in confining concrete. In the design of the rectangular CFFTs two different enhancement techniques were considered; namely, corner strengthening and provision of an internal FRP panel. The technique used in the development of the square CFFT system involved the incorporation of four internal concrete-filled FRP cylinders as an integral part of the CFFT. The performance of these systems was investigated experimentally through axial compression tests of 10 unique CFFTs. The results of the experimental study indicate that the new CFFT systems presented in this paper offer significantly improved performance relative to conventional CFFTs with similar material and geometric properties. Examination of the test results have led to a number of significant conclusions with respect to the confinement effectiveness of each new CFFT system. These results are presented and a discussion is provided on the parameters that influenced the compressive behavior of these CFFT systems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

The potential influence of gastric emptying on the "incretin effect," mediated by glucose-dependent insu-linotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusions at 2 (ID2) and 4 (ID4) kcal/min (equating to two rates of gastric emptying within the physiological range) on the size of the incretin effect, gastrointestinal glucose disposal (GIGD), plasma GIP, GLP-1, and gluca-gon secretion in health and type 2 diabetes. We studied 10 male BMI-matched controls and 11 male type 2 patients managed by diet or metformin only. In both groups, GIP, GLP-1, and the magnitude of incretin effect were greater with ID4 than ID2, as was GIGD; plasma glucagon was suppressed by ID2, but not ID4. There was no difference in the incretin effect between the two groups. Based on these data, we conclude that the rate of small intestinal glucose exposure (i.e., glucose load) is a major determinant of the comparative secretion of GIP and GLP-1, as well as the magnitude of the incretin effect and GIGD in health and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

Tester M.,University of Adelaide | Langridge P.,University of Adelaide
Science | Year: 2010

To feed the several billion people living on this planet, the production of high-quality food must increase with reduced inputs, but this accomplishment will be particularly challenging in the face of global environmental change. Plant breeders need to focus on traits with the greatest potential to increase yield. Hence, new technologies must be developed to accelerate breeding through improving genotyping and phenotyping methods and by increasing the available genetic diversity in breeding germplasm. The most gain will come from delivering these technologies in developing countries, but the technologies will have to be economically accessible and readily disseminated. Crop improvement through breeding brings immense value relative to investment and offers an effective approach to improving food security. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

Smith S.E.,University of Adelaide | Smith F.A.,University of Adelaide
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Root systems of most land plants form arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses in the field, and these contribute to nutrient uptake. AM roots have two pathways for nutrient absorption, directly through the root epidermis and root hairs and via AM fungal hyphae into root cortical cells, where arbuscules or hyphal coils provide symbiotic interfaces. New physiological and molecular evidence shows that for phosphorus the mycorrhizal pathway (MP) is operational regardless of plant growth responses (positive or negative). Amounts delivered cannot be determined from plant nutrient contents because when responses are negative the contribution of the direct pathway (DP) is reduced. Nitrogen (N) is also delivered to roots via an MP, but the contribution to total N requirement and the costs to the plant are not clear. The functional interplay between activities of the DP and MP has important implications for consideration of AM symbioses in ecological, agronomic, and evolutionary contexts. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Engineering Structures | Year: 2013

A comprehensive experimental program has been underway at the Structures Laboratory of the University of Adelaide to investigate the behavior of concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (CFFTs) under concentric compression. This paper presents the results from a group of 92 selected circular, square, and rectangular CFFTs and discusses the influence of the critical column parameters on the compressive behavior of CFFTs. These parameters include concrete strength, amount and type of FRP tube material, manufacture method of the tubes, and size and shape of the CFFTs. In addition to conventional FRP tubes, new types of tubes with integrated internal FRP reinforcement have been designed and tested. Results indicate that concrete strength, cross-sectional shape, and the amount and type of tube material significantly affect the behavior of CFFTs. The manufacture method of FRP tube also has some, but less significant, influence on the behavior of CFFTs. The influence of specimen size has been found to be small. No apparent difference has been found between the compressive behaviors of circular CFFTs and companion FRP-wrapped cylinders. The results also indicate that newly developed square and rectangular CFFTs, with internal FRP reinforcement, exhibit significantly improved behavior over conventional CFFTs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Weekley C.M.,University of Adelaide | Harris H.H.,University of Adelaide
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

The biological activity of selenium is dependent upon its speciation. We aim to integrate selenium speciation and metabolism into a discussion of the mechanisms by which selenium exerts its biological activity. First, we present the current status of selenium in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with particular attention paid to the results of major chemoprevention trials involving selenium supplementation. A comprehensive review of the current understanding of the metabolism of common dietary selenium compounds-selenite, selenomethionine, methylselenocysteine and selenocystine-is presented, with discussion of the evidence for the various metabolic pathways and their products. The antioxidant, prooxidant and other mechanisms of the dietary selenium compounds have been linked to their disease prevention and treatment properties. The evidence for these various mechanisms-in vitro, in cells and in vivo-is evaluated with emphasis on the selenium metabolites involved. We conclude that dietary selenium compounds should be considered prodrugs, whose biological activity will depend on the activity of the various metabolic pathways in, and the redox status of, cells and tissues. These factors should be considered in future laboratory research and in selecting selenium compounds for trials of disease prevention and treatment by selenium supplementation. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Shavrukov Y.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Depending on the method of NaCl application, whether gradual or in a single step, plants may experience either salt stress or salt shock, respectively. The first phase of salt stress is osmotic stress. However, in the event of salt shock, plants suffer osmotic shock, leading to cell plasmolysis and leakage of osmolytes, phenomena that do not occur with osmotic stress. Patterns of gene expression are different in response to salt stress and salt shock. Salt stress initiates relatively smooth changes in gene expression in response to osmotic stress and a more pronounced change in expression of significant numbers of genes related to the ionic phase of salt stress. There is a considerable time delay between changes in expression of genes related to the osmotic and ionic phases of salt stress. In contrast, osmotic shock results in strong, rapid changes in the expression of genes with osmotic function, and fewer changes in ionic-responsive genes that occur earlier. There are very few studies in which the effects of salt stress and salt shock are described in parallel experiments. However, the patterns of changes in gene expression observed in these studies are consistently as described above, despite the use of diverse plant species. It is concluded that gene expression profiles are very different depending the method of salt application. Imposition of salt stress by gradual exposure to NaCl rather than salt shock with a single application of a high concentration of NaCl is recommended for genetic and molecular studies, because this more closely reflects natural incidences of salinity. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology]. All rights reserved.

Smyth H.,University of Queensland | Cozzolino D.,University of Adelaide
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

The human senses have always been used to assess food quality. Although the senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch are used daily in all aspects of our lives, their analytical applications to evaluate food properties are relatively recent. The sensory systems of Homo sapiens are the product of millions of years of evolution where natural selection has resulted in our capacity to detect a wide range of compounds present in the environment, advantageous to our survival, allowing hedonistic evaluation of the environment. Existing analytical methods used to measure wine and alcoholic beverages composition and quality are not adequate for the demands of production in a global market due to their high cost and slow turnaround time. In the last 20 years increasing interest on the use of rapid screening techniques or instrumental methods to determine quality characteristics of foods and beverages has been of great interest to the food industry.

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