Adelaide, Australia
Adelaide, Australia

The University of Adelaide is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia. It is associated with five Nobel laureates, 104 Rhodes scholars and is a member of the Group of Eight, as well as the sandstone universities.Its main campus is on North Terrace in the Adelaide city centre, adjacent to the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. The university has five campuses throughout the state: North Terrace; Roseworthy College at Roseworthy; The Waite Institute at Urrbrae; Thebarton; and the National Wine Centre in the Adelaide Park Lands. It has a sixth campus, the Ngee Ann – Adelaide Education Centre , in Singapore.The 20th Vice-Chancellor of the University is Professor Warren Bebbington. Formerly Deputy Vice-Chancellor at the University of Melbourne, he commenced in July 2012. Wikipedia.

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Dent J.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2011

Interpretation of exploding knowledge about Barrett's esophagus is impaired by use of several conflicting definitions. Because any histological type of esophageal columnar metaplasia carries risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus should no longer require demonstration of intestinal-type metaplasia. Endoscopic recognition and grading of Barrett's esophagus remains a significant source of ambiguity.Reflux disease is a key factor for development of Barrett's esophagus, but other factors must underlie its development, since it occurs in only a minority of reflux disease patients. Neither antireflux surgery nor proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has major impacts on cancer risk. Within a year, a major trial should indicate whether low-dose aspirin usefully reduces cancer risk.The best referral centers have transformed the accuracy of screening and surveillance for early curable esophageal adenocarcinoma by use of enhanced and novel endoscopic imaging, visually-guided, rather than blind biopsies and by partnership with expert pathologists. General endoscopists now need to upgrade their skills and equipment so that they can rely mainly on visual targeting of biopsies on mucosal areas of concern in their surveillance practice. General pathologists need to greatly improve their interpretation of biopsies.Endoscopic therapy now achieves very high rates of cure of high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma with minimal morbidity and risk. Such results will only be achieved by skilled interventional endoscopists. Esophagectomy should now be mainly restricted to patients whose cancer has extended into and beyond the submucosa. Weighing risks and benefits in the management of Barrett's esophagus is difficult, as is the process of adequately informing patients about their specific cancer risk. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Gerrans P.,University of Adelaide
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2013

A radical interpretation of the predictive coding approach suggests that the mind is seamless-that is, that cancellation of error signals can propagate smoothly from highest to lowest levels of the control hierarchy, dissolving a distinction between belief and perception. Delusions of alien control provide a test case. Close examination suggests that while they are evidence of predictive coding within the cortex, they are not evidence for the seamless interpretation. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

The biomass of living organisms hosts only a small portion of the elemental abundance at the surface of the Earth, yet biology plays a defining role in the composition and stability of the biosphere by acting on sensitive geochemical feedbacks controlling global element cycles. This type of influence is evident in a class of evolutionary innovations that have a profoundly disproportionate effect on the biosphere, referred to here as evolutionary innovation biospheric feedbacks (EIBFs). A particular biological innovation need not be complex, rather its influence is amplified by its effect on geochemical feedbacks controlling elemental cycling. The lead-up to the metazoan radiation (~585 million years ago) provides an example of such an EIBF. While commonly attributed to an increase in free oxygen concentration, the reason for this step increase in O2 almost 2 billion years after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis is traced to a seemingly unrelated evolutionary innovation resulting in a critical by-product of the first soils: secondary clay minerals. Detrital clay minerals deposited in continental margin sediments sequester organic carbon compounds and thus prevent consumption of atmospheric oxygen produced during photosynthesis. The transition from the abiotic to biotic land surface at the end of the Precambrian shifted biogeochemical cycling to this terrestrial-dominated modern mode that enabled sufficient oxygenation of the biosphere to trigger the metazoan radiation. © 2013 by The University of Chicago. 0003-0147/2013/181S1-53795$15.00. All rights reserved.

Lassi Z.S.,University of Adelaide | Bhutta Z.A.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: While maternal, infant and under-five child mortality rates in developing countries have declined significantly in the past two to three decades, newborn mortality rates have reduced much more slowly. While it is recognised that almost half of the newborn deaths can be prevented by scaling up evidence-based available interventions (such as tetanus toxoid immunisation to mothers, clean and skilled care at delivery, newborn resuscitation, exclusive breastfeeding, clean umbilical cord care, and/or management of infections in newborns), many require facility-based and outreach services. It has also been stated that a significant proportion of these mortalities and morbidities could also be potentially addressed by developing community-based packaged interventions which should also be supplemented by developing and strengthening linkages with the local health systems. Some of the recent community-based studies of interventions targeting women of reproductive age have shown variable impacts on maternal outcomes and hence it is uncertain if these strategies have consistent benefit across the continuum of maternal and newborn care.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of community-based intervention packages in reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality; and improving neonatal outcomes.SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2014), World Bank's JOLIS (25 May 2014), BLDS at IDS and IDEAS database of unpublished working papers (25 May 2014), Google and Google Scholar (25 May 2014).SELECTION CRITERIA: All prospective randomised, cluster-randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effectiveness of community-based intervention packages in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidities, and improving neonatal outcomes.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Data were checked for accuracy.MAIN RESULTS: The review included 26 cluster-randomised/quasi-randomised trials, covering a wide range of interventional packages, including two subsets from three trials. Assessment of risk of bias in these studies suggests concerns regarding insufficient information on sequence generation and regarding failure to adequately address incomplete outcome data, particularly from randomised controlled trials. We incorporated data from these trials using generic inverse variance method in which logarithms of risk ratio (RR) estimates were used along with the standard error of the logarithms of RR estimates.Our review showed a possible effect in terms of a reduction in maternal mortality (RR 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 1.00, random-effects (11 studies, n = 167,311; random-effects, Tau² = 0.03, I² 20%). However, significant reduction was observed in maternal morbidity (average RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.92; four studies, n = 138,290; random-effects, Tau² = 0.02, I² = 28%); neonatal mortality (average RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.83; 21 studies, n = 302,646; random-effects, Tau² = 0.06, I² = 85%) including both early and late mortality; stillbirths (average RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91; 15 studies, n = 201,181; random-effects, Tau² = 0.03, I² = 66%); and perinatal mortality (average RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.86; 17 studies, n = 282,327; random-effects Tau² = 0.04, I² = 88%) as a consequence of implementation of community-based interventional care packages.Community-based intervention packages also increased the uptake of tetanus immunisation by 5% (average RR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09; seven studies, n = 71,622; random-effects Tau² = 0.00, I² = 52%); use of clean delivery kits by 82% (average RR 1.82; 95% CI 1.10 to 3.02; four studies, n = 54,254; random-effects, Tau² = 0.23, I² = 90%); rates of institutional deliveries by 20% (average RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.39; 14 studies, n = 147,890; random-effects, Tau² = 0.05, I² = 80%); rates of early breastfeeding by 93% (average RR 1.93; 95% CI 1.55 to 2.39; 11 studies, n = 72,464; random-effects, Tau² = 0.14, I² = 98%), and healthcare seeking for neonatal morbidities by 42% (average RR 1.42; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.77, nine studies, n = 66,935, random-effects, Tau² = 0.09, I² = 92%). The review also showed a possible effect on increasing the uptake of iron/folic acid supplementation during pregnancy (average RR 1.47; 95% CI 0.99 to 2.17; six studies, n = 71,622; random-effects, Tau² = 0.26; I² = 99%).It has no impact on improving referrals for maternal morbidities, healthcare seeking for maternal morbidities, iron/folate supplementation, attendance of skilled birth attendance on delivery, and other neonatal care-related outcomes. We did not find studies that reported the impact of community-based intervention package on improving exclusive breastfeeding rates at six months of age. We assessed our primary outcomes for publication bias and observed slight asymmetry on the funnel plot for maternal mortality.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review offers encouraging evidence that community-based intervention packages reduce morbidity for women, mortality and morbidity for babies, and improves care-related outcomes particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It has highlighted the value of integrating maternal and newborn care in community settings through a range of interventions, which can be packaged effectively for delivery through a range of community health workers and health promotion groups. While the importance of skilled delivery and facility-based services for maternal and newborn care cannot be denied, there is sufficient evidence to scale up community-based care through packages which can be delivered by a range of community-based workers.

Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013

Adding new taxa to morphological phylogenetic analyses without substantially revising the set of included characters is a common practice, with drawbacks (undersampling of relevant characters) and potential benefits (character selection is not biased by preconceptions over the affinities of the 'retrofitted' taxon). Retrofitting turtles (Testudines) and other taxa to recent reptile phylogenies consistently places turtles with anapsid-grade parareptiles (especially Eunotosaurus and/or pareiasauromorphs), under both Bayesian and parsimony analyses. This morphological evidence for turtle-parareptile affinities appears to contradict the robust genomic evidence that extant (living) turtles are nested within diapsids as sister to extant archosaurs (birds and crocodilians). However, the morphological data are almost equally consistent with a turtle-archosaur clade: enforcing this molecular scaffold onto the morphological data does not greatly increase tree length (parsimony) or reduce likelihood (Bayesian inference). Moreover, under certain analytic conditions, Eunotosaurus groups with turtles and thus also falls within the turtle-archosaur clade. This result raises the possibility that turtles could simultaneously be most closely related to a taxon traditionally considered a parareptile (Eunotosaurus) and still have archosaurs as their closest extant sister group. © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Rodgers R.J.,University of Adelaide | Irving-Rodgers H.F.,University of Adelaide
Reproduction | Year: 2010

Follicle classification is an important aid to the understanding of follicular development and atresia. Some bovine primordial follicles have the classical primordial shape, but ellipsoidal shaped follicles with some cuboidal granulosa cells at the poles are far more common. Preantral follicles have one of two basal lamina phenotypes, either a single aligned layer or one with additional layers. In antral follicles <5 mm diameter, half of the healthy follicles have columnar shaped basal granulosa cells and additional layers of basal lamina, which appear as loops in cross section ('loopy'). The remainder have aligned single-layered follicular basal laminas with rounded basal cells, and contain better quality oocytes than the loopy/columnar follicles. In sizes >5 mm,only aligned/rounded phenotypes are present. Dominant and subordinate follicles can be identified by ultrasound and/or histological examination of pairs of ovaries. Atretic follicles <5 mm are either basal atretic or antral atretic, named on the basis of the location in themembrana granulosa where cells die first. Basal atretic follicles have considerable biological differences to antral atretic follicles. In follicles >5 mm, only antral atresia is observed. The concentrations of follicular fluid steroid hormones can be used to classify atresia and distinguish some of the different types of atresia; however, this method is unlikely to identify follicles early in atresia, and hence misclassify them as healthy. Other biochemical and histological methods can be used, but since cell death is a part of normal homoeostatis, deciding when a follicle has entered atresia remains somewhat subjective. © 2010 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Rabosky D.L.,University of Michigan | Donnellan S.C.,South Australian Museum | Donnellan S.C.,University of Adelaide | Grundler M.,University of Michigan | Lovette I.J.,Cornell University
Systematic Biology | Year: 2014

The correlation between species diversification and morphological evolution has long been of interest in evolutionary biology. We investigated the relationship between these processes during the radiation of 250∈+∈scincid lizards that constitute Australia's most species-rich clade of terrestrial vertebrates. We generated a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree for the group that was more than 85% complete at the species level and collected multivariate morphometric data for 183 species. We reconstructed the dynamics of species diversification and trait evolution using a Bayesian statistical framework (BAMM) that simultaneously accounts for variation in evolutionary rates through time and among lineages. We extended the BAMM model to accommodate time-dependent phenotypic evolution, and we describe several new methods for summarizing and visualizing macroevolutionary rate heterogeneity on phylogenetic trees. Two major clades (Lerista, Ctenotus;∈>∈90 spp. each) are associated with high rates of species diversification relative to the background rate across Australian sphenomorphine skinks. The Lerista clade is characterized by relatively high lability of body form and has undergone repeated instances of limb reduction, but Ctenotus is characterized by an extreme deceleration in the rate of body shape evolution. We estimate that rates of phenotypic evolution decreased by more than an order of magnitude in the common ancestor of the Ctenotus clade. These results provide evidence for a modal shift in phenotypic evolutionary dynamics and demonstrate that major axes of morphological variation can be decoupled from species diversification. More generally, the Bayesian framework described here can be used to identify and characterize complex mixtures of dynamic processes on phylogenetic trees. [Bayesian; diversification; evolvability; lizard; macroevolution, punctuated equilibrium, speciation.] © 2014 The Author(s).

Han S.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Magnesium maintenance therapy is one of the types of tocolytic therapy used after an episode of threatened preterm labour (usually treated with an initial dose of tocolytic therapy) in an attempt to prevent the onset of further preterm contractions. To assess whether magnesium maintenance therapy is effective in preventing preterm birth after the initial threatened preterm labour is arrested. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2013). Randomised controlled trials of magnesium therapy given to women after threatened preterm labour. The review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We checked data entry. We included four trials involving 422 women. Three trials had high risk of bias and none included any long-term follow-up of infants. No differences in the incidence of preterm birth or perinatal mortality were seen when magnesium maintenance therapy was compared with placebo or no treatment; or alternative therapies (ritodrine or terbutaline). The risk ratio (RR) for preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) for magnesium compared with placebo or no treatment was 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.40 (two trials, 99 women); and 0.99, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.72 (two trials, 100 women) for magnesium compared with alternative therapies. The RR for perinatal mortality for magnesium compared with placebo or no treatment was 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16 (one trial, 50 infants); and 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16 (one trial, 50 infants) for magnesium compared with alternative treatments.Women taking magnesium preparations were less likely to report side effects (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96, three trials, 237 women), including palpitations or tachycardia (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.52, three trials, 237 women) than women receiving alternative therapies. Women receiving magnesium were however, more likely to experience diarrhoea (RR 6.79, 95% CI 1.26 to 36.72, three trials, 237 women). There is not enough evidence to show any difference between magnesium maintenance therapy compared with either placebo or no treatment, or alternative therapies (ritodrine or terbutaline) in preventing preterm birth after an episode of threatened preterm labour.

Chousalkar K.K.,University of Adelaide | Roberts J.R.,University of New England of Australia
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. on the eggshell surface, eggshell membranes or pores, and in egg internal contents from unwashed eggs collected from commercial caged layer farms in Australia. Eggshell rinsate, shell crush, and egg internal contents (yolk and albumen) of eggs were processed for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella subspecies 1, serotype 4,12:d were isolated from the eggshell surface. Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any eggshell crush or egg internal contents. It would appear that the occurrence of Salmonella in the Australian egg industry is low. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Du H.,Harbin University of Science and Technology | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Lu N.,Harbin University of Science and Technology
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the problem of function projective synchronization for general complex dynamical networks with time delay. A hybrid feedback control method is designed to achieve function projective synchronization for complex dynamical networks, one with constant time delay and one with time-varying coupling delay. Numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Unkovich M.,University of Adelaide
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2012

Quantitative measurement of N2 fixation has rarely been conducted in Australian dairy pastures. The available data indicate that annual N2 fixation rates in Australian dairy pastures are generally low, due to low pasture legume content. With typical legume contents of grazed pastures less than 30% of total pasture biomass production, annual N2 fixation in herbage is usually much less than 50kgha-1 year-1. Other factors which are likely to be able to contribute to increased N 2 fixation input (rhizobia, mineral N management, soil acidity, soil water contents) will have little impact until such time as legume contents are increased. In contrast, for some hay systems, such as those using lucerne, N2 fixation input is shown to be high (200-300kgha-1 year-1). While pasture clover contents remain low there is little value in study or measurement of N2 fixation, nor in complex modelling, as N2 fixation will be of little quantitative importance. However, where legume contents, and thus potential N2 fixation are increased, there is scope for investigation into potential increases in N input from this source, which is invariably linked to fertiliser application, the management of grazing and the N returns in urine and dung. These are the major influences on sward N dynamics and legume N2 fixation. The inoculant rhizobia used for white clover in Australia (TA1) is likely to be suboptimal. Isolated in Tasmania in 1953 it has been shown to be inferior in N2 fixation compared with other strains on several occasions. Root pests and diseases are likely to be prevalent and impact directly on clover root growth and perhaps nodulation. Modelling is often used to describe the probable influence of management and/or climate on the operation of agricultural systems. Reliable modelling of N2 fixation requires capacity to integrate the effects of grazing and pasture composition on soil mineral N dynamics, the influence of this mineral N on nodulation and on suppression of N2 fixation, and environmental and management influences on soil rhizobial populations. Currently no models have demonstrated this capacity. At present, a suitably calibrated regression model is probably a good option for modelling N2 fixation in Australian dairy pastures. Environmental benefits ensuing from increasing N2 fixation and substituting this for fertiliser N are likely to be greater off-farm (reduced GHG emissions at site of fertiliser manufacture) than on, if current fertiliser management is optimal. Nevertheless substituting fixed N for fertiliser N would have modest environmental and feed efficiency benefits. Journal compilation © CSIRO 2012 Open Access.

Munksgaard K.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Medlin C.J.,University of Adelaide
Industrial Marketing Management | Year: 2014

Many inter-firm network initiatives supported by government funds are based upon the idea that benefits rise incrementally as more actors connect with each other. This paper takes the stand that self-interest and collective-interest are evident in how firms participate in network activities, and how these activities are related to the development of the network. A time-flow model is presented of firms' participation and activities in a network according to specific blends and understandings of self- and/or collective-interest. The way the network is formed also shapes managerial understanding of why firms participate in activities and how self- and collective-interests coincide. A qualitative study in the Danish food industry establishes that every firm views business network activities as important, but each engages differently in these activities. The results of this study reveal interesting patterns between self- and collective-interests for those participating in network activities and the resulting network development. A key finding of this study is the importance of a firm's ability to convert the collective-interest of joint network activities into self-interest gains for the firm. This ability is proposed as an additional network competence to those already present in the literature. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Schubert K.O.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | Schubert K.O.,University of Adelaide | Focking M.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | Cotter D.R.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2015

Neuropathological changes of the hippocampus have been associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent work has particularly implicated hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the pathophysiology of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying structural and cellular hippocampal pathology remain poorly understood. We used data from comprehensive difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) investigations of postmortem human hippocampus of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, covering the acidic (isoelectric point (pI) between pH. 4 and 7) and, separately, the basic (pI between pH. 6 and 11) sub-proteome, for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of implicated protein networks and pathways. Comparing disease and control cases, we identified 58 unique differentially expressed proteins in schizophrenia, and 70 differentially expressed proteins in bipolar disorder, using mass spectrometry. IPA implicated, most prominently, 14-3-3 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in schizophrenia, and gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in bipolar disorder. Both disorders were characterized by alterations of proteins involved in the oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and protein-endocytosis, -trafficking, -degradation, and -ubiquitination. These findings are interpreted with a focus on GABAergic interneuron pathology in the hippocampus. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Martin W.,The World Bank | Anderson K.,University of Adelaide
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2012

Insulation generates a classic collective-action problem akin to when a crowd stands up in a stadium to get a better view. The variance of the international price will be four times as large as it would be in the absence of price insulation. If all countries used the price transmission elasticity of 0.15 implied by the 85 percent compensating duty under the proposed Special Safeguard Mechanism. The two food commodities that have received the most attention because of price surges are the key staples of wheat and rice. At least high-income countries altered their NACs less in the most recent price spike period than in the two previous ones. That is not inconsistent with the fact that the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, which came into force with the creation of the WTO in 1995, involved commitments to bind tariffs and subsidies.

Warin M.,University of Adelaide
Social Theory and Health | Year: 2011

Jamie Oliver is an English celebrity chef who has publicly politicised the relationships between class and food in Britain. No longer a simple chef, Oliver is presented as an evangelical saint, salvation of British school dinners, advocate for young disadvantaged kids, and now with his latest series Ministry of Food, a saviour of the British obesity epidemic. In this series, the population of Rotherham is surveilled and targeted as representative of poor eating habits and lifestyles in Britain. In need of urgent intervention, the townsfolk are urged to make themselves anew and fight their way out of the obesity epidemic. Moving beyond a mechanistic application of Foucault, this article examines the intersections of different technologies that give rise to specific lifestyle interventions, and the forms of resistance they generate. Through a convergence of the cultural technology of reality TV and technologies of self-governance, this article argues that a novel form of obesity intervention is being re-invented in a health promoting, neoliberal environment. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

A linguistic and cultural analysis of diving site names and their role as toponyms is absent in scuba diving tourism research and landscape research. This paper argues for using place-names for the identification of historical landscape features and that diving site names as place-names and historical landscape features could be of interest for creating and documenting coastal and underwater landscape inventories. It claims that diving site names of Kangaroo Island, South Australia, and diving site toponymy in general, are linguistic ephemera linked to tourism activities, which may provide a greater understanding of the 'linguistics of landscape', the 'linguistic landscape', and the 'landscape of language'. In conclusion, this paper speculates about the function of diving site names as worthwhile pilgrimage locations connected with tourism of particular cultural landscapes.© 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Wu W.,University of Adelaide | Maier H.R.,University of Adelaide | Simpson A.R.,University of Adelaide
Water Resources Research | Year: 2013

In this paper, three objectives are considered for the optimization of water distribution systems (WDSs): the traditional objectives of minimizing economic cost and maximizing hydraulic reliability and the recently proposed objective of minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is particularly important to include the GHG minimization objective for WDSs involving pumping into storages or water transmission systems (WTSs), as these systems are the main contributors of GHG emissions in the water industry. In order to better understand the nature of tradeoffs among these three objectives, the shape of the solution space and the location of the Pareto-optimal front in the solution space are investigated for WTSs and WDSs that include pumping into storages, and the implications of the interaction between the three objectives are explored from a practical design perspective. Through three case studies, it is found that the solution space is a U-shaped curve rather than a surface, as the tradeoffs among the three objectives are dominated by the hydraulic reliability objective. The Pareto-optimal front of real-world systems is often located at the "elbow" section and lower "arm" of the solution space (i.e., the U-shaped curve), indicating that it is more economic to increase the hydraulic reliability of these systems by increasing pipe capacity (i.e., pipe diameter) compared to increasing pumping power. Solutions having the same GHG emission level but different cost-reliability tradeoffs often exist. Therefore, the final decision needs to be made in conjunction with expert knowledge and the specific budget and reliability requirements of the system. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Thomson D.W.,Center for Cancer Biology | Thomson D.W.,University of Adelaide | Bracken C.P.,Center for Cancer Biology | Bracken C.P.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2011

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of eukaryotic gene expression in most biological processes. They act by guiding the RNAi-induced silencing complex (RISC) to partially complementary sequences in target mRNAs to suppress gene expression by a combination of translation inhibition and mRNA decay. The commonly accepted mechanism of miRNA targeting in animals involves an interaction between the 5′-end of the miRNA called the 'seed region' and the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the mRNA. Many target prediction algorithms are based around such a model, though increasing evidence demonstrates that targeting can also be mediated through sites other than the 3′-UTR and that seed region base pairing is not always required. The power and validity of such in silico data can be therefore hindered by the simplified rules used to represent targeting interactions. Experimentation is essential to identify genuine miRNA targets, however many experimental modalities exist and their limitations need to be understood. This review summarizes and critiques the existing experimental techniques for miRNA target identification. © 2011 The Author(s).

King D.L.,University of Adelaide | Delfabbro P.H.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2016

Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Preterm birth is a major complication of pregnancy associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm labour has been advocated. To assess the benefits and harms of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth for women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth and their infants. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 January 2013) and reviewed the reference list of all articles. Randomised controlled trials, in which progesterone was given for preventing preterm birth. Two review authors independently evaluated trials for methodological quality and extracted data. Thirty-six randomised controlled trials (8523 women and 12,515 infants) were included. Progesterone versus placebo for women with a past history of spontaneous preterm birth Progesterone was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of perinatal mortality (six studies; 1453 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.75), preterm birth less than 34 weeks (five studies; 602 women; average RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.69), infant birthweight less than 2500 g (four studies; 692 infants; RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.79), use of assisted ventilation (three studies; 633 women; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.90), necrotising enterocolitis (three studies; 1170 women; RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.89), neonatal death (six studies; 1453 women; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.76), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (three studies; 389 women; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.40), preterm birth less than 37 weeks (10 studies; 1750 women; average RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.74) and a statistically significant increase in pregnancy prolongation in weeks (one study; 148 women; mean difference (MD) 4.47, 95% CI 2.15 to 6.79). No differential effects in terms of route of administration, time of commencing therapy and dose of progesterone were observed for the majority of outcomes examined. Progesterone versus placebo for women with a short cervix identified on ultrasound Progesterone was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of preterm birth less than 34 weeks (two studies; 438 women; RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90), preterm birth at less than 28 weeks' gestation (two studies; 1115 women; RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93) and increased risk of urticaria in women when compared with placebo (one study; 654 women; RR 5.03, 95% CI 1.11 to 22.78). It was not possible to assess the effect of route of progesterone administration, gestational age at commencing therapy, or total cumulative dose of medication. Progesterone versus placebo for women with a multiple pregnancy Progesterone was associated with no statistically significant differences for the reported outcomes. Progesterone versus no treatment/placebo for women following presentation with threatened preterm labour Progesterone, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of infant birthweight less than 2500 g (one study; 70 infants; RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.98). Progesterone versus placebo for women with 'other' risk factors for preterm birth Progesterone, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of infant birthweight less than 2500 g (three studies; 482 infants; RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.91). The use of progesterone is associated with benefits in infant health following administration in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth due either to a prior preterm birth or where a short cervix has been identified on ultrasound examination. However, there is limited information available relating to longer-term infant and childhood outcomes, the assessment of which remains a priority.Further trials are required to assess the optimal timing, mode of administration and dose of administration of progesterone therapy when given to women considered to be at increased risk of early birth.

Bain E.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early animal and clinical studies have provided some evidence to support an inhibitory effect of relaxin on preterm birth for women in preterm labour. To assess the effects of relaxin for women in preterm labour on preterm birth and associated maternal and neonatal/infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013), and the reference lists of relevant papers. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of relaxin compared with no treatment, a placebo, or an alternative tocolytic, for preventing preterm birth for women in preterm labour. Primary review outcomes included birth within 28 hours of treatment, birth within seven days of treatment, perinatal mortality, and a serious neonatal adverse outcome composite. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We included three quasi-randomised controlled trials, with a total of 149 women and their babies. All three trials were at a high risk of bias. When comparing women receiving relaxin with those who did not receive relaxin, there was a significant reduction in birth within seven days of treatment in one trial of 30 women (risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.87), yet no significant difference was seen for perinatal mortality in this trial (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.15). The second and third included trials did not report on any of the primary outcomes pre-specified in the review, including birth within 48 hours of treatment, birth within seven days of treatment, perinatal mortality, and serious neonatal adverse outcomes.One trial found a significant increase in pregnancy prolongation for women receiving relaxin (RR 8.00, 95% CI 1.14 to 56.33; 30 women). None of the three included trials found significant differences in the outcomes of fetal death, neonatal death, birthweight or preterm birth, and no trial reported on longer-term outcomes for the babies. There is limited randomised controlled trial evidence available on the effect of relaxin during pregnancy for preventing preterm birth for women in preterm labour. Evidence from one quasi-randomised trial suggested a reduction in birth within seven days of treatment for women receiving relaxin, compared with women in a control group, however this trial was at a high risk of bias and included only 30 women. There is thus insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of relaxin in women in preterm labour for preventing preterm birth.

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and placental abruption are thought to have a common origin related to abnormalities in the development and function of the placenta. To compare, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of antenatal antithrombotic therapy to improve maternal or infant health outcomes in women considered at risk of placental dysfunction, when compared with other treatments, placebo or no treatment. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 July 2012). Randomised controlled trials comparing antenatal antithrombotic therapy (either alone or in combination with other agents) with placebo or no treatment, or any other treatment in the antenatal period to improve maternal or infant health outcomes in women considered at risk of placental dysfunction. Two review authors evaluated trials under consideration for appropriateness for inclusion and methodological quality without consideration of their results according to the prestated eligibility criteria. We used a fixed-effect meta-analysis for combining study data if the trials were judged to be sufficiently similar. We investigated heterogeneity by calculating I2 statistic, and if this indicated a high level of heterogeneity among the trials included, we used a random-effects model. Our search strategy identified 18 reports of 14 studies for consideration. The original review included five studies (484 women) which met the inclusion criteria, with a further five studies included in the updated review, involving an additional 655 women. The overall quality of the included trials was considered fair to good.Nine studies compared heparin (alone or in combination with dipyridamole or low-dose aspirin) with no treatment; and one compared trapidil (triazolopyrimidine).While this review identified the use of heparin to be associated with a statistically significant reduction in risk of perinatal mortality (six studies; 653 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.40; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.20 to 0.78), preterm birth before 34 (three studies; 494 women; RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.73) and 37 (five studies; 621 women; RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.90) weeks' gestation, and infant birthweight below the 10th centile for gestational age (seven studies; 710 infants; RR 0.41; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.61), there is a lack of reliable information available related to clinically relevant, serious adverse infant health outcomes, which have not been reported to date. While treatment with heparin for women considered to be at particularly high risk of adverse pregnancy complications secondary to placental insufficiency was associated with a statistically significant reduction in risk of perinatal mortality, preterm birth before 34 and 37 weeks' gestation, and infant birthweight below the 10th centile for gestational age when compared with no treatment for women considered at increased risk of placental dysfunction, to date, important information about serious adverse infant and long-term childhood outcomes is unavailable.

Reid S.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Over the last decade there has been enhanced awareness of the appreciable morbidity of thyroid dysfunction, particularly thyroid deficiency. Since treating clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism may reduce adverse obstetric outcomes, it is crucial to identify which interventions are safe and effective. To identify interventions used in the management of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared a pharmacological intervention for hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy with another intervention or placebo. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted the data. We included four RCTs of moderate risk of bias involving 362 women. In one trial of 115 women, levothyroxine therapy to treat pregnant euthyroid (normal thyroid function) women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies was not shown to reduce pre-eclampsia significantly (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 3.48) but did significantly reduce preterm birth by 72% (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.80). Two trials of 30 and 48 hypothyroid women respectively compared levothyroxine doses, but both trials reported only biochemical outcomes. A trial of 169 women compared the trace element selenomethionine (selenium) with placebo and no significant differences were seen for either pre-eclampsia (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 8.38) or preterm birth (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.61). None of the four trials reported on childhood neurodevelopmental delay.There was a non-significant trend towards fewer miscarriages with levothyroxine, and selenium showed some favourable impact on postpartum thyroid function and a decreased incidence of moderate to advanced postpartum thyroiditis. This review found no difference between levothyroxine therapy and a control for treating pregnant euthyroid women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies for the outcome of pre-eclampsia, however a reduction in preterm birth and a trend towards reduced miscarriage with levothyroxine was shown. This review also showed no difference for pre-eclampsia or preterm birth when selenium was compared with placebo, however a promising reduction in postpartum thyroiditis was shown. Childhood neurodevelopmental delay was not assessed by any trial included in the review.Given that this review is based on four trials of moderate risk of bias, with only two trials contributing data (n = 284), there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of one intervention for clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy over another, for improving maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes.

Nguyen T.M.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Magnesium sulphate is extensively used in obstetrics for the treatment and prevention of eclampsia. A recent meta-analysis has shown that magnesium sulphate is an effective fetal neuroprotective agent when given antenatally to women at risk of very preterm birth. Term infants account for more than half of all cases of cerebral palsy, and the incidence has remained fairly constant. It is important to assess if antenatal administration of magnesium sulphate to women at term protects the fetus from brain injury, and associated neurosensory disabilities including cerebral palsy. To assess the effectiveness of magnesium sulphate given to women at term as a neuroprotective agent for the fetus. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trial Register (31 July 2012) and the reference lists of other Cochrane reviews assessing magnesium sulphate in pregnancy. Randomised controlled trials comparing antenatally administered magnesium sulphate to women at term with placebo, no treatment or a different fetal neuroprotective agent. We also planned to include cluster-randomised trials, and exclude cross-over trials and quasi-randomised trials. We planned to exclude studies reported as abstracts only. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and for risk of bias. Two authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included one trial (involving 135 women with mild pre-eclampsia at term). An additional six studies are awaiting further assessment.The included trial compared magnesium sulphate with a placebo and was at a low risk of bias. The trial did not report any of this review's prespecified primary outcomes. There was no significant difference between magnesium sulphate and placebo in Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (risk ratio (RR) 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 5.46; 135 infants), nor gestational age at birth (mean difference (MD) -0.20 weeks; 95% CI -0.62 to 0.22; 135 infants).There were significantly more maternal side effects (feeling warm and flushed) in the magnesium sulphate group than in the placebo group (RR 3.81; 95% CI 2.22 to 6.53; 135 women). However, no significant difference in adverse effects severe enough to cease treatment was observed (RR 3.04; 95% CI 0.13 to 73.42; 135 women). There were no significant differences seen between groups in the rates of postpartum haemorrhage (RR 4.06; 95% CI 0.47 to 35.38; 135 women) and caesarean section (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.39 to 1.63; 135 women). There is currently insufficient evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of magnesium sulphate when administered to women for neuroprotection of the term fetus. As there has been recent evidence for the use of magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection of the preterm fetus, high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the safety profile and neurological outcomes for the term fetus. Strategies to reduce maternal side effects during treatment also require evaluation.

Crowther C.A.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

During pregnancy, a Rhesus negative (Rh-negative) woman may develop antibodies when her fetus is Rhesus positive (Rh-positive). These antibodies may harm Rh-positive babies. To assess the effects of antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin on the incidence of Rhesus D alloimmunisation when given to Rh-negative women without anti-D antibodies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012). Randomised trials in Rh-negative women without anti-D antibodies given anti-D after 28 weeks of pregnancy, compared with no treatment, placebo or a different regimen of anti-D. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted the data. Two trials with moderate to high risk of bias, involving over 4500 women, compared anti-D prophylaxis with no anti-D during pregnancy. When women received anti-D at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation, risks of immunisation were not significantly different than for women not given antenatal anti-D: risk ratio (RR) of immunisation during pregnancy was 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 1.17); after the birth of a Rh-positive infant the RR was 0.42 (95% CI 0.15 to 1.17); and within 12 months after birth of a Rh-positive infant the RR was 0.39 (95% CI 0.10 to 1.62).However, women receiving anti-D during pregnancy were significantly less likely to register a positive Kleihauer test (which detects fetal cells in maternal blood) in pregnancy (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.88) and at the birth of a Rh-positive infant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.79). No data were available for the risk of Rhesus D alloimmunisation in a subsequent pregnancy. No significant differences were seen for neonatal jaundice, and no adverse effects were reported in either trial. The risk of Rhesus D alloimmunisation during or immediately after a first pregnancy is about 1%. Administration of 100 μg (500 IU) anti-D to women in their first pregnancy can reduce this risk to about 0.2% without, to date, any adverse effects. Although unlikely to confer benefit in the current pregnancy, fewer women may have Rhesus D antibodies in any subsequent pregnancy, but the effects of this needs to be tested in studies of robust design.

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

When a woman has had a previous caesarean birth, there are two options for her care in a subsequent pregnancy: planned elective repeat caesarean or planned vaginal birth. While there are risks and benefits for both planned elective repeat caesarean birth and planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC), current sources of information are limited to non-randomised cohort studies. Studies designed in this way have significant potential for bias and consequently conclusions based on these results are limited in their reliability and should be interpreted with caution. To assess, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of a policy of planned elective repeat caesarean section with a policy of planned VBAC for women with a previous caesarean birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies who planned a repeat elective caesarean section with outcomes in women who planned a vaginal birth, where a previous birth had been by caesarean. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Two randomised trials involving 320 women and their infants were included. However, data for maternal and infant clinical outcomes were available from one trial with very low event rates, involving 22 women only.For the primary outcomes maternal death or serious morbidity (one study; 22 women; risk ratio (RR) not estimable), and infant death or serious morbidity (one study; 22 women; RR not estimable), there were no statistically significant differences between planned caesarean birth and planned vaginal birth identified. Planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned VBAC for women with a prior caesarean birth are both associated with benefits and harms. Evidence for these care practices is largely drawn from non-randomised studies, associated with potential bias. Any results and conclusions must therefore be interpreted with caution. Randomised controlled trials are required to provide the most reliable evidence regarding the benefits and harms of both planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned vaginal birth for women with a previous caesarean birth.

Priest S.D.,University of Adelaide
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering | Year: 2010

This article focuses on two broad categories of yield criteria: those based on the Hoek-Brown yield criterion and a range of other widely used criteria. The first group of criteria source their input data from uniaxial compressive strength, coupled with mineralogical and structural properties of the rock. The second group of selected criteria, here referred to as 'frictional criteria', source their input data from one or more of the parameters uniaxial compressive strength, cohesion and friction. Although some authors have attempted to compare the predictions of the wide range of published criteria, the results have not been entirely satisfactory due to disparities in the input data and the difficulties in extrapolating a twodimensional criterion into three-dimensions. This article presents a strategy for achieving a consistent basis for comparing three-dimensional yield criteria for rock. This strategy is based on using the two-dimensional Hoek-Brown criterion as a single 'front end' for calculating the input parameters for the selected frictional criteria. In essence, four amended yield criteria have been defined: the Hoek-Brown-Drucker-Prager (which is a close approximation to the comprehensive Priest criterion); the Hoek-Brown-Coulomb; the Hoek-Brown-modified Wiebols and Cook; and the Hoek-Brown-modified Lade. The predictions of these criteria, and also the comprehensive ZhangZhu criterion, can be approximated over a limited range of intermediate principal stress by selecting a value for the weighting factor w between 0.2 and 0.5 in the simplified Priest criterion to achieve the appropriate sensitivity to the intermediate effective principal stress. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Schmidt P.W.,CSIRO | Williams G.E.,University of Adelaide
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010

We report new palaeomagnetic data for red beds from the Ediacaran Brachina and Wonoka formations in the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia, and discuss their place with previously determined poles in the Ediacaran apparent polar wander path for Australia. Both formations behave similarly on thermal demagnetization, displaying high-temperature components that decay to the origin at 680 °C, consistent with haematite being the only magnetic mineral present. Restoring the strata to the palaeohorizontal yielded positive fold tests for both units at 99 per cent confidence, indicating that acquisition of magnetization occurred before the early Palaeozoic Delamerian Orogeny. For the Brachina Formation (N = 91 specimens) the mean direction after unfolding is declination D = 178.2°, inclination I = -22.6° (α95 = 4.4°), indicating a palaeolatitude λ = 11.8 ± 2.5° and a pole position at latitude λp = 46.0°S, longitude φp = 315.4°E, with confidence semi-axes dp = 2.4° and dm = 4.6° The mean direction for the Wonoka Formation after unfolding (N = 70) is D = 255.9°, I = -23.7° (α95 = 6.4°), indicating λ = 12.3 +3.8/-3.4° and a pole position at latitude λp = 5.2°S, longitude φp = 30.5°E (dp = 3.6° and dm = 6.8°). The mean directions for these units and other Ediacaran units in the Adelaide Geosyncline are significantly different from each other, which excludes blanket remagnetization of the units before Delamerian folding and therefore gives strong preference to their magnetization dating from close to the time of deposition. The late Cryogenian-Ediacaran-Cambrian apparent polar wander path for South Australia spans 150 Myr from ∼635 to 490 Ma and places Australia in low palaeolatitudes throughout the interval studied. The poles differ significantly from each other, suggesting Australia underwent continual drift during that time. Whereas the directional difference between the late Cryogenian Elatina Formation and early Ediacaran Nuccaleena Formation is mainly in inclination, for most other contiguous stratigraphic units the differences are mainly in declination with minor inclination differences, indicating Australia was rotating about a nearby Euler pole in low palaeolatitudes. The large and perhaps rapid polar shifts at 615-590 and 575-565 Ma in the Laurentian apparent polar wander path are not evident in the Ediacaran apparent polar wander path for Australia. Because true polar wander should be recorded globally, in the absence of evidence for any major stratigraphic break in the South Australian succession we conclude that large true polar wander did not occur during the Ediacaran. © 2010 CSIRO Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

Xu C.,University of Adelaide | Dowd P.,University of Adelaide
Computers and Geosciences | Year: 2010

The authors describe a comprehensive software package for two- and three-dimensional stochastic rock fracture simulation using marked point processes. Fracture locations can be modelled by a Poisson, a non-homogeneous, a cluster or a Cox point process; fracture geometries and properties are modelled by their respective probability distributions. Virtual sampling tools such as plane, window and scanline sampling are included in the software together with a comprehensive set of statistical tools including histogram analysis, probability plots, rose diagrams and hemispherical projections. The paper describes in detail the theoretical basis of the implementation and provides a case study in rock fracture modelling to demonstrate the application of the software. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Churchman G.J.,University of Adelaide
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2010

Data in the literature for soils that are dominated by each of the main types of clay minerals were examined and compared with those for reference clay minerals of the same types to determine the extent to which the nature and properties of clay-size minerals in soils could be explained by those of clay minerals with the same name from non-soil, 'geological' environments. Published information on soils from Australia, New Zealand and Iran was sourced for this study. The clay fractions of each of the soils are dominated by either one of the common phyllosilicates: kaolinite, halloysite, illite/mica, vermiculite, smectite, and palygorskite, or by the nanocrystalline mineral, allophane. Data for samples of kaolinite that had been extracted from soils from several countries (Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and Brazil) and purified before characterization have also been examined. In soils, each dominant clay mineral is generally associated with other materials, including iron oxides, other phyllosilicates and/or nanocrystalline minerals and organic matter. As the most studied example of an extracted phyllosilicate, kaolinite shows a wide range of properties in different soils, but a narrower range of properties within a particular locality. However, almost all of the soil kaolinites studied have larger specific surface areas and higher cation exchange capacities than reference kaolinites. The literature also reveals that, among phyllosilicates in soils, illites have a wide range of potassium contents, expandable minerals (vermiculites and smectites) may be interlayered by hydroxy-Al species particularly, and smectitic layers often occur interstratified with other layers, including those of illite, kaolinite and halloysite. The variability of soil phyllosilicates and their common association with other, often poorly crystallized but highly reactive minerals and compounds can be explained by their formation in the highly heterogeneous and dynamic soil environment. Phyllosilicates from non-soil or geological sources are poor models for the representation of secondary clay-size minerals in soils. In philosophical terms, the reduction of soil mineralogy to mineralogy as it is practiced within geology is misleading because of the differences between the minerals formed in soil and geological environments. In other words, clay minerals as they are defined as mineralogical entities for geology are of a different 'kind' to clay minerals in soils and cannot serve as 'types' or 'stereotypes' to enable explanation of the contribution of secondary clay-size minerals to soil properties or behavior. It is more useful to view clay minerals in soils as secondary inorganic compounds of clay-size than to follow their definition for non-soil purposes as plastic phyllosilicate minerals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pomfret R.,University of Adelaide
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2013

Since Vietnam, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Myanmar, and Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the 1990s, concerns have been raised over a Development Divide. The real division is between ASEAN members participating in the integrated East Asian economy and those that do not. The older ASEAN members have become more efficient traders, and Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam must reform faster if they are to catch up. Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar are not meeting the challenge, but Vietnam may be leaving the laggards, and the Philippines is lagging the leaders. The challenge is how to avoid a two-tier ASEAN with fast-growing modern economies coexisting besides inward-looking poor countries. © 2013 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2013 Japan Center for Economic Research.

The pressure-temperature (P-T) path for the Palaeoproterozoic Willyama Supergroup rocks in the Olary Domain, South Australia has been reconstructed through detailed petrographic observations, in conjunction with calculation of compositionally specific P-T pseudosections of metapelitic rock units and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology. The P-T path for the Willyama Complex has historically been interpreted to follow a single anticlockwise path, however the results of this study demonstrate that this path can be better described by two metamorphic events (M 1 and M 2) separated by 1100 Ma. The M 1 event occurred at c. 1600 Ma and was associated with high temperature-low pressure metamorphism. Sm-Nd garnet geochronology constrains the timing of garnet growth at c. 1585 Ma. The growth of large andalusite porphroblasts during M 1 exerted a first order control on the bulk composition during the subsequent M 2 event. Mineral chemistries coupled with quantitative phase diagrams constrain peak conditions to be in the order of c. 550°C and 5.5 kbar during M 2. The identification of two metamorphic events calls into question interpretations of metamorphic core complex formation and the single anticlockwise P-T paths being associated with the early stages of the tectonic evolution of the terrain. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide | Akin E.,Selcuk University
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2012

An important application of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is as a confining material for concrete, both in the seismic retrofit of existing reinforced concrete columns and in the construction of concrete-filled FRP tubes as earthquake-resistant columns in new construction. The reliable design of these structural members against earthquake-induced forces necessitates a clear understanding of the stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined concrete under load cycles. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the behavior of FRP-confined normal- and high-strength concrete under axial compression. A total of 24 aramid and carbon FRP-confined concrete cylinders with different concrete strengths and FRP jacket thicknesses were tested under monotonic and cyclic loading. Examination of the test results has led to a number of significant conclusions in regards to both the trend and ultimate condition of the axial stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined concrete. These results are presented, and a discussion is provided on the influence of the main test parameters in the observed behaviors. The results are also compared with two existing cyclic axial stress-strain models for FRP-confined concrete. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Han S.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects a significant number of women each year and is associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes for women and their babies. Dietary counselling is the main strategy in managing GDM, but it remains unclear which dietary therapy is best. To assess the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM on pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 May 2012) and the WOMBAT Perinatal Trials Registry (17 April 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs assessing the effects of different types of for accuracy. We included nine trials; 429 women (436 babies) provided outcome data. All nine included trials had small sample sizes with moderate-GI diet comparison, no significant differences were seen for macrosomia or LGA (one trial, 92 babies) (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.96), (RR 2.87, 95% CI 0.61 to 13.50), respectively; or caesarean section (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 4.94, one trial, 88 women).In the energy-restricted versus unrestricted diet comparison, no significant differences were seen for macrosomia (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.61 to 3.94, one trial, 122 babies); LGA (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.12, one trial, 123 babies); or caesarean section (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.89, one trial, 121 women).In the low- versus high-carbohydrate diet comparison, none of the 30 babies in a single trial were macrosomic; and no significant differences in caesarean section rates were seen (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.57 to 3.43, one trial, 30 women).In the high-monounsaturated fat versus high-carbohydrate diet comparison, neither macrosomia or LGA (one trial 27 babies) (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.18), (RR 0.54 95% CI 0.21 to 1.37), respectively showed significant differences. Women having a high-monounsaturated fat diet had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) at birth (mean difference (MD) 3.90 kg/m2, 95% CI 2.41 to 5.39, one trial, 27 women) and at six to nine months postpartum (MD 4.10 kg/m2, 95% CI 2.34 to 5.86, one trial, 27 women) when unrestricted diet group.A single trial comparing ADA diet (20 grams gram fibre/day) with fibre-enriched fibre enriched diet (80 grams gram fibre/day) did not report any of our prespecified primary outcomes.Very limited data were reported on the prespecified outcomes for each of the cost should be included.

Quester P.,University of Adelaide | Steyer A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Journal of Consumer Research | Year: 2010

This study revisits Ariely and Levav's previous findings in relation to consumers' need for variety when ordering (food or beverages) in a group setting. We examine how group opinion and unanimity can explain consumers' individual choice in a group setting. We hypothesize that the relationship between individual choice and group opinion is nonmonotonic as it is moderated by the degree of unanimity around an alternative. We demonstrate this effect in two empirical studies. We show that choice patterns are curvilinear, with previous findings accurately reflecting only specific sections of the overall pattern of individual choices in a group setting. © 2009 by Journal of Consumer Research, Inc.

Ainsworth R.B.,University of Adelaide
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2010

Marginal marine depositional systems exhibit stratigraphic reservoir compartmentalization potential at three hierarchical scales. At each of these scales, stratigraphic compartmentalization potential can be related to the dominant depositional processes and accommodation:coarse sediment supply ratio (A/S) that are acting at the time of deposition. All three orders of compartmentalization potential must be considered in order to define optimal field development plans and completion strategies. The lowest order of compartmentalization is usually at the inter-parase-quence scale. The parasequence is represented by a conformable succession of strata separated by marine flooding surfaces and as such it generally defines the basic flow unit in marginal marine systems. In systems tracts associated with relatively high A/S ratios, for example late Low-stand, Transgressive and early Highstand (steeply rising shoreline trajectories), vertical compartmentalization potential is relatively high becauseof the enhanced preservation potential of flooding surface shales under these conditions. In systems tracts associated with relatively low A/S ratios, for example late Highstand, Falling-stage and early Lowstand (flat, slightly rising and falling shoreline trajectories), vertical compartmentalization potential of parasequences is reduced because the potential for erosion of flooding surface shales by overlying deposits is high and hence potential for vertical sand-sand contact between parasequences is enhanced. The second level of compartmentalization hierarchy is the inter sand-body scale. Individual sand bodies are defined within parase-quences. The lateral connectivity of these sand bodies is a product of the dominant depositional processes active at the time of their deposition (wave, tidal, fluvial). Wave-dominated systems tend to produce more laterally continuous sand bodies, fluvial-dominated systems more laterally restricted sand bodies and tide-dominated systems both laterally continuous and laterally restricted sand bodies. Vertical compartmentalization potential of these reservoir sand bodies is related to A/S regime. In high A/S regimes, sand bodies are more likely to be disconnected or compartmentalized. In low A/S regimes, erosional amalgamation of sand bodies is more likely thereby leading to lower compartmentalization potential. The third order of potential stratigraphic compartmentalization is the intra sand-body scale. This scale is represented by intra sand-body heterogeneities such as dipping or horizontal shales, carbonaceous-rich beds or laminae, shale abandonment plugs of channels and carbonate concretions. In high A/S regimes the preservation potential of these heterogeneities is relatively high leading to an enhanced potential for intra sand-body compartmentalization. Lower A/S regimes result in a greater likelihood of lateral and vertical erosion of these heterogeneities leading to a higher potential for reservoir connectivity. © The Geological Society of London 2010.

OBJECTIVE:: The objective was to evaluate the effects of BMI and waist circumference change on the cumulative incidence of high blood pressure levels (HBP) among adults. METHODS:: Prospective longitudinal study in Southern Brazil, with a sample evaluated in 2009 (n?=?1720) and 2012 (n?=?1213). The incidence of HBP was estimated using measured values of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (≥140/90?mmHg). RESULTS:: The prevalence of overweight (BMI?≥?25?kg/m) was 47.3% in 2009 and 55.0% in 2012. The incidence of HBP was 32.0%. Being overweight or having an elevated waist circumference (top quartile) in the two waves increased the incidence of HBP [odds ratio 3.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10; 5.53) and 5.42 (95% CI 2.65; 11.08), respectively] compared with those always eutrophic. Being overweight in either wave also increased the risk of HBP, whereas reducing waist circumference was a protective factor. When the annual BMI and waist circumference change were evaluated (conditional to the baseline measurements, age, and sex) the adjusted predicted incidence of HBP was 46.5% (95% CI 36.9; 56.1) among individuals with an annual BMI change more than +1.0?kg/m, and 45.1% (95% CI 36.7; 53.4) among those with an annual waist circumference change more than +3.0?cm. Among those who reduced their BMI and waist circumference, the incidence of HBP were 25.9 and 23.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION:: Being overweight (in any wave), maintaining an elevated waist circumference, or having an annual rise of these measurements above the expected values, all increased the incidence of HBP. Reducing the waist circumference showed greater benefits for the prevention of HBP than BMI changes. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Di Bartolo B.A.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2016

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has received considerable interest by virtue of its favorable effects on atherogenic and protective lipid parameters. The impact of CETP inhibitors in large clinical outcome trials will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Population and genetic studies demonstrate that low CETP activity associates with lower rates of cardiovascular events. Inhibiting CETP activity in animal models has a favorable impact on experimental atherosclerosis. Although the first CETP inhibitor to advance to an outcome trial proved to have adverse clinical effects and the next agent, a more modest inhibitor, was clinically futile, there continues to be immense interest in the potential to develop nontoxic, potent CETP inhibitors to reduce cardiovascular risk. SUMMARY: The current status of CETP inhibitors in the context of large outcomes trials will be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

The role of pharmacists has expanded beyond dispensing and packaging over the past two decades, and now includes ensuring rational use of drugs, improving clinical outcomes and promoting health status by working with the public and other healthcare professionals. To examine the effect of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services on patient outcomes, health service utilisation and costs in low- and middle-income countries. Studies were identified by electronically searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (February 2010), MEDLINE (1949 to February 2010), Scopus (1960 to March 2010) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2010) databases. An update of this review is currently ongoing. The search was re-run September 2012 and the potentially relevant studies are awaiting classification. Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series analyses comparing 1. pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services targeted at patients versus (a) the same services provided by other healthcare professionals, (b) the same services provided by untrained health workers, and (c) usual care; and 2. pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services targeted at healthcare professionals versus (a) the same services provided by other healthcare professionals, (b) the same services provided by untrained health workers, and (c) usual care in low- and middle-income countries. The research sites must have been located in low or middle income countries according to World Bank Group 2009 at the time of the study, regardless of the location or the origin of the researchers. Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently extracted data for each study. Risk of bias of the included studies was also assessed independently by two authors. Twelve studies comparing pharmacist-provided services versus usual care were included in this review. Of the 12 studies, seven were from lower middle income countries and five were from upper middle income countries. Eleven studies examined pharmacist-provided services targeted at patients and one study evaluated pharmacist interventions targeted at healthcare professionals. Pharmacist-provided services targeting patients resulted in a small improvement of clinical outcomes such as blood pressure (-25 mm Hg/-6 mm Hg and -4.56 mm Hg/-2.45 mm Hg), blood glucose (-39.84 mg/dl and -16.16 mg/dl), blood cholesterol (-25.7 mg/dl)/ triglyceride levels (-80.1 mg/dl) and asthma outcomes (peak expiratory flow rate 1.76 l/min). Moreover, there was a small improvement in the quality of life, although four studies did not report the effect size explicitly. Health service utilisation, such as rate of hospitalisation and general practice and emergency room visits, was also found to be reduced by the patient targeted pharmacist-provided services. A single study examined the effect of patient targeted pharmacist interventions on medical expenses and the cost was found to be reduced. A single study that examined pharmacist services that targeted healthcare professionals demonstrated a very small impact on asthma symptom scores. No studies assessing the impact of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services that targeted healthcare professionals reported health service utilisation and cost outcomes. Overall, five studies did not adequately report the numerical data for outcomes but instead reported qualitative statements about results, which prevented an estimation of the effect size.Studies for the comparison of patient targeted services provided by pharmacists versus the same services provided by other healthcare professionals or untrained healthcare workers were not found. Similarly, studies for the comparison of healthcare professional targeted services provided by pharmacists versus the same services provided by other healthcare professionals or untrained healthcare workers were not found. Pharmacist-provided services that target patients may improve clinical outcomes such as management of high glucose levels among diabetic patients, management of blood pressure and cholesterol levels and may improve the quality of life of patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and asthma. Pharmacist services may reduce health service utilisation such as visits to general practitioners and hospitalisation rates. We are uncertain about the effect of educational sessions by pharmacists for healthcare professionals due to the imprecision of a single study included in this review. Similarly, conclusions could not be drawn for health service utilisation and costs due to lack of evidence on interventions delivered by pharmacists to healthcare professionals. These results were heterogenous in the types of outcomes measured, clinical conditions and approaches to measurement of outcomes, and require cautious interpretation. All eligible studies were from middle income countries and the results may not be applicable to low income countries.

Aw M.S.,University of South Australia | Addai-Mensah J.,University of South Australia | Losic D.,University of South Australia | Losic D.,University of Adelaide
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

A multi-drug delivery system with sequential release based on titania nanotube arrays and polymer micelles as drug carriers is presented. Delivery of multiple water insoluble and soluble drugs required for combined local therapy is demonstrated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Shi A.,University of Adelaide | Marschner P.,University of Adelaide
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Addition of clay-rich subsoils to sandy top soils is an agricultural management option to increase water and nutrient retention and may also increase organic carbon sequestration by decreasing the decomposition rates. An incubation experiment was carried out in a loamy sand top soil mixed with a clay-rich subsoil (84% clay) at 0, 10 and 30% (w/w) amended with finely ground mature shoot residues of two native perennial grasses and annual barley individually or in 1:1 mixtures of two residues. Extractable C, microbial biomass C, available N and soil pH were analysed at days 0, 3, 14 and 28. Cumulative respiration after 28days was highest with barley residue and lowest with Wallaby grass at all clay soil addition rates; 30% clay soil addition reduced cumulative respiration, especially with barley alone. In the mixture of native grasses and barley, the measured respiration was lower than expected at a clay soil addition rate of 10%. A synergistic effect (higher than expected cumulative respiration) was only found in mixture of Kangaroo grass and barley at a clay soil addition rate of 30%. Clay soil addition also decreased extractable C, available N and soil pH. The temporal change in microbial biomass C and available N in residue mixtures differed among clay addition rates. In the mixture of Wallaby grass and Kangaroo grass, microbial biomass C (MBC) decreased from day 0 to day 28 at clay soil addition rates of 0 and 10%, whereas at 30% clay MBC increased from day 0 to day 3 and then decreased. Our study shows that addition of a clay-rich subsoil to a loamy sand soil can increase C sequestration by reducing CO2 release and extractable C which are further modulated by the type of residues present individually or as mixtures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Thiel S.,University of Adelaide | Heinson G.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2010

A long-period magnetotelluric data set was obtained in 2005 along a two-dimensional profile across the western part of the late Archaean-early Proterozoic Gawler Craton, South Australia. The study is aimed at delineating the electrical conductivity structure of the crust and upper mantle underneath an east-west trending profile extending from the Gawler Range Volcanics in the east, crossing the Nuyts Domain and the highly prospective Meso-Proterozoic Fowler Domain, and terminating in the Eucla Basin to the west. The resistivity model shows a very electrically resistive crust and upper mantle underneath the Nuyts and Fowler Domain, possibly representing the cratonic root of the Gawler Craton extending to depths of ∼160 km. The resistive cratonic root is closer to the surface underneath the Fowler Domain compared to the Nuyts Domain which supports findings from outcrops of metasediments of higher metamorphic grade in the Fowler Domain. A subvertical conductor marks the western terminus of the Fowler Domain and is imaged to upper mantle depths. On the eastern side of the Fowler Domain, another subvertical conductor extends to similar depths. These features spatially coincide with the Tallacootra and Coorabie shear zone at the surface, respectively, and their higher conductivity is likely due to a reduction in grain size of olivine associated with an increase in influence of grain boundary diffusion and thus enhanced conductivity. A comparison of the results with other surveys across mobile belts worldwide shows a more resistive response of the interpreted mobile belt of the Fowler Domain raising questions as to the nature of the domain. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Garnet is a vital mineral for determining constrained P-T-t paths as it can give both the P-T and t information directly. However, estimates of the closure temperature of the Sm-Nd system in garnet vary considerably leading to significant uncertainties in the timing of peak conditions. In this study, five igneous garnets from an early Proterozoic 2414 ± 6 Ma garnet-cordierite bearing s-type granite-which was subjected to high-T reworking have been dated to examine their diffusional behaviour in the Sm-Nd system. Garnets 8, 7, 6 and 2.5 mm in diameter were compositionally profiled and then dated, producing two-point Sm-Nd isochron ages of 2412 ± 10, 2377 ± 5, 2370 ± 5 and 2365 ± 8 and 2313 ± 11 Ma, respectively. A direct correlation exists between grain size and amount of resetting highlighting the effect of grain size on closure temperature. Major element EMPA and LA-ICPMS REE traverses reveal homogenous major element profiles and relict igneous REE profiles. The retention of REE zoning and homogenisation of major element zoning suggest that diffusion rates of REEs are considerably slower than that of the major cations. The retention of REE zoning and the lack of resetting in the largest grains suggest that Sm-Nd closure temperature in garnet is a function of grain size, thermal history and REE zoning in garnet. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Bruce M.I.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Reactions of electron-rich alkynyl- and poly-ynyl-Group 8 complexes with tetracyanoethene (TCNE), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and related compounds usually proceed via an initial radical anion salt of the oxidised complex with formation of an intermediate zwitterionic complex which undergoes a [2 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction to give a polycyano-cyclobutenyl complex. This more or less rapidly experiences a ring-opening (retro-electrocyclic reaction), affording an η1-polycyano-butadienyl-metal derivative. Further chemistry of these species may involve chelation of the dienyl to give an η3-polycyano-butadienyl by displacement of a 2-e ligand from the metal centre, or transformations of the CN group(s) to amides by hydrolysis or alcoholysis, cycloaddition of azide ("click" reaction) to give tetrazolato complexes, or addition of terminal alkyne to form a [3]-dendralene. Their potential in heterocyclic synthesis is also demonstrated by the formation of a variety of such systems by reactions of the CN groups, activated by electron-donor metal centres. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Eriksson A.,University of Adelaide | Van Den Hengel A.,University of Adelaide
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

The calculation of a low-rank approximation of a matrix is a fundamental operation in many computer vision applications. The workhorse of this class of problems has long been the Singular Value Decomposition. However, in the presence of missing data and outliers this method is not applicable, and unfortunately, this is often the case in practice. In this paper we present a method for calculating the low-rank factorization of a matrix which minimizes the L1 norm in the presence of missing data. Our approach represents a generalization the Wiberg algorithm of one of the more convincing methods for factorization under the L2 norm. By utilizing the differentiability of linear programs, we can extend the underlying ideas behind this approach to include this class of L1 problems as well. We show that the proposed algorithm can be efficiently implemented using existing optimization software. We also provide preliminary experiments on synthetic as well as real world data with very convincing results. ©2010 IEEE.

Mares D.J.,University of Adelaide | Mrva K.,University of Adelaide
Planta | Year: 2014

Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late maturity α-amylase (LMA) are the two major causes of unacceptably high levels of α-amylase in ripe wheat grain. High α-amylase activity in harvested grain results in substantially lower prices for wheat growers and at least in the case of PHS, is associated with adverse effects on the quality of a range of end-products and loss of viability during storage. The high levels of α-amylase are reflected in low falling number, the internationally accepted measure for grain receival and trade. Given the significant losses that can occur, elimination of these defects remains a major focus for wheat breeding programs in many parts of the world. In addition, the genetic, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of PHS and LMA as well as the interactions with environmental factors have attracted a sustained research interest. PHS and LMA are independent, genetically controlled traits that are strongly influenced by the environment, where the effects of particular environmental factors vary substantially depending on the stage of grain development and ripening. This review is a summary and an assessment of results of recent research on these important grain quality defects. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Chowdhury N.,University of Adelaide | Marschner P.,University of Adelaide | Burns R.G.,University of Queensland
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

As saline soils dry, the salt in the remaining solution phase is concentrated and the microbes are subjected to both water and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the interactive effect of matric potential (MP) and osmotic potential (OP) on microbial activity and community structure. We conducted an experiment in which two non-saline soils, a sand and a sandy loam, were pre-incubated at optimal water content (for microbial activity) but different osmotic potentials achieved by adding NaCl. The EC of the saturated paste (ECe) ranged between 1.6 and 11.6 dS m-1 in the sand and between 0.6 and 17.7 dS m-1 in the sandy loam. After the 14-day pre-incubation, the soils were dried to different water contents: 25-35 g kg-1 in the sand and 95-200 g kg-1 in the sandy loam. Water potential (WP, the sum of osmotic + matric potential) ranged from -0.7 to -6.8 MPa in the sand and from -0.1 to -4.4 MPa in the sandy loam. After addition of ground pea straw to increase the concentration of readily available substrate, respiration was measured over 14 days and microbial community composition was assessed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) at the end of the experiment. In both soils, cumulative respiration at a given soil water content (WC) decreased with decreasing osmotic potential, but the effect of decreasing water content differed between the two soils. In the sand, cumulative respiration at the two lowest water contents (WC25 and WC28) was always significantly lower than that at the highest water content (WC35). In the sandy loam, cumulative respiration was significantly lower at the lowest water content (WC95) compared to the highest water content (WC200) only in treatments with added salt. The reduction of cumulative respiration at a given WP was similar in the two soils with a 50% reduction compared to the control (optimal water content, no salt added) at WP -3 MPa. In the sand at WP <-2 MPa, the reduction in fungal fatty acids was greater than that of bacterial fatty acids whereas in the sandy loam, the response of bacteria and fungi to decreasing WP was similar. In both soils, microbial biomass decreased by 35-50% as WP decreased to about -2 MPa but then remained stable with further decreases of WP. Microbial community composition changed with WP in both soils. Our results suggest that there are two strategies by which microbes respond to water potential. A decrease in WP up to -2 MPa kills a proportion of the microbial community, but the remaining microbes adapt and maintain their activity per unit biomass. At lower WP however, the adaptation mechanisms are not sufficient and although the microbes survive, their activity per unit biomass is reduced. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Riggs D.W.,Flinders University | Russell L.,University of Adelaide
Human Reproduction | Year: 2011

Background Although ongoing legislative changes are important to protect the rights of all involved in assisted reproductive technologies, it cannot be guaranteed that legislation will ensure the successful operation of reproductive health clinics, as is indicated by ongoing reports of a dearth of donor sperm in clinics in some countries. Methods Data were 1428 profiles taken from a website that aims to facilitate relationships between those seeking donor sperm and men willing to donate their sperm. Data were coded as three independent variables: age, relationship status and country, and four dependent variables: motivation to donate, willingness to be identified, willingness to be involved with children conceived of donations and beliefs about who should determine the level of involvement. Results Non-parametric testing indicated that men aged under 26 or over 46, and who were either single or in a same-sex relationship, were most likely to be willing to be identified to children (P< 0.05), and to desire involvement with children (P< 0.01). A significant proportion of men aged between 26 and 46 years of age (P< 0.001) were motivated by a desire to procreate and were unwilling to be identified, as were a significant number of men in opposite-sex relationships (P< 0.001). Conclusions Although limited by its reliance upon a sample constituted by men living in western countries who completed a self-report profile and who had not received counselling about their potential role as donors, this study draws attention to the potential impact of age and sexual orientation upon intentions to donate. © 2010 The Author.

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

Lethal embolic events in children are an uncommon occurrence that may be first detected at autopsy. Emboli consist of thrombi, tumours, infective organisms, fat, air and foreign body material. The most significant circulations that may be obstructed are the pulmonary, coronary and cerebral. Rare conditions such as arteriovenous malformations may act as sources for emboli in children, and the brain is at particular risk from paradoxical embolism. The latter is facilitated by right to left communications in the heart such as atrial and ventricular septal defects and also from pulmonary vascular abnormalities such as hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) and arteriovenous fistulas. Iatrogenic causes of thromboembolism must be considered in children with indwelling central venous catheters and ventriculoatrial shunts. Although rare, embolic events do occur in children with lethal consequences. As the incidence of embolization in clinical settings has been increasing, due to improved survival of children with predisposing chronic conditions, it is likely that more of these cases will be the subject of forensic evaluation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

Goldney R.D.,University of Adelaide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: To review publications addressing suicidal behaviour in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1967-2012. Method: A PubMed/MEDLINE search using the words suicide, attempted suicide (and their synonyms) and Aust NZ J Psychiatr was carried out, and an examination of all tables of contents of the journal for the years 1967-2012 was performed. Results: In 342 (7.4%) of 4599 articles there was reference to suicidal behaviour. This ratio was consistent over time, although the nature of their content changed from broader epidemiological and clinical review studies to more focused reports. Conclusions: Papers addressing suicidal behaviour have been published consistently in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry since its inception in 1967. Early clinical reviews remain pertinent to the present time. © TheRoyal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2013.

Delfabbro P.,University of Adelaide | King D.,University of Adelaide
Addiction | Year: 2012

Aims The aim of this paper is to provide a critical overview of the development and current status of gambling in Australia. Methods The paper examines the history and current status of gambling in Australia with a particular focus on the prevalence of problem gambling in the community and developments in policy and treatment services. Results The paper highlights the contradictory role of State governments as both providers of treatment services as well as agents for the liberalization for gambling. It also shows how the notion of 'addiction' is conceptualized in Australian research and treatment services, including the preference for harm-based and public health approaches. Such perspectives view problem gambling as having multiple pathways and determinants that extend beyond the pathology of individuals. Conclusions Gambling in Australia provides a curious paradox. Highly liberalized State government policies that allow the proliferation of high intensity gambling coexist with extensive policy, regulation and research designed to address the negative impact of gambling on the Australian community. © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Wycherley T.P.,University of South Australia | Moran L.J.,University of Adelaide | Clifton P.M.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Noakes M.,CSIRO | Brinkworth G.D.,CSIRO
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: It is currently unclear whether altering the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of low-fat, energy-restricted diets augments weight loss and cardiometabolic risk markers. Objective: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared energy-restricted, isocaloric, high-protein, low-fat (HP) diets with standard-protein, low-fat (SP) diets on weight loss, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and appetite, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: Systematic searches were conducted by using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify weight-loss trials that compared isocalorically prescribed diets matched for fat intake but that differed in protein and carbohydrate intakes in participants aged ≥18 y. Twenty-four trials that included 1063 individuals satisfied the inclusion criteria. Results: Mean (±SD) diet duration was 12.1 ± 9.3 wk. Compared with an SP diet, an HP diet produced more favorable changes in weighted mean differences for reductions in body weight (-0.79 kg; 95% CI: -1.50, -0.08 kg), fat mass (FM; -0.87 kg; 95% CI: -1.26, -0.48 kg), and triglycerides (-0.23 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.33, 20.12 mmol/L) and mitigation of reductions in fat-free mass (FFM; 0.43 kg; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.78 kg) and REE (595.5 kJ/d; 95% CI: 67.0, 1124.1 kJ/d). Changes in fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, blood pressure, and total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol were similar across dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.20). Greater satiety with HP was reported in 3 of 5 studies. Conclusion: Compared with an energy-restricted SP diet, an isocalorically prescribed HP diet provides modest benefits for reductions in body weight, FM, and triglycerides and for mitigating reductions in FFM and REE. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Ma T.Y.,University of Adelaide | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2014

Integrating multiple functions into one host for improved catalytic performance is challenging and promising for both catalysis and material science. Herein a new acid-base bifunctional periodic mesoporous titanium phosphonate hybrid material is synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, using alendronate sodium trihydrate as a coupling molecule. The new material possesses highly periodic mesopores with a large specific surface area of 540 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.43 cm3 g-1, favoring the smooth mass transport of reactants and products during the catalytic reaction. It also has an organic-inorganic hybrid framework with homogeneously incorporated phosphonate groups, in which a large number of accessible acidic P-OH and basic -NH2 sites can, respectively, activate aziridine and CO2, synergistically leading to the high conversion (>99%), yield (98%), and regioselectivity (98:2) for the CO2 cycloaddition reaction. The catalytic activity is better than that of the scarcely reported heterogeneous catalysts for aziridine and CO2 cycloaddition and even comparable to that of the state-of-the-art homogeneous ones. Moreover, being superior to the other catalysts, the metal phosphonate materials can be easily separated and reused repeatedly without activity loss, and no hazardous halogen ions, organic solvents, or cocatalysts are needed for the catalytic process. In comparison with previously reported multifunctional catalysts synthesized by complicated multistep fabrications, the facile one-pot preparation of mesoporous metal phosphonates with dual active sites makes it more practical for high-performance heterogeneous catalysis. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Paton A.W.,University of Adelaide | Morona R.,University of Adelaide | Paton J.C.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Naturally occurring microorganisms have been used therapeutically for over a century, but the advent of modern techniques for genetic manipulation has created unprecedented opportunities to develop novel bioengineered microbes with high therapeutic efficacy. Engineered bacteria can be tailored to deliver drugs, therapeutic proteins, and gene therapy vectors with great efficiency, and with a higher degree of site-specificity than conventional administration regimes. Moreover, they provide new opportunities to interfere with critical steps in disease pathogenesis. In this review, we present a cross-section of recent work on the development of bacterial-mediated treatments for inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. These treatments have the potential to significantly impact global morbidity and mortality if successfully translated from the laboratory into the clinic. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kinnell A.,University of Adelaide | Dennis S.,Ohio State University
Memory and Cognition | Year: 2011

The list length effect in recognition memory refers to the finding that recognition performance for a short list is superior to that for a long list. The list length effect is consistent with the predictions of item noise models, but context noise models predict no effect. Recently, it hasbeen argued that if potential confounds are controlled, the list length effect is eliminated. We report the results of two experiments in which we looked at the role of attention and the remember-know task in the detection of the list length effect. We conclude that there is no list length effect when potential confounds are controlled and that it is the design used to control for attention that is most vital. © The Psychonomic Society 2010.

Buckberry S.,University of Adelaide | Bianco-Miotto T.,University of Adelaide | Roberts C.T.,University of Adelaide
Epigenetics | Year: 2014

Pregnancy outcome is inextricably linked to placental development, which is strictly controlled temporally and spatially through mechanisms that are only partially understood. However, increasing evidence suggests noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) direct and regulate a considerable number of biological processes and therefore may constitute a previously hidden layer of regulatory information in the placenta. Many ncRNAs, including both microRNAs and long non-coding transcripts, show almost exclusive or predominant expression in the placenta compared with other somatic tissues and display altered expression patterns in placentas from complicated pregnancies. In this review, we explore the results of recent genome-scale and single gene expression studies using human placental tissue, but include studies in the mouse where human data are lacking. Our review focuses on the ncRNAs epigenetically regulated through genomic imprinting or X-chromosome inactivation and includes recent evidence surrounding the H19 lincRNA, the imprinted C19MC cluster microRNAs, and X-linked miRNAs associated with pregnancy complications. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

Psaltis P.J.,University of Adelaide | Psaltis P.J.,Monash University | Simari R.D.,University of Kansas
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

The vasculature plays an indispensible role in organ development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, such that disturbances to it impact greatly on developmental and postnatal health. Although cell turnover in healthy blood vessels is low, it increases considerably under pathological conditions. The principle sources for this phenomenon have long been considered to be the recruitment of cells from the peripheral circulation and the re-entry of mature cells in the vessel wall back into cell cycle. However, recent discoveries have also uncovered the presence of a range of multipotent and lineage-restricted progenitor cells in the mural layers of postnatal blood vessels, possessing high proliferative capacity and potential to generate endothelial, smooth muscle, hematopoietic or mesenchymal cell progeny. In particular, the tunica adventitia has emerged as a progenitor-rich compartment with niche-like characteristics that support and regulate vascular wall progenitor cells. Preliminary data indicate the involvement of some of these vascular wall progenitor cells in vascular disease states, adding weight to the notion that the adventitia is integral to vascular wall pathogenesis, and raising potential implications for clinical therapies. This review discusses the current body of evidence for the existence of vascular wall progenitor cell subpopulations from development to adulthood and addresses the gains made and significant challenges that lie ahead in trying to accurately delineate their identities, origins, regulatory pathways, and relevance to normal vascular structure and function, as well as disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Kennaway D.J.,University of Adelaide | Boden M.J.,University of Adelaide | Varcoe T.J.,University of Adelaide
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Circadian rhythms impact on a wide range of physiological systems and this impact extends to fertility, such that disruptions to timing systems can impact upon reproductive capacity. This is highlighted most obviously in mutant mouse models whereby deletion or mutation of single genes results not only in disrupted circadian rhythmicity, but also compromised male and female reproductive function. In this review, we discuss the presence of circadian clocks in female and male reproductive tissues and the role these clocks play in the generation of oestrus cycles, ovulation, sperm generation, implantation and the maintenance of pregnancy. Given the increased incidence of shiftwork and international travel which disrupt circadian rhythmicity, and the increasing prevalence of reproductive technologies whereby early embryo development occurs without external time cues, it is important for us to consider the role of circadian rhythms in fertility. © 2011.

Denton D.,Center for Cancer Biology | Denton D.,University of Adelaide | Nicolson S.,Center for Cancer Biology | Kumar S.,Center for Cancer Biology | Kumar S.,University of Adelaide
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2012

Autophagy (the process of self-digestion by a cell through the action of enzymes originating within the lysosome of the same cell) is a catabolic process that is generally used by the cell as a mechanism for quality control and survival under nutrient stress conditions. As autophagy is often induced under conditions of stress that could also lead to cell death, there has been a propagation of the idea that autophagy can act as a cell death mechanism. Although there is growing evidence of cell death by autophagy, this type of cell death, often called autophagic cell death, remains poorly defined and somewhat controversial. Merely the presence of autophagic markers in a cell undergoing death does not necessarily equate to autophagic cell death. Nevertheless, studies involving genetic manipulation of autophagy in physiological settings provide evidence for a direct role of autophagy in specific scenarios. This article endeavours to summarise these physiological studies where autophagy has a clear role in mediating the death process and discusses the potential significance of cell death by autophagy. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Doeltgen S.H.,University of Adelaide | Huckabee M.-L.,University of Canterbury
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

The recent application of neurostimulation techniques to enhance the understanding of swallowing neural plasticity has expanded the focus of rehabilitation research from manipulation of swallowing biomechanics to manipulation of underlying neural systems. Neuromodulatory strategies that promote the brain's ability to reorganize its neural connections have been shown to hold promising potential to aid the recovery of impaired swallowing function. These techniques include those applied to the brain through the intact skull, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation, or those applied to the sensorimotor system in the periphery, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Recent research has demonstrated that each of these techniques, either by themselves or in combination with these and other treatments, can, under certain circumstances, modify the excitability of motor representations of muscles involved in swallowing. In some studies, experimentally induced plastic changes have been shown to have functional relevance for swallowing biomechanics. However, the transition of novel, neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques from the research laboratory to routine clinical practice is accompanied by a number of ethical, organizational, and clinical implications that impact professions concerned with the treatment of swallowing rehabilitation. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the neuromodulatory strategies that may hold potential to aid the recovery of swallowing function, and raise a number of issues that we believe the clinical professions involved in the rehabilitation of swallowing disorders must confront as these novel brain stimulation techniques emerge into clinical practice. © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Selth L.A.,University of Adelaide | Tilley W.D.,University of Adelaide | Butler L.M.,University of Adelaide
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2012

The realization that microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently deregulated in malignancy has had a major impact on cancer research. In particular, the recent finding that highly stable forms of miRNAs can be accurately measured in body fluids, including blood, has generated considerable excitement. Here, we discuss the potential of blood-based circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers of prostate cancer. We also describe practical considerations that may influence identification and/or measurement of miRNA biomarkers in the circulation. Finally, evidence is prevented for the emerging concept that circulating miRNAs are actively released by their cells of origin and can modulate gene expression at distal sites. These mobile miRNAs, which we term 'hormomirs' because of their hormone-like characteristics, could act as local or long-range signals to maintain normal homeostasis or influence the development and progression of diseases such as cancer. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology.

Honegger M.,University of Neuchatel | Williams M.,University of Adelaide
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2015

Our article presents a detailed Holocene archaeological sequence from the Nile Valley at Kerma in Upper Nubia, northern Sudan. This sequence retraces the evolution of human populations thanks to the study of several sites, supported by 90 14C dates. Reconstruction of the environmental changes was supported by a study of dated stratigraphic sections located near the archaeological sites studied, and illustrates the effects on human occupation of changes in river flow and floods, which are in turn forced by climatic changes. The results shed new light on the evolutionary dynamics of the Holocene populations in Nile Valley, little known due to the numerous hiatuses in occupation. When compared with the situation in the Sahara and the rest of the Nile Valley, they confirm that the initial occupation took place ca. 10.5 kyr BP after the start of the African Humid Period, followed by a migration towards the banks of the Nile commencing 7.3 kyr BP. They also confirm the appearance of the Neolithic by ca. 8.0 kyr BP. The Kerma stratigraphic sequences show two prosperous periods (10-8 and 7-6 kyr BP) and two hiatuses in the occupation of the sites (7.5-7.1 and 6.0-5.4 kyr BP), resulting from increased aridity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Tucker M.R.,University of Adelaide | Koltunow A.M.G.,CSIRO
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2014

The formation of female gametes in plants occurs within the ovule, a floral organ that is also the precursor of the seed. Unlike animals, plants lack a typical germline separated from the soma early in development and rely on positional signals, including phytohormones, mobile mRNAs and sRNAs, to direct diploid somatic precursor cells onto a reproductive program. In addition, signals moving between plant cells must overcome the architectural limitations of a cell wall which surrounds the plasma membrane. Recent studies have addressed the molecular and histological signatures of young ovule cells and indicate that dynamic cell wall changes occur over a short developmental window. These changes in cell wall properties impact signal flow and ovule cell identity, thereby aiding the establishment of boundaries between reproductive and somatic ovule domains. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Soenen S.,University of Adelaide | Chapman I.M.,University of Adelaide
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2013

Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc.

Kalynych S.,McGill University | Morona R.,University of Adelaide | Cygler M.,McGill University | Cygler M.,University of Saskatchewan
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2014

The discovery that the surfaces of Gram-negative bacteria often carry unique polysaccharide signatures pre-dates most seminal discoveries of molecular biology and biochemistry of the 20th century. The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide has been one of the most intensely studied bacterial polysaccharide surface structures for over 80 years. Yet, many questions about the mechanism of biosynthesis of the O-antigen and its transport to the cell surface remain unanswered. In this review we provide an overview of how the molecular basis of the O-antigen assembly and trafficking were unraveled in a historical context. We pay particular attention to the emergence of novel technological approaches and how they fueled the elucidation of the O-antigen maturation process. Moreover, we provide a brief perspective on the biosynthesis of enterobacterial common antigen and underline the similarities and differences between the pathways used to assemble these two surface polysaccharides. Finally, we highlight key discoveries that led to the understanding of the mechanistic basis of bacteriophage-induced O-antigen modifications. We place special emphasis on the regulation of the length of O-antigen polymers and provide a detailed overview of the models explaining the O-antigen length determination. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions that need to be addressed both structurally and functionally to advance our understanding of the O-antigen assembly, trafficking and export within cellular and molecular contexts. This review provides a historical perspective of how the molecular basis of the O-antigen assembly was elucidated, and to underscore some of the most intriguing questions that remain to be addressed. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li C.,University of California at Davis | Distelfeld A.,University of California at Davis | Comis A.,University of Adelaide | Dubcovsky J.,University of California at Davis
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

Summary The transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the temperate cereals is mainly regulated by seasonal cues including vernalization (determined mainly by VRN1 and VRN2 genes) and photoperiod (determined mainly by PPD1 and CO2 genes). The wheat VRN3 gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis FT, plays a central role in the integration of the competing signals from these two pathways. Under long days, VRN3 transcription is down-regulated by VRN2, a unique flowering repressor in cereals, and up-regulated by CO2. Overexpression of VRN3 overcomes VRN2 repression and promotes VRN1 transcription and flowering initiation. Using yeast two- and three-hybrid assays we show here that the CCT domains present in VRN2 and CO2 proteins interact with the same subset of eight NF-Y proteins, and that these CCT proteins compete with NF-YA for interactions with NF-YB proteins. We have confirmed all these interactions in vitro, and the interactions between VRN2 and two of the three NF-YB proteins were further confirmed in planta. In addition, we show that mutations in the CCT domain of VRN2 that eliminate the vernalization requirement in winter wheat also reduce the strength of the interactions between VRN2 and NF-Y proteins, and the ability of VRN2 to compete with CO2. Taken together, our results suggest that the interactions between CCT and NF-Y proteins play an important role in the integration of the vernalization and photoperiod seasonal signals, and provide a flexible combinatorial system to integrate multiple developmental and environmental signals in the regulation of flowering initiation in the temperate cereals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Reddi B.A.J.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2013

Commercial 0.9% saline solution for infusion has a pH around 5.5. There are many reasons for this acidity, some of them still obscure. It is also true that infusion of normal saline can lead to metabolic acidaemia, yet the link between the acidity of saline solution and the acidaemia it can engender is not straightforward. This commentary draws together the known and putative sources of acidity in saline solutions: it turns out that the acidity of saline solution is essentially unrelated to the acidaemia complicating saline infusion. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Jiao Y.,University of Adelaide | Zheng Y.,University of Adelaide | Zheng Y.,University of Queensland | Jaroniec M.,Kent State University | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The mutually corroborated electrochemical measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to uncover the origin of electrocatalytic activity of graphene-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A series of graphenes doped with nonmetal elements was designed and synthesized, and their ORR performance was evaluated in terms of four electrochemical descriptors: exchange current density, on-set potential, reaction pathway selectivity and kinetic current density. It is shown that these descriptors are in good agreement with DFT calculations, allowing derivation of a volcano plot between the ORR activity and the adsorption free energy of intermediates on metal-free materials, similarly as in the case of metallic catalysts. The molecular orbital concept was used to justify this volcano plot, and to theoretically predict the ORR performance of an ideal graphene-based catalyst, the ORR activity of which is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt catalyst. Moreover, this study may stimulate the development of metal-free electrocatalysts for other key energy conversion processes including hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions and largely expand the spectrum of catalysts for energy-related electrocatalysis reactions. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Szabo C.,University of Adelaide
SIGCSE 2014 - Proceedings of the 45th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education | Year: 2014

Teaching software engineering through group-based project work supported by theory lectures is effective, as recognized by both academia and industry. However, exposing students to practical software maintenance is often overlooked in favor of building software from scratch under the guidance of a lecturer or client. The developed software is usually delivered to the lecturer/client and no maintenance efforts are further required. In contrast, industry projects require fresh graduates to perform maintenance exercises and very rarely to build software from scratch. To address this issue, existing software maintenance assignments usually focus on small codebases of very good quality, in which artificial issues are introduced. In this paper, we propose to enhance a group-based project course with a software maintenance assignment that uses a medium-sized, student-produced codebase with real software bugs. Our analysis shows the effectiveness of our approach and highlights future avenues for improvement.

Ma T.Y.,University of Adelaide | Dai S.,University of Adelaide | Jaroniec M.,Kent State University | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Hybrid porous nanowire arrays composed of strongly interacting Co3O4and carbon were prepared by a facile carbonization of the metal-organic framework grown on Cu foil. The resulting material, possessing a high surface area of 251 m2g-1and a large carbon content of 52.1 wt %, can be directly used as the working electrode for oxygen evolution reaction without employing extra substrates or binders. This novel oxygen evolution electrode can smoothly operate in alkaline solutions (e.g., 0.1 and 1.0 M KOH), affording a low onset potential of 1.47 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode) and a stable current density of 10.0 mA cm-2at 1.52 V in 0.1 M KOH solution for at least 30 h, associated with a high Faradaic efficiency of 99.3%. The achieved ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the state-of-the-art noble-metal/transition-metal and nonmetal catalysts, originate from the unique nanowire array electrode configuration and in situ carbon incorporation, which lead to the large active surface area, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release of oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability. Furthermore, the hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays can also efficiently catalyze oxygen reduction reaction, featuring a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Elliott A.D.,University of Adelaide | La Gerche A.,University of Melbourne
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Aims: Prolonged endurance exercise is associated with elevated biomarkers associated with myocardial damage and modest evidence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recent studies have reported more profound effects on right ventricular (RV) function following endurance exercise. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting RV function pre-endurance and postendurance exercise. Methods: We performed a search of peer-reviewed studies with the criteria for inclusion in the analysis being (1) healthy adult participants; (2) studies examining RV function following an event of at least 90 min duration; (3) studies reporting RV fractional area change (RVFAC), RV strain (S), RV ejection fraction (RVEF) or tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and (4) studies evaluating RV function immediately (<1 h) following exercise. Results: Fourteen studies were included with 329 participants. A random-effects meta-analysis revealed significant impairments of RV function when assessed by RVFAC (weighted mean difference (WMD) -5.78%, 95% CI -7.09% to -4.46%), S (WMD 3.71%, 95% CI 2.79% to 4.63%), RVEF (WMD -7.05%, 95% CI -12.3% to -1.8%) and TAPSE (WMD -4.77 mm, 95% CI -8.3 to -1.24 mm). Modest RV dilation was evident in studies reporting RV systolic area postexercise (WMD 1.79 cm2, 95% CI 0.5 to 3.08 cm2). In contrast, no postexercise changes in LV systolic function (expressed as LVFAC or LVEF) were observed in the included studies (standardised mean difference 0.03%, 95% CI -0.13% to 0.18%). Conclusions: Intense prolonged exercise is associated with a measurable reduction in RV function while LV function is relatively unaffected. Future studies should examine the potential clinical consequences of repeated prolonged endurance exercise on the right ventricle. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Kee T.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

Conjugated polymers are an important class of soft materials that exhibit a wide range of applications. The excited states of conjugated polymers, often referred to as excitons, can either deactivate to yield the ground state or dissociate in the presence of an electron acceptor to form charge carriers. These interesting properties give rise to their luminescence and the photovoltaic effect. Femtosecond spectroscopy is a crucial tool for studying conjugated polymers. Recently, more elaborate experimental configurations utilizing three optical pulses, namely, pump-push-probe and pump-dump-probe, have been employed to investigate the properties of excitons and charge-transfer states of conjugated polymers. These studies have revealed new insight into femtosecond torsional relaxation and detrapping of bound charge pairs of conjugated polymers. This Perspective highlights (1) the recent achievements by several research groups in using pump-push-probe and pump-dump-probe spectroscopy to study conjugated polymers and (2) future opportunities and potential challenges of these techniques. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Chen S.,University of Adelaide | Duan J.,University of Adelaide | Han W.,Flinders University | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

A three-dimensional framework promoter of graphene-MnO2 was fabricated to enhance the catalytic properties of NiCo2O4. The as-resultant graphene-MnO2-NiCo2O4 hybrid material features a number of remarkable structural properties such as well-developed pores, 3D conductive networks and strong coupling synergistic effects, rendering it an outstanding catalyst for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Penna M.J.,University of Adelaide | Mijajlovic M.,University of Adelaide | Biggs M.J.,University of Adelaide
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Although protein adsorption on solids is of immense relevance, experimental limitations mean there is still a remarkable lack of understanding of the adsorption mechanism, particularly at a molecular level. By subjecting 240+ molecular dynamics simulations of two peptide/water/solid surface systems to statistical analysis, a generalized molecular level mechanism for peptide adsorption has been identified for uncharged surfaces that interact strongly with the solution phase. This mechanism is composed of three phases: (1) biased diffusion of the peptide from the bulk phase toward the surface; (2) anchoring of the peptide to the water/solid interface via interaction of a hydrophilic group with the water adjacent to the surface or a strongly interacting hydrophobic group with the surface; and (3) lockdown of the peptide on the surface via a slow, stepwise and largely sequential adsorption of its residues, which we term 'statistical zippering'. The adsorption mechanism is dictated by the existence of water layers adjacent to the solid and orientational ordering therein. By extending the solid into the solution by ∼8 Å and endowing it with a charged character, the water layers ensure the peptide feels the effect of the solid at a range well beyond the dispersion force that arises from it, thus inducing biased diffusion from afar. The charging of the interface also facilitates anchoring of the peptide near the surface via one of its hydrophilic groups, allowing it time it would otherwise not have to rearrange and lockdown. Finally, the slowness of the lockdown process is dictated by the need for the peptide groups to replace adjacent tightly bound interfacial water. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Dawson J.,University of Adelaide | Fitridge R.,University of Adelaide
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2013

Peripheral artery aneurysms are rarer than abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), although the true prevalence is not well known. They often coexist with aortic and other peripheral artery aneurysms. In contrast to AAA, where the principal risk is that of rupture, thromboembolism is more common, contributing a bigger risk in the more common lesions. Although rupture does occur, with incidence related to anatomical site, aneurysm diameter cannot be used to guide management with the same confidence as in AAA. In addition, the rarity of these lesions results in a paucity of evidence with which to guide intervention. Consequently they are difficult lesions to manage, and numerous aneurysm and patient factors must be considered to provide treatment individualised for each case. We discuss popliteal, femoral, carotid, subclavian, upper limb, visceral and false aneurysms, focussing on the risk of rupture and thromboembolism, and current thresholds for intervention, based on the available published literature. © 2013 .

Pham D.H.,University of Adelaide | Pham D.H.,Center for Cancer Biology | Pham D.H.,University of South Australia
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) is a lipid kinase that catalyses the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Considerable evidence has implicated elevated cellular SK1 in tumour development, progression and disease severity. In particular, SK1 has been shown to enhance cell survival and proliferation and induce neoplastic transformation. Although S1P has been found to have both cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors and intracellular targets, the specific downstream pathways mediating oncogenic signalling by SK1 remain poorly defined. Here, using a gene expression array approach, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism whereby SK1 regulates cell survival, proliferation and neoplastic transformation through enhancing expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). We showed that elevated levels of SK1 enhanced total as well as cell-surface TFR1 expression, resulting in increased transferrin uptake into cells. Notably, we also found that SK1 activation and localization to the plasma membrane, which are critical for its oncogenic effects, are necessary for regulation of TFR1 expression specifically through engagement of the S1P G-protein coupled receptor, S1P2. Furthermore, we showed that blocking TFR1 function with a neutralizing antibody inhibits SK1-induced cell proliferation, survival and neoplastic transformation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Similar effects were observed following antagonism of S1P2. Together these findings suggest that TFR1 has an important role in SK1-mediated oncogenesis.

Ried K.,University of Adelaide | Ried K.,National Institute of Integrative Medicine | Toben C.,University of Adelaide | Fakler P.,University of Adelaide
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2013

Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. The effect of garlic on blood lipids has been studied in numerous trials and summarized in meta-analyses, with conflicting results. This meta-analysis, the most comprehensive to date, includes 39 primary trials of the effect of garlic preparations on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The findings suggest garlic to be effective in reducing total serum cholesterol by 17±6mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9±6mg/dL in individuals with elevated total cholesterol levels (>200mg/dL), provided garlic is used for longer than 2 months. An 8% reduction in total serum cholesterol is of clinical relevance and is associated with a 38% reduction in risk of coronary events at 50 years of age. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved only slightly, and triglycerides were not influenced significantly. Garlic preparations were highly tolerable in all trials and were associated with minimal side effects. They might be considered as an alternative option with a higher safety profile than conventional cholesterol-lowering medications in patients with slightly elevated cholesterol. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

da Silva J.,University of Adelaide
Genetics | Year: 2012

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes a severe population bottleneck during sexual transmission and yet adapts extremely rapidly to the earliest immune responses. The bottleneck has been inferred to typically consist of a single genome, and typically eight amino acid mutations in viral proteins spread to fixation by the end of the early chronic phase of infection in response to selection by CD8 + T cells. Stochastic simulation was used to examine the effects of the transmission bottleneck and of potential interference among spreading immune-escape mutations on the adaptive dynamics of the virus in early infection. If major viral population genetic parameters are assigned realistic values that permit rapid adaptive evolution, then a bottleneck of a single genome is not inconsistent with the observed pattern of adaptive fixations. One requirement is strong selection by CD8 + T cells that decreases over time. Such selection may reduce effective population sizes at linked loci through genetic hitchhiking. However, this effect is predicted to be minor in early infection because the transmission bottleneck reduces the effective population size to such an extent that the resulting strong selection and weak mutation cause beneficial mutations to fix sequentially and thus avoid interference. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.

White C.R.,University of Queensland | Schimpf N.G.,University of Queensland | Cassey P.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

The evolutionary causes of variation in metabolic rate within and among species are a topic of enduring interest. Variation between individuals is the raw material on which natural selection acts, and so recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies that examine the consequences of inter-individual differences in metabolic rate for organismal performance. A minimum requirement for a trait to evolve is that it must differ consistently between individuals, and these differences must be heritable. The time constancy of a trait is assessed by estimating its repeatability, which represents the ratio of the between-individual component of phenotypic variance to total phenotypic variance. A previous meta-analysis of repeatability concluded that metabolic rate is, on average, repeatable. Here, we expand on this earlier analysis by including extra data published in the intervening years and demonstrate that the repeatability of metabolic rate decreases as the interval between measurements increases. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

NGO S.N.T.,University of Adelaide | Williams D.B.,University of South Australia | Head R.J.,CSIRO
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in Australia. Nutrition, particularly intake of vegetables and certain plant components, has been reported to have a major role in cancer risk reduction. Recently, there has been a growing research interest in rosemary, a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. This study aims to review scientific evidence from all studies, published from 1996 to March 2010 that examined the protective effects of rosemary on colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. Literature evidence from animal and cell culture studies demonstrates the anticancer potential of rosemary extract, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. No evidence for other rosemary constituents was found. The reported anticancer properties were found to arise through the molecular changes in the multiple-stage process of cancer development, which are dose related and not tissue or species specific. This is evidenced by the ability of rosemary to suppress the development of tumors in several organs including the colon, breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells. The results suggested that the different molecular targets modulated by rosemary and its active constituents are useful indicators of success in clinical cancer chemo-prevention trials. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Furbank R.T.,CSIRO | Tester M.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011

Global agriculture is facing major challenges to ensure global food security, such as the need to breed high-yielding crops adapted to future climates and the identification of dedicated feedstock crops for biofuel production (biofuel feedstocks). Plant phenomics offers a suite of new technologies to accelerate progress in understanding gene function and environmental responses. This will enable breeders to develop new agricultural germplasm to support future agricultural production. In this review we present plant physiology in an 'omics' perspective, review some of the new high-throughput and high-resolution phenotyping tools and discuss their application to plant biology, functional genomics and crop breeding. © 2011.

Wang H.,University of Adelaide | Mirota D.,Johns Hopkins University | Hager G.D.,Johns Hopkins University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

In this paper, we present a new Adaptive-Scale Kernel Consensus (ASKC) robust estimator as a generalization of the popular and state-of-the-art robust estimators such as RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC), Adaptive Scale Sample Consensus (ASSC), and Maximum Kernel Density Estimator (MKDE). The ASKC framework is grounded on and unifies these robust estimators using nonparametric kernel density estimation theory. In particular, we show that each of these methods is a special case of ASKC using a specific kernel. Like these methods, ASKC can tolerate more than 50 percent outliers, but it can also automatically estimate the scale of inliers. We apply ASKC to two important areas in computer vision, robust motion estimation and pose estimation, and show comparative results on both synthetic and real data. © 2010 IEEE.

Baune B.T.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2015

This review aims to describe the current understanding of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration and evaluate the value of various anti-inflammatory treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammation plays important roles in common disease such as dementia and depression. Underlying mechanisms including the role of inflammasomes in these diseases have been recently described. Interventions using Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, NSAIDs and targeted antagonists (e.g., etanercept) show no convincing clinical efficacy in inflammation-associated depression, cognitive decline and dementia. SUMMARY: Therapeutic targeting of inflammation appears to be relevant in brain conditions characterized by neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, although published anti-inflammatory interventions have shown no relevant clinical efficacy. Newly described pharmacological targets in the neuroinflammation pathways may not only offer a more profound understanding of the underlying pathophysiology but also raise hope for the development of novel pharmacological agents. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Williams D.M.,University of Adelaide | Pukala T.L.,University of Adelaide
Mass Spectrometry Reviews | Year: 2013

Amyloid disorders incorporate a wide range of human diseases arising from the failure of a specific peptide or protein to adopt, or remain in, its native functional conformational state. These pathological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease are highly debilitating, exact enormous costs on both individuals and society, and are predicted to increase in prevalence. Consequently, they form the focus of a topical and rich area of current scientific research. A major goal in attempts to understand and treat protein misfolding diseases is to define the structures and interactions of protein species intermediate between fully folded and aggregated, and extract a description of the aggregation process. This has proven a difficult task due to the inability of traditional structural biology approaches to analyze structurally heterogeneous systems. Continued developments in instrumentation and analytical approaches have seen ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) emerge as a complementary approach for protein structure determination, and in some cases, a structural biology tool in its own right. IM-MS is well suited to the study of protein misfolding, and has already yielded significant structural information for selected amyloidogenic systems during the aggregation process. This review describes IM-MS for protein structure investigation, and provides a summary of current research highlighting how this methodology has unequivocally and unprecedentedly provided structural and mechanistic detail pertaining to the oligomerization of a variety of disease related proteins. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wiederman S.D.,University of Adelaide | O'Carroll D.C.,University of Adelaide
Current Biology | Year: 2013

Animals need attention to focus on one target amid alternative distracters. Dragonflies, for example, capture flies in swarms comprising prey and conspecifics [1], a feat that requires neurons to select one moving target from competing alternatives. Diverse evidence, from functional imaging and physiology to psychophysics, highlights the importance of such "competitive selection" in attention for vertebrates [2-5]. Analogous mechanisms have been proposed in artificial intelligence [6] and even in invertebrates [7-9], yet direct neural correlates of attention are scarce from all animal groups [10]. Here, we demonstrate responses from an identified dragonfly visual neuron [11, 12] that perfectly match a model for competitive selection within limits of neuronal variability (r2 = 0.83). Responses to individual targets moving at different locations within the receptive field differ in both magnitude and time course. However, responses to two simultaneous targets exclusively track those for one target alone rather than any combination of the pair. Irrespective of target size, contrast, or separation, this neuron selects one target from the pair and perfectly preserves the response, regardless of whether the "winner" is the stronger stimulus if presented alone. This neuron is amenable to electrophysiological recordings, providing neuroscientists with a new model system for studying selective attention. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Marschner P.,University of Adelaide | Crowley D.,University of California at Riverside | Rengel Z.,University of Western Australia
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Iron and phosphorus availability is low in many soils; hence, microorganisms and plants have evolved mechanisms to acquire these nutrients by altering the chemical conditions that affect their solubility. In plants, this includes exudation of organic acid anions and acidification of the rhizosphere by release of protons in response to iron and phosphorus deficiency. Grasses (family Poaceae) and microorganisms further respond to Fe deficiency by production and release of specific chelators (phytosiderophores and siderophores, respectively) that complex Fe to enhance its diffusion to the cell surface. In the rhizosphere, the mutual demand for Fe and P results in competition between plants and microorganisms with the latter being more competitive due to their ability to decompose plant-derived chelators and their proximity to the root surface; however microbial competitiveness is strongly affected by carbon availability. On the other hand, plants are able to avoid direct competition with microorganisms due to the spatial and temporal variability in the amount and composition of exudates they release into the rhizosphere. In this review, we present a model of the interactions that occur between microorganisms and roots along the root axis, and discuss advantages and limitations of methods that can be used to study these interactions at nanometre to centimetre scales. Our analysis suggests mechanisms such as increasing turnover of microbial biomass or enhanced nutrient uptake capacity of mature root zones that may enhance plant competitiveness could be used to develop plant genotypes with enhanced efficiency in nutrient acquisition. Our model of interactions between plants and microorganisms in the rhizosphere will be useful for understanding the biogeochemistry of P and Fe and for enhancing the effectiveness of fertilization. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pedersen D.S.,Copenhagen University | Abell A.,University of Adelaide
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

The ability to synthesise small peptidomimetics that mimic the secondary structure of proteins is an ever expanding area of research directed at sourcing new medicinal agents and biological probes. A significant current challenge is to mimic protein epitopes under physiological conditions using small peptidomimetics that are easy to prepare. The copper- and ruthenium-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition reactions provide such a general synthetic method, with the resulting 1,2,3-triazoles being good peptide bond mimics. The ability to prepare both 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles under these chemically benign conditions provides both "linear" and "bent" peptidomimetics. Examples of the use of 1,2,3-triazoles to define the geometry and properties of a peptidomimetic abound. This review highlights such successes but also describes a number of failures in order to guide and inspire future efforts of chemists in this area. The incorporation of 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles in peptidomimetics enables both shape and function to be controlled by covalent or non-covalent interactions. The approach has many applicationsin the synthesis of, for example, natural product analogues, turn structures and α-helical architectures that have been shown to retain their shape and function in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Roy S.J.,University of Adelaide | Tucker E.J.,University of Adelaide | Tester M.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Abiotic stress tolerance is complex, but as phenotyping technologies improve, components that contribute to abiotic stress tolerance can be quantified with increasing ease. In parallel with these phenomics advances, genetic approaches with more complex genomes are becoming increasingly tractable as genomic information in non-model crops increases and even whole crop genomes can be re-sequenced. Thus, genetic approaches to elucidating the molecular basis to abiotic stress tolerance in crops are becoming more easily achievable. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Pukala T.L.,University of Adelaide
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Knowledge of protein structure and proteinprotein interactions is vital for appreciating the elaborate biochemical pathways that underlie cellular function. While many techniques exist to probe the structure and complex interplay between functional proteins, none currently offer a complete picture. Mass spectrometry and associated methods provide complementary information to established structural biology tools, and with rapidly evolving technological advances, can in some cases even exceed other techniques by its diversity in application and information content. This is primarily because of the ability of mass spectrometry to precisely identify protein complex stoichiometry, detect individual species present in a mixture, and concomitantly offer conformational information. This review describes the attributes of mass spectrometry for the structural investigation of multiprotein assemblies in the context of recent developments and highlights in the field. © 2011 CSIRO.

Ostendorf B.,University of Adelaide
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2011

Natural resource management (NRM) is becoming increasingly important at all scales, local, regional, national and global, because of an increasing human population and increasing per capita use of resources and space. Conflicts are intensifying between different interest groups. Production and conservation aspects are particularly debated because conservation of ten conflicts with economic and social sustainability. There is public demand for objective decision based NRM but limitations are all pervasive due to the spatial and temporal complexity and interdisciplinary nature. This special issue explores the use of spatial data and models to overcome some limitations of NRM decision making. The papers in this issue show modern approaches of natural resources management with a particular focus on spatial data collection, analysis and the development of spatial indicators. This issue presentsab a lanced mix of review and research papers that give examples of how to find or improve the spatial information base for evidence-based decision making. This overview makes the argument that understanding complex spatial pattern and processes, and the development of spatial indicators, is an essential aspect of evidence-based NRM. If spatial and temporal patterns are complex, ecological evidence from field data or experiments may have limited value for NRM and observational study designs become more appropriate for understanding complex spatial pattern and processes. Data quality should be documented as a combination of accuracy and spatio-temporal representativeness in order to be useful in the NRM decision process. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Abbott D.,University of Adelaide
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2011

While robust debate over climate science and remaining oil reserves exist, what is universally agreed is that the era of Beasy[ oil is on the decline. It cannot be denied that the global rate of discovery of new large oil fields has been in decline since the 1960s [1] and that discoveries are not replacing oil produced [2]. These facts together with increasing world population, increasing economic activity, and our increasing reliance on an energy-intensive economy lead to price volatility. © 2011 IEEE.

Wigley T.M.L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Wigley T.M.L.,University of Adelaide
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

Carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion may be reduced by using natural gas rather than coal to produce energy. Gas produces approximately half the amount of CO 2 per unit of primary energy compared with coal. Here we consider a scenario where a fraction of coal usage is replaced by natural gas (i. e., methane, CH 4) over a given time period, and where a percentage of the gas production is assumed to leak into the atmosphere. The additional CH 4 from leakage adds to the radiative forcing of the climate system, offsetting the reduction in CO 2 forcing that accompanies the transition from coal to gas. We also consider the effects of: methane leakage from coal mining; changes in radiative forcing due to changes in the emissions of sulfur dioxide and carbonaceous aerosols; and differences in the efficiency of electricity production between coal- and gas-fired power generation. On balance, these factors more than offset the reduction in warming due to reduced CO 2 emissions. When gas replaces coal there is additional warming out to 2,050 with an assumed leakage rate of 0%, and out to 2,140 if the leakage rate is as high as 10%. The overall effects on global-mean temperature over the 21st century, however, are small. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Williams G.E.,University of Adelaide | Foden J.,University of Adelaide
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2011

The Proterozoic continental deposits of the Torridonian Supergroup in NW Scotland unconformably overlie the Lewisian Complex at the eastern margin of Laurentia and form an important component of British stratigraphy. After more than 100. years of investigations, however, disagreement persists concerning the provenance, palaeoenvironment and tectonic setting of the ~980. Ma fluvial Applecross and Aultbea formations (3.5 and 2. km thick, respectively), the dominant units of the early Neoproterozoic Torridon Group. Some workers envisage a mostly pre-Grenvillian source terrain that extended from the Outer Hebrides region westwards onto what are now the continental margins of the North Atlantic, with deposition on a bajada and braidplain in a rift or extensional basin. Others argue that these formations were derived mainly from the Grenville orogen in Canadian Laurentia and deposited by a trunk river system in a thermal relaxation or orogen-parallel Grenvillian molasse-type foreland basin. The model presented here draws on different aspects of these opposing views.The immature arkoses and feldspathic sandstones typical of the Applecross and Aultbea formations imply the derivation of much material from a nearby source area with quartzo-feldspathic crystalline rocks, and the varied pebble suite of the Applecross indicates that the source area also contained a supracrustal series including clastic sediments. Geochronological data for Applecross pebbles and detrital zircons from the Applecross and Aultbea formations together indicate dominantly late Palaeoproterozoic sources, with subordinate contributions from Archaean and late Mesoproterozoic (Grenvillian) rocks. Sm-Nd model ages (tDM) for Applecross and Aultbea shales and sandstones range from 1.77 to 2.05Ga, consistent with the sources inferred from the detrital geochronology.Features of the Applecross Formation that accord with an adjacent western source area and extensional basin setting include immature arkoses and megafan pebble- and cobble-conglomerates derived mainly from relatively old crystalline basement and supracrustal rocks, southeastward palaeocurrents orthogonal to the Torridon Group outcrop belt and the Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) and Minch Fault in the west, and NE-SW dilational dykes of sandstone in the lithified Torridon Group and Lewisian basement indicating syndepositional faulting under tensional stress perpendicular to the marginal faults. Some detritus could have come indirectly from the Grenville orogen in eastern Laurentia, the Rockall Plateau and adjacent continental margins by the recycling of clastic sediments that were derived from the orogen and deposited prior to 1. Ga within the future source area of the Torridon Group. Evidence of Grenvillian tectonic events occurs widely in the Lewisian of NW Scotland, including the Outer Hebrides, and numerous geologists have concluded that Torridon Group deposition followed Grenvillian movement on the OHFZ with uplift of an adjacent source area to the west. It is argued here that a western source area was uplifted by late Grenvillian (~1. Ga) craton-directed thrusting on the OHFZ, with development of the Applecross basin following post-Grenvillian extensional collapse and reactivation of the OHFZ as an extensional fault along the line of the Minch Fault. This tectonic model helps reconcile opposing views on the genesis of the Torridon Group. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bridging ligands incorporating 2,2'-bipyridine as a chelating component have been utilised for several decades and are widely employed in coordination chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and materials synthesis. Such ligands form stable 5-membered chelate rings upon coordination to a metal. Two related chelating units, di-2-pyridylamine and di-2-pyridylmethane, which form 6-membered chelate rings when coordinated to a metal, have been studied far less as components of bridging ligands but have recently garnered significant levels of attention. Of around 140 reports on the incorporation of these moieties into bridging ligands some 75% have been published in the last 15 years. This review covers the synthesis of bridging ligands containing di-2-pyridylamine and di-2-pyridylmethane chelating moieties, and a survey of their coordination and supramolecular chemistry. Applications of the resulting systems as structural and functional models of enzyme active sites, and spin-crossover materials, and for investigations into anion-π interactions are covered. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Mahajan R.,University of Adelaide | Lau D.H.,University of Adelaide | Sanders P.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine | Year: 2015

Obesity is a global pandemic with a huge burden on the healthcare system. Obesity is not only linked to the development of risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease but also has a strong association with ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. Recent experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that obesity is associated with cardiac dysfunction, adipokine dysregulation, and activation of the pro-fibrotic signaling pathways leading to cardiac fibrosis, which is a key structural change responsible for atrial fibrillation. Importantly, these also have been shown to be reversible with weight reduction strategies. This review discusses the alterations in cardiac metabolism and function due to obesity. In addition, it addresses the complex and not yet fully understood mechanisms underlying cardiac fibrosis, with a focus on atrial substrate predisposing to atrial fibrillation in obesity. © 2015.

Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide | Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum | Soubrier J.,University of Adelaide | Edgecombe G.D.,Natural History Museum in London
Current Biology | Year: 2013

The near-simultaneous appearance of most modern animal body plans (phyla) ∼530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion is strong evidence for a brief interval of rapid phenotypic and genetic innovation, yet the exact speed and nature of this grand adaptive radiation remain debated [1-12]. Crucially, rates of morphological evolution in the past (i.e., in ancestral lineages) can be inferred from phenotypic differences among living organisms - just as molecular evolutionary rates in ancestral lineages can be inferred from genetic divergences [13]. We here employed Bayesian [14] and maximum likelihood [15] phylogenetic clock methods on an extensive anatomical [16] and genomic [17] data set for arthropods, the most diverse phylum in the Cambrian and today. Assuming an Ediacaran origin for arthropods, phenotypic evolution was ∼4 times faster, and molecular evolution ∼5.5 times faster, during the Cambrian explosion compared to all subsequent parts of the Phanerozoic. These rapid evolutionary rates are robust to assumptions about the precise age of arthropods. Surprisingly, these fast early rates do not change substantially even if the radiation of arthropods is compressed entirely into the Cambrian (∼542 mega-annum [Ma]) or telescoped into the Cryogenian (∼650 Ma). The fastest inferred rates are still consistent with evolution by natural selection and with data from living organisms, potentially resolving "Darwin's dilemma." However, evolution during the Cambrian explosion was unusual (compared to the subsequent Phanerozoic) in that fast rates were present across many lineages. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhou R.,University of Adelaide | Zhou R.,University of Queensland | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

An Fe/N co-doped graphitic carbon bulb is synthesized by Prussian blue with a pyrolysis temperature as low as 550 °C. Fe facilitates the formation of a graphitic structure, while low temperature guarantees high level of nitrogen. The product shows excellent oxygen reduction reaction catalytic activity in both alkaline and acid electrolytes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Kennaway D.J.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2015

Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland during the night in response to light/dark information received by the retina and its integration by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. When administered to selected populations of adults, in particular those displaying delayed sleep phase disorder, melatonin may advance the time of sleep onset. It is, however, being increasingly prescribed for children with sleep disorders despite the fact that (i) it is not registered for use in children anywhere in the world; (ii) it has not undergone the formal safety testing expected for a new drug, especially long-term safety in children; (iii) it is known to have profound effects on the reproductive systems of rodents, sheep and primates, as well as effects on the cardiovascular, immune and metabolic systems; and (iv) there is the potential for important interactions with drugs sometimes prescribed for children. In this review, I discuss properties of melatonin outside its ability to alter sleep timing that have been widely ignored but which raise questions about the safety of its use in infants and adolescents. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

A number of questions must be asked before asthma can be accepted as a valid diagnosis: were the episodes of shortness of breath investigated? Are there changes at autopsy in keeping with asthma? Did asthma either contribute to the terminal episode, cause death, or was it coincidental? Finally, is it possible that other conditions may have accounted for the clinical manifestations? A review of files at FSSA over a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 identified six cases where shortness of breath and/or wheezing had been incorrectly attributed to asthma. Five were due to pulmonary thromboembolism and one to multiple injuries. In the latter case, an irreducible, left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was present. There was no morphological evidence of asthma in any case. Autopsy examination may, therefore, be crucial in revealing other conditions that may have caused or contributed to episodic breathlessness that may have been incorrectly attributed to asthma. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Standish A.J.,University of Adelaide | Morona R.,University of Adelaide
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

Significance: Tyrosine phosphorylation and associated protein tyrosine phosphatases are gaining prominence as critical mechanisms in the regulation of fundamental processes in a wide variety of bacteria. In particular, these phosphatases have been associated with the control of the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides, critically important virulence factors for bacteria. Recent Advances: Deletion and overexpression of the phosphatases result in altered polysaccharide biosynthesis in a range of bacteria. The recent structures of associated auto-phosphorylating tyrosine kinases have suggested that the phosphatases may be critical for the cycling of the kinases between monomers and higher order oligomers. Critical Issues: Additional substrates of the phosphatases apart from cognate kinases are currently being identified. These are likely to be critical to our understanding of the mechanism by which polysaccharide biosynthesis is regulated. Future Directions: Ultimately, these protein tyrosine phosphatases are an attractive target for the development of novel antimicrobials. This is particularly the case for the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase family, which is predominantly found in bacteria. Furthermore, the determination of bacterial tyrosine phosphoproteomes will likely help to uncover the fundamental roles, mechanism, and critical importance of these phosphatases in a wide range of bacteria. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2274-2289. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Hatem S.N.,Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition | Hatem S.N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sanders P.,University of Adelaide
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2014

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is often associated with profound functional and structural alterations of the atrial myocardium that compose its substrate. Recently, a relationship between the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the incidence and severity of AF has been reported. Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ regulating the metabolism of neighbouring organs. It is also a major source of cytokines. In the heart, EAT is contiguous with the myocardium without fascia boundaries resulting in paracrine effects through the release of adipokines. Indeed, Activin A, which is produced in abundance by EAT during heart failure or diabetes, shows a marked fibrotic effect on the atrial myocardium. The infiltration of adipocytes into the atrial myocardium could also disorganize the depolarization wave front favouring micro re-entry circuits and local conduction block. Finally, EAT contains progenitor cells in abundance and therefore could be a source of myofibroblasts producing extracellular matrix. The study on the role played by adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of AF is just starting and is highly likely to uncover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AF. © The Author 2014.

Borisjuk N.,University of Adelaide | Hrmova M.,University of Adelaide | Lopato S.,University of Adelaide
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

Plant cuticle is the hydrophobic protection layer that covers aerial plant organs and plays a pivotal role during plant development and interactions of plants with the environment. The mechanical structure and chemical composition of cuticle lipids and other secondary metabolites vary considerably between plant species, and in response to environmental stimuli and stresses. As the cuticle plays an important role in responses of plants to major abiotic stresses such as drought and high salinity, close attention has been paid to molecular processes underlying the stress-induced biosynthesis of cuticle components. This review addresses the genetic networks responsible for cuticle formation and in particular highlights the role of transcription factors that regulate cuticle formation in response to abiotic stresses. © 2014.

Duan J.,University of Adelaide | Chen S.,University of Adelaide | Dai S.,University of Adelaide | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

Three kinds of Mn3O4 nanoparticles with different shapes (spheres, cubes, and ellipsoids) are selectively grown on nitrogen-doped graphene sheets through a two-step liquid-phase procedure. These non-precious hybrid materials display an excellent ORR activity and good durability. The mesoporous microstructure, nitrogen doping, and strong bonding between metal species and doped graphene are found to facilitate the ORR catalytic process. Among these three kinds of Mn3O4 particles, the ellipsoidal particles on nitrogen-doped graphene exhibit the highest ORR activity with a more positive onset-potential of -0.13 V (close to that of Pt/C, -0.09 V) and a higher kinetic limiting current density (JK) of 11.69 mA cm-2 at -0.60 V. It is found that the ORR performance of hybrid materials can be correlated to the shape of Mn3O4 nanocrystals, and specifically to the exposed crystalline facets associated with a given shape. The shape dependence of Mn3O4 nanoparticles integrated with nitrogen-doped graphene on the ORR performance, reported here for the first time, may advance the development of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wittert G.,University of Adelaide | Wittert G.,Royal Adelaide Hospital
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2014

Purpose of review: This review describes evolving concepts and recent data on the relationship between serum testosterone levels and normal and disordered sleep. Recent findings: Sex-related differences in circadian rhythms and sleep physiology are in part due to organizational and activational effects of sex steroids. Testosterone affects the organization of circadian rhythms and the timing, but not the duration, of sleep. Increasing testosterone during puberty leads to later bedtimes. The diurnal variation in testosterone depends on sleep rather than circadian rhythm or season. Pubertal onset is heralded, well before virilization, by a luteinizing hormone level at least 3.7 U/l during sleep. Total sleep deprivation lowers testosterone, but sleep restriction only does so if it occurs in the first half of the night. The recovery of testosterone from sleep disruption is impaired in old as compared with young rodents. In men with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), low testosterone is related to obesity rather than the OSA itself, and improves with weight loss but inconsistently with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Testosterone treatment only transiently worsens severity of OSA, which need not be considered a contraindication to its use. Summary: Testosterone treatment is unlikely to benefit sleep in men with secondary hypogonadism, for example due to obesity or depression, in contrast to the management of the underlying abnormality. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Wittert G.,University of Adelaide
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2014

Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture. © 2014 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved.

Do R.Q.,University of Colorado at Denver | Nicholls S.J.,University of Adelaide | Schwartz G.G.,University of Colorado at Denver
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

The pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis are integrally connected to the concentration and function of lipoproteins in various classes. This review examines existing and emerging approaches to modify low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins, emphasizing approaches that have progressed to clinical evaluation. Targeting of nuclear receptors and phospholipases is also discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

Brodribb T.J.,University of Tasmania | Jordan G.J.,University of Tasmania | Carpenter R.J.,University of Adelaide
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

The processes by which the functions of interdependent tissues are coordinated as lineages diversify are poorly understood. Here, we examine evolutionary coordination of vascular, epidermal and cortical leaf tissues in the anatomically, ecologically and morphologically diverse woody plant family Proteaceae. We found that, across the phylogenetic range of Proteaceae, the sizes of guard, epidermal, palisade and xylem cells were positively correlated with each other but negatively associated with vein and stomatal densities. The link between venation and stomata resulted in a highly efficient match between potential maximum water loss (determined by stomatal conductance) and the leaf vascular system's capacity to replace that water. This important linkage is likely to be driven by stomatal size, because spatial limits in the packing of stomata onto the leaf surface apparently constrain the maximum size and density of stomata. We conclude that unified evolutionary changes in cell sizes of independent tissues, possibly mediated by changes in genome size, provide a means of substantially modifying leaf function while maintaining important functional links between leaf tissues. Our data also imply the presence of alternative evolutionary strategies involving cellular miniaturization during radiation into closed forest, and cell size increase in open habitats. © 2013 The Authors New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Liu L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Hasterok D.,University of Adelaide
Science | Year: 2016

An accurate viscosity structure is critical to truthfully modeling lithosphere dynamics. Here, we report an attempt to infer the effective lithospheric viscosity from a high-resolution magnetotelluric (MT) survey across the western United States. The high sensitivity of MT fields to the presence of electrically conductive fluids makes it a promising proxy for determining mechanical strength variations throughout the lithosphere. We demonstrate how a viscosity structure, approximated from electrical resistivity, results in a geodynamic model that successfully predicts short-wavelength surface topography, lithospheric deformation, and mantle upwelling beneath recent volcanism. We further show that this viscosity is physically consistent with and better constrained than that derived from laboratory-based rheology. We conclude that MT imaging provides a practical observational constraint for quantifying the dynamic evolution of the continental lithosphere. © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

Brotcke Zumsteg A.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Goosmann C.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Brinkmann V.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Morona R.,University of Adelaide | Zychlinsky A.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2014

Following contact with the epithelium, the enteric intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri invades epithelial cells and escapes intracellular phagosomal destruction using its type III secretion system (T3SS). The bacterium replicates within the host cell cytosol and spreads between cells using actin-based motility, which is mediated by the virulence factor IcsA (VirG). Whereas S. flexneri invasion is well characterized, adhesion mechanisms of the bacterium remain elusive. We found that IcsA also functions as an adhesin that is both necessary and sufficient to promote contact with host cells. As adhesion can be beneficial or deleterious depending on the host cell type, S. flexneri regulates IcsA-dependent adhesion. Activation of the T3SS in response to the bile salt deoxycholate triggers IcsA-dependent adhesion and enhances pathogen invasion. IcsA-dependent adhesion contributes to virulence in a mouse model of shigellosis, underscoring the importance of this adhesin to S. flexneri pathogenesis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Zivanovic R.,University of Adelaide
Reliability Engineering and System Safety | Year: 2012

Computation of distance to fault on an electrical transmission line is affected by many sources of uncertainty, including parameter setting errors, measurement errors, as well as absence of information and incomplete modelling of a system under fault condition. In this paper we propose an application of the variance-based global sensitivity measures for evaluation of fault location algorithms. The main goal of the evaluation is to identify factors and their interactions that contribute to the fault locator output variability. This analysis is based on the results of Sparse Grid Regression. The method compiles the Functional ANOVA model to represent fault locator output as a function of uncertain factors. The ANOVA model provides a tool for interpretation and sensitivity analysis. In practice, such analysis can help in functional performance tests, especially in: selection of the optimal fault location algorithm (device) for a specific application, calibration process and building confidence in a fault location function result. The paper concludes with an application example which demonstrates use of the proposed methodology in testing and comparing some commonly used fault location algorithms. This example is also used to demonstrate numerical efficiency for this type of application of the proposed Sparse Grid Regression method in comparison to the Quasi-Monte Carlo approach. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Anikeeva O.,University of Adelaide
Asia-Pacific journal of public health / Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health | Year: 2010

This review summarizes the findings of studies conducted in Australia between 1980 and 2008 that focused on the health status of migrants in one or more of Australia's National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs), identifies gaps in knowledge, and suggests further research directions. Systematic literature searches were performed on CINAHL, MediText, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. It was found that the majority of migrants enjoy better health than the Australian-born population in the conditions that are part of the NHPAs, with the exception of diabetes. Mediterranean migrants have particularly favorable health outcomes. The migrant health advantage appears to deteriorate with increasing duration of residence. Many of the analyzed studies were conducted more than 10 years ago or had a narrow focus. Little is known about the health status of migrants with respect to a number of NHPAs, including musculoskeletal conditions and asthma.The health status of recently arrived migrant groups from the Middle East and Africa has not been explored in detail.

Ainsworth R.B.,University of Adelaide | Vakarelov B.K.,University of Adelaide | Nanson R.A.,University of Adelaide
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2011

Existing classification schemes and models for clastic coastal depositional systems do not consider the potential amplifying or moderating effects of coastal morphology on depositional processes and do not provide a mechanism for the dynamic prediction of changes in coastal depositional style. A new process-based classification scheme based on the relative importance of primary, secondary, and tertiary processes is presented. This scheme permits a semiquantitative classification of clastic coastal depositional systems. In addition, it provides the basis for new models for clastic shorelines that convolve the effects of basin shape, coastal morphology, accommodation space, sediment supply, shoreline trajectory, and shelf width parameters on depositional processes. The end result is a marked improvement in the predictive capabilities of models. The models can describe and predict the likelihood of primary, secondary, and tertiary depositional processes acting in shoreline depositional environments via either a matrix or a decision tree approach. They are also dynamic in nature and can be applied to predict along-strike, updip, and downdip, or vertical changes in the dominance of depositional processes acting at any given location through geologic time. The key implications of these models are that given sets of known parameters, dominant and subordinate depositional processes or ranges of potential dominant and subordinate depositional processes acting at a coastline can be predicted. This provides an auditable methodology for determining reservoir modeling scenarios and reducing and managing the uncertainties in predictions of changes in clastic coastal depositional processes through time and space. Copyright © 2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

Franco Z.,University of Adelaide | Nguyen Q.D.,University of Adelaide
Fuel | Year: 2011

Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuel, but their inherently high viscosity compared to petroleum based diesel is undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be simply achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the rheological properties of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at different compositions were studied as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems used in diesel engines. The vegetable oils used were corn, canola, olive, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils which are of commercial food grade. All the vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel showed time-independent Newtonian behaviour within the test temperatures between 20 °C and 80 °C. Viscosities of the pure oils and diesel were satisfactorily correlated with temperature by means of the Arrhenius typed relationship. The Arrhenius blending rule was found applicable to describing the composition dependence of viscosity all vegetable oils-diesel blends at a fixed temperature. These relations were combined to develop a simple mixture viscosity model to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oil-diesel blends as functions of temperature and composition based on properties of the pure components. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Beddoe T.,Monash University | Paton A.W.,University of Adelaide | Le Nours J.,Monash University | Rossjohn J.,Monash University | Paton J.C.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2010

AB5 toxins are important virulence factors for several major bacterial pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and at least two distinct pathotypes of Escherichia coli. The AB5 toxins are so named because they comprise a catalytic A-subunit, which is responsible for disruption of essential host functions, and a pentameric B-subunit that binds to specific glycan receptors on the target cell surface. The molecular mechanisms by which the AB5 toxins cause disease have been largely unravelled, including recent insights into a novel AB5 toxin family, subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB). Furthermore, AB5 toxins have become a valuable tool for studying fundamental cellular functions, and are now being investigated for potential applications in the clinical treatment of human diseases. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Burton R.A.,University of Adelaide | Gidley M.J.,University of Queensland | Fincher G.B.,University of Adelaide
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2010

Higher plants resist the forces of gravity and powerful lateral forces through the cumulative strength of the walls that surround individual cells. These walls consist mainly of cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides and lignin, in proportions that depend upon the specific functions of the cell and its stage of development. Spatially and temporally controlled heterogeneity in the physicochemical properties of wall polysaccharides is observed at the tissue and individual cell levels, and emerging in situ technologies are providing evidence that this heterogeneity also occurs across a single cell wall. We consider the origins of cell wall heterogeneity and identify contributing factors that are inherent in the molecular mechanisms of polysaccharide biosynthesis and are crucial for the changing biological functions of the wall during growth and development. We propose several key questions to be addressed in cell wall biology, together with an alternative two-phase model for the assembly of noncellulosic polysaccharides in plants. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Langridge P.,University of Adelaide | Fleury D.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Adoption of new breeding technologies is likely to underpin future gains in crop productivity. The rapid advances in 'omics' technologies provide an opportunity to generate new datasets for crop species. Integration of genome and functional omics data with genetic and phenotypic information is leading to the identification of genes and pathways responsible for important agronomic phenotypes. In addition, high-throughput genotyping technologies enable the screening of large germplasm collections to identify novel alleles from diverse sources, thus offering a major expansion in the variation available for breeding. In this review, we discuss these advances, which have opened the door to new techniques for construction and screening of breeding populations, to increase ultimately the efficiency of selection and accelerate the rates of genetic gain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Krein G.,São Paulo State University | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide | Tsushima K.,Jefferson Lab
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The J/Ψ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating D and D* meson loop contributions to the J/Ψ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the D and D* masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The J/Ψ mass shift arising from the modification of the D and D* loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from -16 MeV to -24 MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of J/Ψ to a nucleus are investigated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic. © 2013 Seymour et al.

Houben A.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Banaei-Moghaddam A.M.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Klemme S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Timmis J.N.,University of Adelaide
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable components of the genome exhibiting non-Mendelian inheritance and have been widely reported on over several thousand eukaryotes, but still remain an evolutionary mystery ever since their first discovery over a century ago [1]. Recent advances in genome analysis have significantly improved our knowledge on the origin and composition of Bs in the last few years. In contrast to the prevalent view that Bs do not harbor genes, recent analysis revealed that Bs of sequenced species are rich in gene-derived sequences. We summarize the latest findings on supernumerary chromosomes with a special focus on the origin, DNA composition, and the non-Mendelian accumulation mechanism of Bs. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Laurence C.O.,University of Adelaide
The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing is increasingly being used in general practice to assist GPs in their management of patients with chronic disease. However, patient satisfaction and acceptability of point-of-care testing in general practice has not been widely studied. AIM: To determine if patients are more satisfied with point-of-care testing than with pathology laboratory testing for three chronic conditions. DESIGN OF STUDY: As part of a large multicentre, randomised, controlled trial assessing the use of point-of-care testing in Australian general practice, satisfaction was measured for patients having pathology testing performed by point-of-care testing devices or pathology laboratories. Patients in the trial were managed by GPs for diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, and/or anticoagulant therapy. METHOD: Patient satisfaction was measured using level of agreement with a variety of statements at the end of the study with a patient satisfaction questionnaire for both the intervention and control groups. Analysis was performed using a mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) with allowance for clustering at the practice level following Box-Cox transformations of the data to achieve normality. RESULTS: Overall, intervention patients reported that they were satisfied with point-of-care testing. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group had a higher level of agreement than control patients with statements relating to their satisfaction with the collection process (P<0.001) and confidence in the process (P<0.001). They also viewed point-of-care testing as strengthening their relationship with their GP (P = 0.010) and motivational in terms of better managing their condition (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The results from this trial support patient satisfaction and acceptability of point-of-care testing in a general practice setting.

Tan M.,University of Adelaide | Tsang I.W.,University of Technology, Sydney | Wang L.,Brown University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2015

Large-scale sparse recovery (SR) by solving ℓ1-norm relaxations over Big Dictionary is a very challenging task. Plenty of greedy methods have therefore been proposed to address big SR problems, but most of them require restricted conditions for the convergence. Moreover, it is non-trivial for them to incorporate the ℓ1-norm regularization that is required for robust signal recovery. We address these issues in this paper by proposing a Matching Pursuit LASSO (MPL) algorithm, based on a novel quadratically constrained linear program (QCLP) formulation, which has several advantages over existing methods. Firstly, it is guaranteed to converge to a global solution. Secondly, it greatly reduces the computation cost of the ℓ1-norm methods over Big Dictionaries. Lastly, the exact sparse recovery condition of MPL is also investigated. © 2015 IEEE.

Dunning K.R.,University of Adelaide | Russell D.L.,University of Adelaide | Robker R.L.,University of Adelaide
Reproduction | Year: 2014

Metabolism and ATP levels within the oocyte and adjacent cumulus cells are associated with quality of oocyte and optimal development of a healthy embryo. Lipid metabolism provides a potent source of energy and its importance during oocyte maturation is being increasingly recognised. The triglyceride and fatty acid composition of ovarian follicular fluid has been characterised for many species and is influenced by nutritional status (i.e. dietary fat, fasting, obesity and season) as well as lactation in cows. Lipid in oocytes is a primarily triglyceride of specific fatty acids which differ by species, stored in distinct droplet organelles that re-localise during oocyte maturation. The presence of lipids, particularly saturated vs unsaturated fatty acids, in in vitro maturation systems affects oocyte lipid content as well as developmental competence. Triglycerides are metabolised by lipases that have been localised to cumulus cells as well as oocytes. Fatty acids generated by lipolysis are further metabolised by β-oxidation in mitochondria for the production of ATP. β-oxidation is induced in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) by the LH surge, and pharmacological inhibition of β-oxidation impairs oocyte maturation and embryo development. Promoting β-oxidation with L-carnitine improves embryo development in many species. Thus, fatty acid metabolism in the mammalian COC is regulated by maternal physiological and in vitro environmental conditions; and is important for oocyte developmental competence. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Kumar R.,University of Adelaide
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Intellectual disability (ID) is a clinically complex and heterogeneous disorder, which has variable severity and may be associated with additional dysmorphic, metabolic, neuromuscular or psychiatric features. Although many coding variants have been implicated in ID, identification of pathogenic non-coding regulatory variants has only been achieved in a few cases to date. We identified a duplication of a guanine on chromosome X, NC_000023.10:g.69665044dupG 7 nucleotides upstream of the translational start site in the 5ʹ untranslated region (UTR) of the known ID gene DLG3 that encodes synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102). The dupG variant segregated with affected status in a large multigenerational family with non-syndromic X-linked ID and was predicted to disrupt folding of the mRNA. When tested on blood cells from the affected individuals, DLG3 mRNA levels were not altered, however, DLG3/SAP102 protein levels were. We also showed by dual luciferase reporter assay that the dupG variant interfered with translation. All currently known pathogenic DLG3 variants are predicted to be null, however the dupG variant likely leads to only a modest reduction of SAP102 levels accounting for the milder phenotype seen in this family.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 May 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.46. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Westra S.,University of Adelaide | Alexander L.V.,Climate Change Research Center | Alexander L.V.,University of New South Wales | Zwiers F.W.,University of Victoria
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. Two complementary statistical techniques were adopted to evaluate the possible nonstationary behavior of these precipitation data. The first was a Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test, and it was used to evaluate the existence of monotonic trends. The second was a nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis, and it was used to determine the strength of association between the precipitation extremes and globally averaged near-surface temperature. The outcomes are that statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases. Furthermore, there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature, with the median intensity of extreme precipitation changing in proportion with changes in global mean temperature at a rate of between 5.9% and 7.7%K-1, depending on the method of analysis. This ratio was robust irrespective of record length or time period considered and was not strongly biased by the uneven global coverage of precipitation data. Finally, there is a distinct meridional variation, with the greatest sensitivity occurring in the tropics and higher latitudes and the minima around 13°S and 11°N. The greatest uncertainty was near the equator because of the limited number of sufficiently long precipitation records, and there remains an urgent need to improve data collection in this region to better constrain future changes in tropical precipitation. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Hutchinson T.P.,University of Adelaide
European Journal of Sport Science | Year: 2014

The impact properties of six foam materials used for energy absorption as the liner of children's helmets, reported by Gimbel and Hoshizaki are considered further. In high-energy impacts, almost complete compression of the energy-absorbing material (bottoming out) may occur, and the severity of the impact increases greatly. Too soft a material means bottoming out occurs at low speeds, but if it is too stiff, the material itself is injurious. The fitting of equations to results in 'no bottoming out' and 'bottoming out' conditions may help assessment of what compromise is appropriate. The equations in this article correspond to peak acceleration being proportional to power functions of impactor speed and mass. 1. When there was no bottoming out, peak acceleration was found to be proportional to m ∧(c-1).v ∧(2c), with c being approximately 0.25. 2. For bottoming out, peak acceleration was found to be proportional to m ∧(p).v ∧(q), with p and q being approximately 2 and approximately 3. 3. The constants of proportionality were related to material density in a regular way. © 2014 Copyright European College of Sport Science.

Goldwater P.N.,University of Adelaide
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2015

The gut microbiome influences the development of the immune system of young mammals; the establishment of a normal gut microbiome is thought to be important for the health of the infant during its early development. As the role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is backed by strong evidence, the balance between host immunity and potential bacterial pathogens is likely to be pivotal. Bacterial colonization of the infant colon is influenced by age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences several systems including gut integrity and development of the immune system; therefore, gut microflora could be important in protection against bacteria and/or their toxins identified in SIDS infants. The aims of the review are to explore (1) the role of the gut microbiome in relation to the developmentally critical period in which most SIDS cases occur; (2) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiome might induce inflammation resulting in transit of bacteria from the lumen into the bloodstream; and (3) assessment of the clinical, physiological, pathological, and microbiological evidence for bacteremia leading to the final events in SIDS pathogenesis. © 2015 Goldwater.

Araujo A.B.,New England Research Institutes, Inc. | Wittert G.A.,New England Research Institutes, Inc. | Wittert G.A.,University of Adelaide
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

The endocrinology of the aging male is complex, with multiple hormones along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis interacting with one another in feedback. As men age, there is a small and progressive (not precipitous, as in women) decline in several sex hormones, in particular testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and related increases in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. The importance of these changes is wide-ranging because of the ubiquitous role of sex hormones in male physiology. This chapter discusses the endocrinology of the aging male. We provide an overview of the regulation of the HPT axis with an emphasis on the changes that occur with aging and the measurement of gonadal steroids, including hormone pulsatility, within-subject and circadian variations. The difficulties of assessing the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism are highlighted. There is a comprehensive discussion of the epidemiology of sex hormone changes, including their age associations, prevalence of symptomatic hypogonadism, secular changes, risk factors, and the association of sex hormones with outcomes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ried K.,University of Adelaide | Fakler P.,University of Adelaide
Maturitas | Year: 2011

Background: Cardiovascular disease is associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and vascular dysfunction. Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, is an antioxidant with a protective effect on lipid peroxidation and anti-atherosclerotic capacity. This review summarises current evidence on the effect of lycopene on serum lipid concentrations and blood pressure. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane databases for intervention studies between 1955 and September 2010 investigating the effect of lycopene on blood lipids or blood pressure for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted meta-analyses using a random effect model of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria. Additionally, we conducted subgroup meta-analysis of serum lipid concentrations by lycopene dosage and subgroup meta-analysis by baseline blood pressure. Results: Twelve studies (13 trial arms) meeting the inclusion criteria investigated the effect of lycopene on serum lipids, and four studies examined its effect on blood pressure. Meta-analysis on serum lipids revealed a significant cholesterol-lowering effect of lycopene for total serum cholesterol (mean change ± SE: -7.55 ± 6.15 mg/dl; p = 0.02) and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (mean change ± SE: -10.35 ± 5.64 mg/dl, p = 0.0003) in the subgroup of trials using lycopene dosages of ≥25 mg daily, whereas subgroup meta-analysis of trials using lower lycopene dosages was not significant. Meta-analysis of the effect of lycopene on systolic blood pressure of all trials suggested a significant blood pressure reducing effect (mean systolic blood pressure change ± SE: -5.60 ± 5.26 mm Hg, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that lycopene taken in doses ≥25 mg daily is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol by about 10% which is comparable to the effect of low doses of statins in patient with slightly elevated cholesterol levels. More research is needed to confirm suggested beneficial effects on total serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hussain S.S.,University of Adelaide | Ali M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Ahmad M.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Siddique K.H.M.,University of Western Australia | Siddique K.H.M.,King Saud University
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous biogenic amines that have been implicated in diverse cellular functions in widely distributed organisms. In plants, mutant and transgenic plants with altered activity pointed to their involvement with different abiotic and biotic stresses. Furthermore, microarray, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have elucidated key functions of different PAs in signaling networks in plants subjected to abiotic and biotic stresses, however the exact molecular mechanism remains enigmatic. Here, we argue that PAs should not be taken only as a protective molecule but rather like a double-faced molecule that likely serves as a major area for further research efforts. This review summarizes recent advances in plant polyamine research ranging from transgenic and mutant characterization to potential mechanisms of action during environmental stresses and diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Pitson S.M.,Center for Cancer Biology | Pitson S.M.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2011

Bioactive sphingolipids, including ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate are important regulators of many cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration and immune responses. Although the levels of these bioactive sphingolipids are regulated by complex pathways subject to spatial and temporal control, the sphingosine kinases have emerged as critical central regulators of this system and, as a consequence, they have received substantial recent attention as potential therapeutic targets for cancer and a range of other conditions. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate both the activity and subcellular localization of these enzymes is vital for understanding the control of bioactive sphingolipid generation and action, and has clear implications for therapeutic strategies targeting these enzymes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Reynolds P.N.,University of Adelaide
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: Recent evidence shows that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a fatal disease despite the introduction of new pharmacological treatments. New options are therefore needed and gene therapy approaches are a rational consideration based on emerging understanding of the genetic basis of PAH. Areas covered: This review briefly discusses the recent developments in clinical management of PAH and the investigation of gene delivery techniques for pulmonary vascular disease from 1997 to 2010, relating this to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis during this period. There is a focus on bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2, as mutations in this gene are clearly linked to disease pathogenesis and outcomes. The reader will gain insight into the gene vector strategies being used, the target cells and the specific genes being delivered as candidate therapeutic approaches for PAH. Expert opinion: Various genes and strategies for delivery have achieved improvements in PAH in animal models, which is encouraging for the development of this technology for human application. The main limiting factor for clinical progress relates to gene delivery vector technology. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Stewart J.E.,Deakin University | Feinle-Bisset C.,University of Adelaide | Keast R.S.J.,Deakin University
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2011

The inability of humans to adequately regulate fat consumption is a salient contributor to the development of obesity. The macronutrients, fat, protein and carbohydrate, within foods are detected at various stages of consumption, during which their digestive products, fatty acids, amino acids and sugars, interact with chemosensory cells within the oral epithelium (taste receptor cells) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (enteroendocrine cells). This chemoreception initiates functional responses, including taste perception, peptide secretion and alterations in GI motility, that play an important role in liking of food, appetite regulation and satiety. This review will summarize the available evidence relating to the oral and GI regulation of fat intake and how chemoreception at both locations is associated with digestive behavior, satiety and weight regulation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Endo-Munoz L.,University of Queensland | Evdokiou A.,University of Adelaide | Saunders N.A.,University of Queensland
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2012

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumour in the paediatric age group. Treatment-refractory pulmonary metastasis continues to be the major complication of OS, reducing the 5-year survival rate for these patients to 10-20%. The mechanisms underlying the metastatic process in OS are still unclear, but undoubtedly, a greater understanding of the factors and interactions involved in its regulation will open new and much needed opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Recent published data have identified a new role for bone-specific macrophages (osteoclasts) and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), in OS metastasis. In this review we discuss the contribution of TAMs and osteoclasts in the establishment and maintenance of secondary metastatic lesions, and their novel role in the prevention of metastatic disease in a primary bone cancer such as osteosarcoma. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Grossmann M.,University of Melbourne | Wittert G.,University of Adelaide
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2012

Metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have been shown to modulate prostate cancer (PCa) risk and aggressiveness in population-based and experimental studies. While associations between these conditions are modest and complex, two consistent findings have emerged. First, there is observational evidence that obesity and associated insulin excess are linked to increased PCa aggressiveness and worse outcomes. Secondly and somewhat paradoxically, long-standing diabetes may be protective against PCa development. This apparent paradox may be due to the fact that long-standing diabetes is associated with insulin depletion and decreased IGF1 signalling. Men with obesity or diabetes have moderate reductions in their androgen levels. The interconnectedness of metabolic and androgen status complicates the dissection of the individual roles of these factors in PCa development and progression. Metabolic factors and androgens may promote prostate carcinogenesis via multiple mechanisms including inflammation, adipokine action, fatty acid metabolism and IGF signalling. Moreover, androgen deprivation, given to men with PCa, has adverse metabolic consequences that need to be taken into account when estimating the risk benefit ratio of this therapy. In this review, we will discuss the current epidemiological and mechanistic evidence regarding the interactions between metabolic conditions, sex steroids and PCa risk and management. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology.

Yool A.J.,University of Adelaide | Campbell E.M.,University of Adelaide
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2012

Aquaporins have been assumed to be selective for water alone, and aquaglyceroporins are accepted as carrying water and small uncharged solutes including glycerol. This review presents an expanded view of aquaporins as channels with more complex mechanisms of regulation and diverse repertoires of substrate permeabilities than were originally appreciated in the early establishment of the field. The role of aquaporins as dual water and gated ion channels is likely to have physiological and potentially translational relevance, and can be evaluated with newly developed molecular and pharmacological tools. Ion channel activity has been shown for Aquaporins -0, -1, and -6, Drosphila Big Brain, and plant Nodulin-26. Although the concept of ion channel function in aquaporins remains controversial, research advances are beginning to define not only the ion channel function but also the detailed molecular mechanisms that govern and mediate the multifunctional capabilities. With regard to physiological relevance, the adaptive benefit of expression of ion channel activity in aquaporins, implied by amino acid sequence conservation of the ion channel gating domains, suggests they provide more than water or glycerol and solute transport. Dual ion and water channels are of interest for understanding the modulation of transmembrane fluid gradients, volume regulation, and possible signal transduction in tissues expressing classes of aquaporins that have the dual function capability. Other aquaporin classes might be found in future work to have ion channel activities, pending identification of the possible signaling pathways that could govern activation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dunn J.C.,University of Adelaide | Newell B.R.,University of New South Wales | Kalish M.L.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition | Year: 2012

Evidence that learning rule-based (RB) and information-integration (II) category structures can be dissociated across different experimental variables has been used to support the view that such learning is supported by multiple learning systems. Across 4 experiments, we examined the effects of 2 variables, the delay between response and feedback and the informativeness of feedback, which had previously been shown to dissociate learning of the 2 types of category structure. Our aim was twofold: first, to determine whether these dissociations meet the more stringent inferential criteria of state-trace analysis and, second, to determine the conditions under which they can be observed. Experiment 1 confirmed that a mask-filled feedback delay dissociated the learning of RB and II category structures with minimally informative (yes/no) feedback and also met the state-trace criteria for the involvement of multiple latent variables. Experiment 2 showed that this effect is eliminated when a less similar, fixed pattern mask is presented in the interval between response and feedback. Experiment 3 showed that the selective effect of feedback delay on II learning is reduced with fully informative feedback (in which the correct category is specified after an incorrect response) and that feedback type did not dissociate RB and II learning. Experiment 4 extended the results of Experiment 2, showing that the differential effect of feedback delay is eliminated when a fixed pattern mask is used. These results pose important challenges to models of category learning, and we discuss their implications for multiple learning system models and their alternatives. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

White T.C.R.,University of Adelaide
Basic and Applied Ecology | Year: 2011

The populations of many species of sub-Arctic animals have recently ceased to fluctuate cyclically. The ultimate cause of this would seem to be changes in the weather, and the proximate cause has been credited to less winter snow allowing predators better access to their prey, thus enabling them to prevent surges in the prey's abundance. But there is evidence that this is not so; that, rather, the numbers of predators are limited by the abundance of their prey. Furthermore, there is alternative evidence that suggests that changes in the cyclical availability of food, brought about by changing weather conditions, may be dampening fluctuations in the abundance of these populations. On the wider ecological front, the evidence presented here further supports the commonality of how a shortage of food of a quality that can support breeding, not the action of predators, generally limits the abundance of populations of both prey and predator. © 2011 Gesellschaft für Ökologie.

Neilsen C.T.,Center for Cancer Biology | Neilsen C.T.,University of Adelaide | Goodall G.J.,Center for Cancer Biology | Goodall G.J.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2012

The development of deep sequencing has enabled the identification of novel microRNAs (miRNAs), leading to a growing appreciation for the fact that individual miRNAs can be heterogeneous in length and/or sequence. These variants, termed isomiRs, can be expressed in a cell-specific manner, and numerous recent studies suggest that at least some isomiRs may affect target selection, miRNA stability, or loading into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Reports indicating differential functionality for isomiRs are currently confined to several specific variants, and although isomiRs are common, their broader biological significance is yet to be fully resolved. Here we review the growing body of evidence suggesting that isomiRs have functional differences, of which at least some appear biologically relevant, and caution researchers to take miRNA isoforms into consideration in their experiments. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang D.,University of Adelaide | Timmis J.N.,University of Adelaide
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

DNA transfer from chloroplasts and mitochondria to the nucleus is ongoing in eukaryotes but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA was observed to integrate into the nuclear genome through DNA double-strand break repair in Nicotiana tabacum. Here, 14 nuclear insertions of chloroplast DNA (nupts) that are unique to Oryza sativa subsp. indica were identified. Comparisons with the preinsertion nuclear loci identified in the related subspecies, O. sativa subsp. japonica, which lacked these nupts, indicated that chloroplast DNA had integrated by nonhomologous end joining. Analyzing public DNase-seq data revealed that nupts were significantly more frequent in open chromatin regions of the nucleus. This preference was tested further in the chimpanzee genome by comparing nuclear loci containing integrants of mitochondrial DNA (numts) with their corresponding numt-lacking preinsertion sites in the human genome. Mitochondrial DNAs also tended to insert more frequently into regions of open chromatin revealed by human DNase-seq and Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements-seq databases. © The Author(s) 2013.

Deussen A.R.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Women may experience differing types of pain and discomfort following birth, including cramping after birth pains associated with uterine involution. To assess the effectiveness and safety of analgesia for relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2010) and the reference lists of trials and review articles. All identified published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing two different types of analgesia or analgesia with placebo or analgesia with no treatment, for the relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. Types of analgesia included pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Two review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We have included 18 studies (involving 1498 women) in this review. However, only nine of the included studies (with 750 women) reported 24 comparisons of analgesia with other analgesia or placebo and had data that could be included in our meta-analyses. The majority of studies investigated pharmacological analgesics and these were grouped into classes for this review. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were significantly better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine involution as assessed by their summed pain intensity differences (SPID) (mean difference (MD) 4.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.87 to 5.82; three studies, 204 women) and summed pain relief scores (MD 5.94; 95% CI 3.83 to 8.01; three studies, 204 women). NSAIDS were compared with opioids in one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. A larger study of 127 women found NSAIDs to be significantly better than opioids at reducing pain intensity six hours following study intervention (MD -0.70; 95% CI -1.04 to -0.35). Opioids were compared with placebo in three studies that could be included in meta-analyses; one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. One study of 95 women found no difference in pain intensity six hours following the study intervention. A third study of 108 women found significantly more women in the placebo group reported no pain relief than women in the opioid group (risk ratio 0.10; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.23). Aspirin was significantly better than paracetamol when pain intensity score was assessed six hours after study intervention (MD 0.85; 95% CI 0.29 to 1.41; one study 48 women) at relieving pain from uterine involution. Paracetamol was not better than placebo when pain intensity was assessed six hours after the study intervention in one study of 48 women. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including aspirin were better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth. NSAIDs were better than paracetamol and paracetamol was not better than placebo, though numbers of participants for these comparisons were small. Data for opioids compared with NSAIDs and opioids compared with placebo were conflicting, with some measures showing similar effect and others indicating NSAIDs were better than opioids and opioids were not better than placebo. There were insufficient data to make conclusions regarding the effectiveness of opioids at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution.The median year of publication of included studies was 1981; therefore more research is needed to assess the effectiveness of current pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesia at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth.

Crowther C.A.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

It has been unclear whether repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids are beneficial. To assess the effectiveness and safety of repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2011), searched reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted authors for further data. Randomised controlled trials of women who had already received a single course of corticosteroids seven or more days previously and considered still at risk of preterm birth. We assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 10 trials (more than 4730 women and 5650 babies) with low to moderate risk of bias. Treatment of women who remain at risk of preterm birth seven or more days after an initial course of prenatal corticosteroids with repeat dose(s), compared with no repeat corticosteroid treatment, reduced the risk of their infants experiencing the primary outcomes respiratory distress syndrome (risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.91, eight trials, 3206 infants, numbers needed to treat (NNT) 17, 95% CI 11 to 32) and serious infant outcome (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.94, seven trials, 5094 infants, NNT 30, 95% CI 19 to 79).Treatment with repeat dose(s) of corticosteroid was associated with a reduction in mean birthweight (mean difference (MD) -75.79 g, 95% CI -117.63 to -33.96, nine trials, 5626 infants). However, outcomes that adjusted birthweight for gestational age (birthweight Z scores, birthweight multiples of the median and small-for-gestational age) did not differ between treatment groups.At early childhood follow-up no statistically significant differences were seen for infants exposed to repeat prenatal corticosteroids compared with unexposed infants for the primary outcomes (total deaths; survival free of any disability or major disability; disability; or serious outcome) or in the secondary outcome growth assessments. The short-term benefits for babies of less respiratory distress and fewer serious health problems in the first few weeks after birth support the use of repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids for women still at risk of preterm birth seven days or more after an initial course. These benefits were associated with a small reduction in size at birth. The current available evidence reassuringly shows no significant harm in early childhood, although no benefit.Further research is needed on the long-term benefits and risks for the woman and baby. Individual patient data meta-analysis may clarify how to maximise benefit and minimise harm.    

Rumbold A.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage, maternal adverse outcomes and fetal and infant adverse outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (21 June 2010). All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions, prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). At least two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We identified 28 trials assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Overall, the included trials involved 96,674 women and 98,267 pregnancies. Three trials were cluster randomised and combined contributed data for 62,669 women and 64,210 pregnancies in total. No significant differences were seen between women taking any vitamins compared with controls for total fetal loss (relative risk (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.14), early or late miscarriage (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.25) or stillbirth (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.13) and most of the other primary outcomes, using fixed-effect models. Compared with controls, women given any type of vitamin(s) pre or peri-conception were more likely to have a multiple pregnancy (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.70, three trials, 20,986 women). Taking any vitamin supplements prior to pregnancy or in early pregnancy does not prevent women experiencing miscarriage or stillbirth. However, women taking vitamin supplements may be more likely to have a multiple pregnancy. There is insufficient evidence to examine the effects of different combinations of vitamins on miscarriage, stillbirth or other maternal and infant outcomes.

Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide | Cau A.,Museo Geologico e Paleontologico Giovanni Capellini | Cau A.,University of Bologna | And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Recent discoveries have highlighted the dramatic evolutionary transformation of massive, ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs into light, volant birds.Here,we apply Bayesian approaches (originally developed for inferring geographic spread and rates of molecular evolution in viruses) in a different context: to infer size changes and rates of anatomical innovation (across up to 1549 skeletal characters) in fossils.These approaches identify two drivers underlying the dinosaur-bird transition.The theropod lineage directly ancestral to birds undergoes sustained miniaturization across 50 million years and at least 12 consecutive branches (internodes) and evolves skeletal adaptations four times faster than other dinosaurs.The distinct, prolonged phase of miniaturization along the bird stem would have facilitated the evolution of many novelties associated with small body size, such as reorientation of body mass, increased aerial ability, and paedomorphic skulls with reduced snouts but enlarged eyes and brains.

Brierley S.M.,University of Adelaide
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by several distinct populations of neurons, whose cell bodies either reside within (intrinsic) or outside (extrinsic) the gastrointestinal wall. Normally, most individuals are unaware of the continuous, complicated functions of these neurons. However, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders, such as IBD and IBS, altered gastrointestinal motility, discomfort and pain are common, debilitating symptoms. Although bouts of intestinal inflammation underlie the symptoms associated with IBD, increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that infection and inflammation are also key risk factors for the development of other gastrointestinal disorders. Notably, a strong correlation exists between prior exposure to gut infection and symptom occurrence in IBS. This Review discusses the evidence for neuroplasticity (structural, synaptic or intrinsic changes that alter neuronal function) affecting gastrointestinal function. Such changes are evident during inflammation and, in many cases, long after healing of the damaged tissues, when the nervous system fails to reset back to normal. Neuroplasticity within distinct populations of neurons has a fundamental role in the aberrant motility, secretion and sensation associated with common clinical gastrointestinal disorders. To find appropriate therapeutic treatments for these disorders, the extent and time course of neuroplasticity must be fully appreciated.

Determining the effects of compaction-related inclination shallowing of remanence directions is crucial for ascertaining the validity of low palaeolatitudes for Neoproterozoic red beds in South Australia that are central to the debate concerning low-latitude Proterozoic glaciation. The inclination correction (or flattening) factor, f, is defined as tan(ID)/tan(IF), where ID and IF are the inclinations of the measured detrital remanence and the ancient inducing field, respectively. The anisotropy can be estimated using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence (hf-AIR). The elongation-inclination (E-I) method has also been used to infer inclination shallowing. We add the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation (ATR) to these methods. For the late Cryogenian Elatina Formation arenites, which constitute the bulk of the Elatina data set, the inclination correction using f=0.738 derived from ATR increases the palaeolatitude of the Elatina Formation from 6.5±2.2° to 8.8±3.2°, which confirms that the Elatina glaciation occurred near the palaeoequator. Inclination corrections for the Ediacaran argillaceous Brachina and Wonoka formations, using f=0.35-0.38 derived from ATR, are significantly greater than for the more arenaceous Elatina Formation, which increases their palaeolatitudes from ~12° to ~30°. Carbonates from the basal Ediacaran Nuccaleena Formation yielded f=0.8 from ATR, which represents only a small palaeolatitude correction from 19° to 23°. The anisotropy results imply that the characteristic remanent magnetisations carried by all these units were acquired early as depositional remanent magnetisations, essentially at the time of deposition. The shift of the palaeopoles from argillaceous units indicating significantly higher palaeolatitudes introduces a distinctive loop into the late Cryogenian-Ediacaran-Cambrian pole path for Australia. This loop shows similarities with the North American pole path for this period, for which true polar wander (TPW) has been inferred. However, until ages of Neoproterozoic strata in South Australia are better constrained uncertainty persists on whether the similarities of the Australian and North American pole paths reflect TPW. © 2012.

Crowther C.A.,University of Adelaide | Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide | Hiller J.E.,Australian Catholic University | Haslam R.R.,The Womens and Childrens Hospital | Robinson J.S.,University of Adelaide
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Uncertainty exists about benefits and harms of a planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) compared with elective repeat caesarean (ERC). We conducted a prospective restricted cohort study consisting of a patient preference cohort study, and a small nested randomised trial to compare benefits and risks of a planned ERC with planned VBAC. Methods and findings: 2,345 women with one prior caesarean, eligible for VBAC at term, were recruited from 14 Australian maternity hospitals. Women were assigned by patient preference (n = 2,323) or randomisation (n = 22) to planned VBAC (1,225 patient preference, 12 randomised) or planned ERC (1,098 patient preference, ten randomised). The primary outcome was risk of fetal death or death of liveborn infant before discharge or serious infant outcome. Data were analysed for the 2,345 women (100%) and infants enrolled. The risk of fetal death or liveborn infant death prior to discharge or serious infant outcome was significantly lower for infants born in the planned ERC group compared with infants in the planned VBAC group (0.9% versus 2.4%; relative risk [RR] 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.80; number needed to treat to benefit 66; 95% CI 40-200). Fewer women in the planned ERC group compared with women in the planned VBAC had a major haemorrhage (blood loss ≥1,500 ml and/or blood transfusion), (0.8% [9/1,108] versus 2.3% [29/1,237]; RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17-0.80). Conclusions: Among women with one prior caesarean, planned ERC compared with planned VBAC was associated with a lower risk of fetal and infant death or serious infant outcome. The risk of major maternal haemorrhage was reduced with no increase in maternal or perinatal complications to time of hospital discharge. Women, clinicians, and policy makers can use this information to develop health advice and make decisions about care for women who have had a previous caesarean. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53974531 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. © 2012 Crowther et al.

Chang L.,University of Adelaide | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Within the Dyson-Schwinger equation formulation of QCD, a rainbow ladder truncation is used to calculate the pion valence-quark distribution function (PDF). The gap equation is renormalized at a typical hadronic scale, of order 0.5 GeV, which is also set as the default initial scale for the pion PDF. We implement a corrected leading-order expression for the PDF which ensures that the valence-quarks carry all of the pion's light-front momentum at the initial scale. The scaling behavior of the pion PDF at a typical partonic scale of order 5.2 GeV is found to be (1-x)ν, with ν≃1.6, as x approaches one. © 2015 The Authors.

Riesen N.,University of Adelaide | Gross S.,Center for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems | Love J.D.,Australian National University | Withford M.J.,Center for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems
Optics Express | Year: 2014

We report the design and fabrication of three-dimensional integrated mode couplers operating in the C-band. These mode-selective couplers were inscribed into a boro-aluminosilicate photonic chip using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Horizontally and vertically written two-core couplers are shown to allow for the multiplexing of the LP11a and LP11b spatial modes of an optical fiber, respectively, with excellent mode extinction ratios (25-37 + dB) and low loss (∼1 dB) between 1500 and 1580 nm. Furthermore, optimized fabrication parameters enable coupling ratios close to 100%. When written in sequence, the couplers allow for the multiplexing of all LP01, LP11a and LP11b modes. This is also shown to be possible using a single 3-dimensional three-core coupler. These integrated mode couplers have considerable potential to be used in modedivision multiplexing for increasing optical fiber capacity. The three-dimensional capability of the femtosecond direct-write technique provides the versatility to write linear cascades of such two- and three-core couplers into a single compact glass chip, with arbitrary routing of waveguides to ensure a small footprint. This technology could be used for highperformance, compact and cost-effective multiplexing of large numbers of modes of an optical fiber. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Spence J.T.J.,University of Adelaide | George J.H.,University of Adelaide
Organic Letters | Year: 2015

The total synthesis of peniphenones A-D has been achieved via Michael reactions between appropriate nucleophiles and a common o-quinone methide intermediate. This strategy, which was based on a biosynthetic hypothesis, minimized the use of protecting groups and thus facilitated concise syntheses of the natural products. The most complex target, the benzannulated spiroketal peniphenone A, was synthesized enantioselectively in nine linear steps from commercially available starting materials. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Trewartha D.,University of Adelaide | Kamleh W.,University of Adelaide | Leinweber D.,University of Adelaide
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

The link between dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and centre vortices in the gauge fields of pure SU(3) gauge theory is studied using the overlap-fermion quark propagator in Lattice QCD. Overlap fermions provide a lattice realisation of chiral symmetry and consequently offer a unique opportunity to explore the interplay of centre vortices, instantons and dynamical mass generation. Simulations are performed on gauge fields featuring the removal of centre vortices, identified through gauge transformations maximising the center of the gauge group. In contrast to previous results using the staggered-fermion action, the overlap-fermion results illustrate a loss of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking coincident with vortex removal. This result is linked to the overlap-fermion's sensitivity to the subtle manner in which instanton degrees of freedom are compromised through the process of centre vortex removal. Backgrounds consisting solely of the identified centre vortices are also investigated. After smoothing the vortex-only gauge fields, we observe dynamical mass generation on the vortex-only backgrounds consistent within errors with the original gauge-field ensemble following the same smoothing. Through visualizations of the instanton-like degrees of freedom in the various gauge-field ensembles, we find evidence of a link between the centre vortex and instanton structure of the vacuum. While vortex removal destabilizes instanton-like objects under O(a4)-improved cooling, vortex-only backgrounds provide gauge-field degrees of freedom sufficient to create instantons upon cooling. © 2015.

Andrew Smith F.,University of Adelaide | Smith S.E.,University of Adelaide
Plant and Soil | Year: 2011

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses are widespread in land plants but the extent to which they are functionally important in agriculture remains unclear, despite much previous research. We ask focused questions designed to give new perspectives on AM function, some based on recent research that is overturning past beliefs. We address factors that determine growth responses (from positive to negative) in AM plants, the extent to which AM plants that lack positive responses benefit in terms of nutrient (particularly phosphate: P) uptake, whether or not AM and nonmycorrhizal (NM) plants acquire different forms of soil P, and the cause(s) of AM 'growth depressions'. We consider the relevance of laboratory work to the agricultural context, including effects of high (available) soil P on AM fungal colonisation and whether AM colonisation may be deleterious to crop production due to fungal 'parasitism'. We emphasise the imperative for research that is aimed at increasing benefits of AM symbioses in the field at a time of increasing prices of P-fertiliser, and increasing demands on agriculture to feed the world. In other words, AM symbioses have key roles in providing ecosystem services that are receiving increasing attention worldwide. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Tikhomirova A.,University of Adelaide | Kidd S.P.,University of Adelaide
Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are both commensals of the human nasopharynx with an ability to migrate to other niches within the human body to cause various diseases of the upper respiratory tract such as pneumonia, otitis media and bronchitis. They have long been detected together in a multispecies biofilm in infected tissue. However, an understanding of their interplay is a recent field of study, and while over recent years, there has been research that has identified many specific elements important in these biofilms, to date, it remains questionable whether the relationship between H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is competitive or cooperative. Additionally, the factors that govern the nature of the interspecies interaction are still undefined. This review aims to collate the information that has emerged on the cocolonization and co-infection by S. pneumoniae and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) and their formation of a multispecies biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

Williams M.,University of Adelaide
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2012

River history is reflected in the nature of the sediments carried and deposited over time. Using examples drawn from around the world, this account illustrates how river sediments have been used to reconstruct past environmental changes at a variety of scales in time and space. Problems arising from a patchy alluvial record and from influences external to the river basin can make interpretation difficult. The Nile is treated in some detail because its history is further complicated by tectonic, volcanic and climatic events in its headwaters and by enduring human impacts. It arose soon after 30Ma. Since that time approximately 100 000 km 3 of rock have been eroded from its Ethiopian sources and deposited in the eastern Mediterranean, with minor amounts of sediment laid down along its former flood plains in Egypt and Sudan. From these fragmentary alluvial remains, a detailed history of Nile floods and droughts has been reconstructed for the last 15 kyr, and, with less detail, for the past 150 kyr, which shows strong accordance with global fluctuations in the strength of the summer monsoon, which are in turn perhaps modulated by changes in solar insolation caused by changes in the Earth's orbit and by variations in solar irradiance. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society.

Howard C.Q.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

A common method used in tuning adaptivepassive tuned vibration neutralizers is to adjust its resonance frequency to match the excitation frequency, which has the characteristic that the phase angle between its vibrating mass and its support is -90°. A sliding-Goertzel algorithm is presented and demonstrated for extracting the vibration signals at the frequency of interest. The benefit of using the sliding Goertzel algorithm compared to other methods when used in vibration environments with multiple tones is that additional band-pass notch filtering is not required. This algorithm could also be used for adaptive tuned mass dampers, adaptive Helmholtz resonators, and adaptive quarter-wave tubes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pickard W.F.,Washington University | Abbott D.,University of Adelaide
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012

The storage of power line frequency electrical energy as electrical energy is limited to capacitors and inductors, and neither has proven particularly practical where massive amounts of energy are involved. When electric power is needed, the stored energy is back-converted to electricity and returned to the grid. These conversions, however, are not ideally efficient, and each process is characterized by a figure of merit called the cycle efficiency, defined as the ratio of the total joules delivered to the grid over a suitable study period divided by the total joules received from the grid during the same period. As the number of grid-connected CSP farms increases, the resulting spatial diversity provides opportunity for averaging out the intermittency. Also, if CSP farms are connected across several time zones, and even across seasonal boundaries, the need for storage is lessened. It makes little sense to convert electricity to heat to store it because of the low efficiency of back conversion.

Jaehne E.J.,University of Adelaide | Baune B.T.,University of Adelaide
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2014

Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders. Chemokines, which are a part of the immune system, have effects on various aspects of brain function, but little is known about their effects on behaviour. We have compared the cognition-like behaviour (learning and spatial memory) of CCR6-/- and CCR7-/- mice with wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, in the Barnes maze, as well as a range of other behaviours, including exploratory, anxiety and depression-like behaviour, using a battery of tests. Levels of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also measured. In the Barnes maze, CCR7-/- mice were shown to take longer to learn the location of the escape box on the 1st of 4 days of training. In the behavioural battery, CCR6-/- mice showed higher locomotor activity and lower anxiety in the open field test, and a lack of preference for social novelty in a sociability test. CCR7-/- mice behaved much like WT mice, although showed higher anxiety in Elevated Zero Maze. While baseline saccharin preference in a 2-bottle choice test, a test for anhedonia depression-like behaviour, was equal in all strains at baseline, weekly tests showed that both CCR6-/- and CCR7-/- mice developed a decreased preference for saccharin compared to WT over time. There were no differences between strains in any of the cytokines measured. These results suggest that chemokine receptors may play a role in cognition and learning behaviour, as well as anxiety and other behaviours, although the biological mechanisms are still unclear. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hurtado P.,University of Adelaide | Peh C.A.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

LL-37 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from neutrophils and keratinocytes. It plays an important role in protection against bacterial infection in the skin and mucosal surfaces. However, its role within the blood compartment remains unclear given that serum inhibits its bactericidal property. In this study, we show that LL-37 promotes very rapid and highly efficient sensing of CpG motifs in bacterial DNA by human B lymphocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in serum-containing media and in whole blood. LL-37 allowed detection of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) within minutes of exposure. Without LL-37, 20-30 times more CpG was required to produce the same effect. The promotion of CpG detection by LL-37 was independent of the backbone of the ODN, as the effect was observed not only in ODNs with modified phosphorothioate backbone, but also in ODNs with natural phosphodiester backbone, as found in genomic DNA. Unmethylated CpG motifs within the phosphodiester ODN and LL-37 - mediated delivery are required for pDCs to respond. In keeping with the above, cells responded to CpG-rich bacterial DNA and LL-37, but not to human DNA and LL-37. The ability of LL-37 to enhance delivery of CpG to stimulate immune cells is independent of its amphipathic structure and its bactericidal property. LL-37 aids the delivery of CpG to B cells and pDCs, but not T cells. These findings are pertinent to rapid recognition of microbial DNA and are highly relevant to contemporary studies of CpG/TLR9 agonists in vaccines and cancer therapy. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

Thiang G.C.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics | Year: 2015

Equivalence classes of gapped Hamiltonians compatible with given symmetry constraints, such as those underlying topological insulators, can be defined in many ways. For the non-chiral classes modeled by vector bundles over Brillouin tori, physically relevant equivalences include isomorphism, homotopy, and K-theory, which are inequivalent but closely related. We discuss an important subtlety which arises in the chiral Class AIII systems, where the winding number invariant is shown to be relative rather than absolute as is usually assumed. These issues are then analyzed and reconciled in the language of K-theory. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Hugall A.F.,University of Adelaide | Stanisic J.,Queensland Center for Biodiversity
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011

From an analysis of over 900 specimens of camaenid land snails, we have assembled a molecular phylogeny of 327 tips covering >70% genera across the entire continent of Australia and including >90% of eastern species. Our approach emphasizes sampling to identify lineage flocks from populations down to build a hierarchical gene-by-taxa tapestry or supermatrix dataset using three mitochondrial genes, then analysed with Markov chain Monte Carlo and fast maximum likelihood methods. Similarity amongst taxa set results suggests missing data cause only minor distortions. This is supplemented by a separate higher level 28S rDNA phylogeny for a global scale perspective. The shallow divergence of Australasian forms, and their nesting within South-East Asian groups within the Helicoidea supergroup extending from Europe to North America, is consistent with the Solem hypothesis of Laurasian immigration of c. Miocene origin, and so being more than 400 species in 80-plus genera spread across the continent of Australia from rainforest to desert, forms an immense radiation. There is a major distinction between eastern and western lineages, with some key exceptions. Finer scale patterns of relictual endemics indicate that many ancestral lineages were in place before the major decline and breakup of the Tertiary mesic forest realm that once dominated Gondwanan Australia, and so chart the phylogenetic turnover of ecosystem change from mesic to xeric. The various higher classification schemes proposed all founder on the sheer scale of this radiation. Of 30 polytypic genera tested, at least 18 are not monophyletic, highlighting (1) the repeated radiation of shell forms, and (2) that the current higher taxonomy is unacceptable. Here we provide a phylogenetic and biogeographically condign arrangement as the basis for future elaborations. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London.

Chen S.,University of Adelaide | Duan J.,University of Adelaide | Ran J.,University of Adelaide | Jaroniec M.,Kent State University | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

A three-dimensional (3D) catalyst was fabricated by using N-doped graphene films as scaffolds and nickel nanoparticles as building blocks via a heterogeneous reaction process. This unique structure enables high catalyst loadings and optimal electrode contact, leading to a surprisingly high catalytic activity towards OER, which almost approaches that of the state-of-the-art precious OER electrocatalysts (IrO2). Moreover, the catalytic process features favourable electrode kinetics and strong durability during long-term cycling. The dual-active-site mechanism was proposed for this 3D catalyst, i.e., Ni/NiOOH and Ni-N(O)-C are both active sites. The enhanced performance is attributed to synergistic effects of N-doped graphene and Ni, which enhance the activities of both components for OER. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Balasuriya S.,University of Adelaide
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2015

A passive method for obtaining good mixing within microdroplets is to introduce curves in the boundaries of the microchannels in which they flow. This article develops a method which quantifies the role of piecewise circular or straight channel boundaries on the transport within a two-cell microdroplet. Transport between the two cells is quantified as an easily computable time-varying flux, which quantifies how lobes intrude from one cell to the other as the droplet traverses the channel. The computation requires neither numerically solving unsteady boundary value problems nor performing trajectory integration, thereby providing an efficient new method for investigating the role of channel geometry on intra-droplet transport. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Cooper A.,University of Adelaide | Stringer C.B.,Natural History Museum in London
Science | Year: 2013

The distribution of Denisovan DNA in modern human populations raises questions about where these ancient humans lived and where they interbred with modern humans.

King B.,Flinders University | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide | Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum
Systematic Biology | Year: 2015

Virtually all models for reconstructing ancestral states for discrete characters make the crucial assumption that the trait of interest evolves at a uniform rate across the entire tree. However, this assumption is unlikely to hold in many situations, particularly as ancestral state reconstructions are being performed on increasingly large phylogenies. Here, we show how failure to account for such variable evolutionary rates can cause highly anomalous (and likely incorrect) results, while three methods that accommodate rate variability yield the opposite, more plausible, and more robust reconstructions. The random local clock method, implemented in BEAST, estimates the position and magnitude of rate changes on the tree; split BiSSE estimates separate rate parameters for pre-specified clades; and the hidden rates model partitions each character state into a number of rate categories. Simulations show the inadequacy of traditional models when characters evolve with both asymmetry (different rates of change between states within a character) and heterotachy (different rates of character evolution across different clades). The importance of accounting for rate heterogeneity in ancestral state reconstruction is highlighted empirically with a new analysis of the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles, which reveal a predominance of forward (oviparous-viviparous) transitions and very few reversals. © 2015 © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

Chronic pain patients have increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell Interkeukin-1β production following TLR2 and TLR4 simulation. Here we have used a human-to-rat and rat-to-human approach to further investigate whether peripheral blood immune responses to TLR agonists might be suitable for development as possible systems biomarkers of chronic pain in humans. Study 1: using a graded model of chronic constriction injury in rats, behavioral allodynia was assessed followed by in vitro quantification of TLR2 and TLR4 agonist-induced stimulation of IL-1β release by PBMCs and spinal cord tissues (n = 42; 6 rats per group). Statistical models were subsequently developed using the IL-1β responses, which distinguished the pain/no pain states and predicted the degree of allodynia. Study 2: the rat-derived statistical models were tested to assess their predictive utility in determining the pain status of a published human cohort that consists of a heterogeneous clinical pain population (n = 19) and a pain-free population (n = 11). The predictive ability of one of the rat models was able to distinguish pain patients from controls with a ROC AUC of 0.94. The rat model was used to predict the presence of pain in a new chronic pain cohort and was able to accurately predict the presence of pain in 28 out of the 34 chronic pain participants. These clinical findings confirm our previous discoveries of the involvement of the peripheral immune system in chronic pain. Given that these findings are reflected in the prospective graded rat data, it suggests that the TLR response from peripheral blood and spinal cord were related to pain and these clinical findings do indeed act as system biomarkers for the chronic pain state. Hence, they provide additional impetus to the neuroimmune interaction to be a drug target for chronic pain.

Henderson-Sapir O.,University of Adelaide | Munch J.,University of Adelaide | Ottaway D.J.,University of Adelaide
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We report the first, to the best of our knowledge, erbium-doped zirconium-fluoride-based glass fiber laser operating well beyond 3 μm with significant power. This fiber laser achieved 260 mW in CW at room temperature. The use of two different wavelength pump sources allows us to take advantage of the long-lived excited states that would normally cause a bottleneck, and this enables maximum incident optical-to-optical efficiency of 16% with respect to the total incident pump power. Both output power and efficiency are an order of magnitude improvement over similar lasers demonstrated previously. The fiber laser operating at 3.604 μm also exhibited the longest wavelength of operation obtained to date for a room temperature, nonsupercontinuum fiber laser. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Pehere A.D.,University of Adelaide | Abell A.D.,University of Adelaide
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

New peptidic templates constrained into a β-strand geometry by linking acetylene and azide containing P 1 and P 3 residues of a tripeptide by Huisgen cycloaddition are presented. The conformations of the macrocycles are defined by NMR studies and those that best define a β-strand are shown to be potent inhibitors of the protease calpain. The β-strand templates presented and defined here are prepared under optimized conditions that should be suitable for targeting a range of proteases and other applications requiring such a geometry. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Hermann A.,University of Adelaide | Henneberg M.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2013

Background: Doping is a very serious issue bedevilling the sporting arena. It has consequences for athletes' careers, perception of sports in the society and funding of sports events and sporting organisations. There is a widespread perception that doping unfairly improves results of athletes. Methods: A statistical study of information on best lifetime results of top 100. m sprinters (males better than 9.98. s, females 11.00. s), over the period of 1980-2011 was conducted. Athletes were divided into categories of 'doped' (. N=. 17 males and 14 females), based on self admission, the confirmed detection of known doping agents in their bodies or doping conviction, and 'non-doped' (. N=. 46 males and 55 females). Results: No significant differences (unpaired t-test) between dopers and non-dopers were found in their average results: male 'dopers' 9.89. s identical with 'non-dopers' 9.89. s, females 10.84. s and 10.88. s respectively. Slopes of regressions of best results on dates for both 'dopers' and 'non dopers' were not significantly different from zero. This indicates that no general improvement as a group in 100. m sprint results over a quarter of a century occurred irrespective of doping being or not being used. Conclusion: Since there are no statistical differences between athletes found " doping" and the others, one of the following must be true: (1) " doping" as used by athletes so detected does not improve results, or (2) " doping" is widespread and only sometimes detected. Since there was no improvement in overall results during the last quarter of the century, the first conclusion is more likely. Objectively, various " doping" agents have obvious physiological or anatomical effects. These may not translate into better results due to the clandestine use of doping that prevents its scientific structuring. Perception of the effectiveness of doping should be reconsidered. Policy changes may be required to ensure the continued fairness and equity in testing, legislation and sports in general. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Holst J.J.,Novo Nordisk AS | Gribble F.,Addenbrookes Hospital | Horowitz M.,University of Adelaide | Rayner C.K.,University of Adelaide
Diabetes Care | Year: 2016

The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the regulation of postprandial glucose profiles. Gastric emptying is a highly regulated process, which normally ensures a limited and fairly constant delivery of nutrients and glucose to the proximal gut. The subsequent digestion and absorption of nutrients are associated with the release of a set of hormones that feeds back to regulate subsequent gastric emptying and regulates the release of insulin, resulting in downregulation of hepatic glucose production and deposition of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. These remarkable mechanisms normally keep postprandial glucose excursions low, regardless of the load of glucose ingested. When the regulation of emptying is perturbed (e.g., pyloroplasty, gastric sleeve or gastric bypass operation), postprandial glycemia may reach high levels, sometimes followed by profound hypoglycemia. This article discusses the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

Rees E.,University of Adelaide | Gowing L.R.,University of Adelaide
Alcohol and Alcoholism | Year: 2013

Aims: To assess the effect of mandatory thiamine enrichment of wheat flour on blood thiamine levels in an alcoholdependent population. Methods: Alcohol-dependent clients (n = 100) entering an inpatient service for the management of alcoholwithdrawal had thiamine blood tests and diet interviews. Approximately half (n = 46) the alcohol-dependent participants reported taking vitamin supplements prior to admission. Standard treatment included thiamine supplementation in the form of an intramuscular injection and 100 mg tablets. If consent was gained, a second thiamine blood test was taken prior to discharge (n = 77). Control participants (n = 20) with no history of treatment for alcohol abuse had thiamine blood tests and diet interviews. Results: Control participants consumed significantly larger amounts of thiamine in their diet compared with alcohol-dependent participants (P < 0.0001). Alcohol-dependent participants who reported no use of vitamin supplements had significantly lower (P <0.05) blood thiamine levels compared with controls, whereas controls and those who reported using vitamin supplements had no significant difference.No significant correlation was found between thiamine blood levels and reported levels of alcohol consumption.Conclusion: Reduced blood levels of thiamine in people who are alcohol dependent, compared with those with no history of alcohol abuse, are likely to be because of the poor diet. Consumption of vitaminsupplements appears to bring thiamine levels closer to those seen in control participants. Supplementation of dietary intake of thiamine in people who are alcohol dependent remains an important measure for the prevention of Wernicke-Korsakoff'ssyndrome in this population. © The Author 2012. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Lee A.K.,University of Adelaide | Lewis D.M.,University of Adelaide | Ashman P.J.,University of Adelaide
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Cell disruption is an essential step in the release of cellular contents but mechanical cell disruption processes are highly energy intensive. This energy requirement may become a critical issue for the sustainability of low valued commodities such as microalgal biofuels derived from extracted lipids. By the use of an atomic force microscope (AFM), this study evaluated the force and energy required to indent and disrupt individual cells of the marine microalga, Tetraselmis suecica. It was found that the force and energy required for the indentation and disruption varies according to the location of the cell with the average being 17.43pJ. This amount is the equivalent of 673Jkg-1 of the dry microalgal biomass. In comparison, the most energy efficient mechanical cell disruption process, hydrodynamic cavitation, has specific energy requirement that is approx. 5 orders of magnitude greater than that measured by AFM. The result clearly shows that existing mechanical cell disruption processes are highly energy inefficient and further research and innovation is required for sustainable microalgal biofuels production. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Reynolds L.K.,University of Virginia | Waycott M.,University of Adelaide | Mcglathery K.J.,University of Virginia
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

Ecological restoration assists the recovery of degraded ecosystems; however, restoration can have deleterious effects such as outbreeding depression when source material is not chosen carefully and has non-local adaptations. We surveyed 23 eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations along the North American Atlantic coast to evaluate genetic structure and connectivity among restored and naturally recruited populations. While populations along the North America Atlantic coast were genetically distinctive, significant migration was detected among populations. All estimates of connectivity (FST, migration rate base on rare alleles, and Bayesian modelling) showed a general north to south pattern of migration, corresponding to the typical long-shore currents in this region. Individual naturally recruited meadows in the Virginia coastal bays appear to be the result of dispersal from different meadows north of the region. This supports the hypothesis that recruitment into this region is typically a slow, episodic process rather than a permanent, continuous connection between the populations. While natural recovery of populations that were catastrophically lost in the 1930s has been slow, large-scale seed-based restoration has been very successful at quickly restoring landscape-scale areal coverage (over 1600 ha in just 10 years). Our results show that restoration was also successful at restoring meadows with high genetic diversity. Naturally recruited meadows were less diverse and exhibited signs of genetic drift. Synthesis. Our analyses demonstrate that metapopulation dynamics are important to the natural recovery of seagrass ecosystems that have experienced catastrophic loss over large spatial scales; however, natural recovery processes are slow and inefficient at recovering genetic diversity and population structure when recruitment barriers exist, such as a limited seed source. Seed-based restoration provides a greater abundance of propagules, rapidly facilitates the recovery of populations with higher genetic diversity, and when seed sources are chosen carefully protects regional genetic structure. First-order estimates indicated that the genetic diversity achieved by active restoration in 10 years would have otherwise taken between 125 and 185 years to achieve through natural recruitment events. We demonstrate that metapopulations are important to recovery of seagrass ecosystems that have experienced catastrophic loss over large spatial scales. However, natural recovery is slow and inefficient at recovering genetic diversity when recruitment barriers exist. Seed-based restoration rapidly facilitates the recovery of populations to higher genetic diversity, and when seed sources are chosen carefully protects regional genetic structure. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Duan J.,University of Adelaide | Chen S.,University of Adelaide | Jaroniec M.,Kent State University | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2015

To address aggravating energy and environment issues, inexpensive, highly active, and durable electrocatalysts as noble metal substitutes both at the anode and cathode are being actively pursued. Among them, heteroatom-doped graphene-based materials show extraordinary electrocatalytic performance, some even close to or outperforming the state-of-the-art noble metals, such as Pt- and IrO2-based materials. This review provides a concise appraisal on graphene doping methods, possible doping configurations and their unique electrochemical properties, including single and double doping with N, B, S, and P. In addition, heteroatom-doped graphene-based materials are reviewed as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction, hydrogen evolution, and oxygen evolution reactions in terms of their electrocatalytic mechanisms and performance. Significantly, three-dimensional heteroatom-doped graphene structures have been discussed, and those especially can be directly utilized as catalyst electrodes without extra binders and supports. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Adams R.J.,University of Adelaide
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy | Year: 2010

A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual's competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been promoted as one such potential approach. © 2010 Adams.

To L.B.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | To L.B.,University of Adelaide | Levesque J.-P.,Materials Medical Research Institute | Levesque J.-P.,University of Queensland | Herbert K.E.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center
Blood | Year: 2011

Transplantation with 2-5 × 10 6 mobilized CD34 +cells/kg body weight lowers transplantation costs and mortality. Mobilization is most commonly performed with recombinant human G-CSF with or without chemotherapy, but a proportion of patients/donors fail to mobilize sufficient cells. BM disease, prior treatment, and age are factors influencing mobilization, but genetics also contributes. Mobilization may fail because of the changes affecting the HSC/progenitor cell/BM niche integrity and chemotaxis. Poor mobilization affects patient outcome and increases resource use. Until recently increasing G-CSF dose and adding SCF have been used in poor mobilizers with limited success. However, plerixafor through its rapid direct blockage of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemotaxis pathway and synergy with G-CSF and chemotherapy has become a new and important agent for mobilization. Its efficacy in upfront and failed mobilizers is well established. To maximize HSC harvest in poor mobilizers the clinician needs to optimize current mobilization protocols and to integrate novel agents such as plerixafor. These include when to mobilize in relation to chemotherapy, how to schedule and perform apheresis, how to identify poor mobilizers, and what are the criteria for preemptive and immediate salvage use of plerixafor. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Augello M.A.,Thomas Jefferson University | Hickey T.E.,University of Adelaide | Knudsen K.E.,Thomas Jefferson University
EMBO Journal | Year: 2011

FOXA transcription factors are potent, context-specific mediators of development that hold specialized functions in hormone-dependent tissues. Over the last several years, FOXA1 has emerged as a critical mediator of nuclear steroid receptor signalling, manifest at least in part through regulation of androgen receptor and oestrogen receptor activity. Recent findings point towards a major role for FOXA1 in modulating nuclear steroid receptor activity in breast and prostate cancer, and suggest that FOXA1 may significantly contribute to pro-tumourigenic phenotypes. The present review article will focus on the mechanisms, consequence, and clinical relevance of FOXA1-mediated steroid nuclear receptor signalling in human malignancy. © 2011 European Molecular Biology Organization | All Rights Reserved.

Balasuriya S.,Connecticut College | Finn M.D.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

With enhancing mixing in micro- or nanofluidic applications in mind, the problem of maximizing fluid transport across a fluid interface subject to an available energy budget is examined. The optimum cross-interface perturbing velocity is obtained explicitly in the time-periodic instance using an Euler-Lagrange constrained optimization approach. Numerical investigations which calculate transferred lobe areas and cross-interface flux are used to verify that the predicted strategy achieves optimum transport. Explicit active protocols for achieving this optimal transport are suggested. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Suh J.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2014

Asia has accounted for the vast majority of the world's rice and meat-duck production. In the integrated rice–duck farming (IRDF) system, ducklings are released into rice paddies in order to maximize the use of renewable resources in a closed-cycle flow of nutrients during rice vegetation periods. Rice–duck farming used to be widely adopted in tropical and subtropical eastern Asian countries, but has remained unpopular in the wake of prevailing agricultural productivism characterized by specialization, intensification, mechanization and excessive dependence on agrochemicals. This paper sets out institutional pathways that can redevelop IRDF in Asia. These include organic food certification systems, organic farmers' cooperatives, community-wide organic farming, localized technical extension and educational services, and between-farm rice–duck integration. A comprehensive package of these institutional tools would further expedite the expansion of IRDF particularly in low-income Southeast Asia where the rice or duck farming landscape is overwhelmingly dominated by smallholders. © 2014 Taylor & Francis

Menadue B.J.,University of Adelaide | Kamleh W.,University of Adelaide | Leinweber D.B.,University of Adelaide | Mahbub M.S.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The odd-parity ground state of the Λ baryon lies surprisingly low in mass. At 1405MeV, it lies lower than the odd-parity ground-state nucleon, even though it has a valence strange quark. Using the PACS-CS (2+1)-flavor full-QCD ensembles, we employ a variational analysis using source and sink smearing to isolate this elusive state. For the first time we reproduce the correct level ordering with respect to nearby scattering thresholds. With a partially quenched strange quark to produce the appropriate kaon mass, we find a low-lying, odd-parity mass trend consistent with the experimental value. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Blunden P.G.,University of Manitoba | Melnitchouk W.,Jefferson Lab | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We present a new dispersive formulation of the γZ box radiative corrections to weak charges of bound protons and neutrons in atomic parity violation measurements on heavy nuclei such as Cs133 and Ra213. We evaluate for the first time a small but important additional correction arising from Pauli blocking of nucleons in a heavy nucleus. Overall, we find a significant shift in the γZ correction to the weak charge of Cs133, approximately 4 times larger than the current uncertainty on the value of sin2θ W, but with a reduced error compared to earlier estimates. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Melo J.V.,University of Adelaide
Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program | Year: 2011

Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who have achieved a complete molecular response (CMR) defined by no detectable BCR-ABL mRNA on imatinib (IM) treatment often ask whether it is necessary for treatment to continue. We now know that approximately 40% of patients with a stable CMR for at least 2 years are able to stop IM treatment and remain in molecular remission for at least 2 years. This exciting observation has raised hopes that many patients can be cured of CML without the need for transplantation and its attendant risks. One might argue that for many patients maintenance therapy with IM or an alternative kinase inhibitor is so well tolerated that there is no imperative to stop treatment; however, chronic medical therapy may be associated with impaired quality of life and reduced compliance. Inferences about the biology of CML in patients responding to kinase inhibitors can be drawn from clinical experience, molecular monitoring data, and experimental observations. We summarize this information herein, and propose 3 possible pathways to "cure" of CML by kinase inhibitors: stem-cell depletion, stem-cell exhaustion, and immunological control.

Wang T.,University of Adelaide | Bowie J.H.,University of Adelaide
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

This theoretical study investigates possible synthetic routes to cytosine, uracil and thymine in the gas phase from precursor molecules that have been detected in interstellar media. Studies at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6- 311++G(d,p) level of theory suggest that: The reactions between:CCCNH and:CCCO with monosolvated urea may constitute viable interstellar syntheses of cytosine and uracil. No low energy equilibration between cytosine and uracil has been demonstrated. The interaction of:CH2 with the 5 C-H bond of uracil may form thymine in an energetically favourable reaction, but competing reactions where:CH2 reacts with double bonds and other CH and NH bonds of uracil, reduce the effectiveness of this synthesis. The reaction between the hydrated propional enolate anion and isocyanic acid may produce thymine, in a reaction sequence where ΔGreaction(298 K) is -22 kJ mol-1 and the maximum energy requirement (barrier to the first transition state) is only 47 kJ mol-1.

Sgro C.M.,Monash University | Lowe A.J.,University of Adelaide | Hoffmann A.A.,University of Melbourne
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2011

Evolution occurs rapidly and is an ongoing process in our environments. Evolutionary principles need to be built into conservation efforts, particularly given the stressful conditions organisms are increasingly likely to experience because of climate change and ongoing habitat fragmentation. The concept of evolutionary resilience is a way of emphasizing evolutionary processes in conservation and landscape planning. From an evolutionary perspective, landscapes need to allow in situ selection and capture high levels of genetic variation essential for responding to the direct and indirect effects of climate change. We summarize ideas that need to be considered in planning for evolutionary resilience and suggest how they might be incorporated into policy and management to ensure that resilience is maintained in the face of environmental degradation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Betterman K.L.,University of South Australia | Harvey N.L.,University of South Australia | Harvey N.L.,University of Adelaide
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2016

The lymphatic vasculature is an integral component of the immune system. Lymphatic vessels are a key highway via which immune cells are trafficked, serving not simply as a passive route of transport, but to actively shape and coordinate immune responses. Reciprocally, immune cells provide signals that impact the growth, development, and activity of the lymphatic vasculature. In addition to immune cell trafficking, lymphatic vessels are crucial for fluid homeostasis and lipid absorption. The field of lymphatic vascular research is rapidly expanding, fuelled by rapidly advancing technology that has enabled the manipulation and imaging of lymphatic vessels, together with an increasing recognition of the involvement of lymphatic vessels in a myriad of human pathologies. In this review we provide an overview of the genetic pathways and cellular processes important for development and maturation of the lymphatic vasculature, discuss recent work revealing important roles for the lymphatic vasculature in directing immune cell traffic and coordinating immune responses and highlight the involvement of lymphatic vessels in a range of pathological settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Heenan C.B.,University of Adelaide | Seymour R.S.,University of Adelaide
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Forced convection can significantly influence the heat loss from birds and their offspring but effects may be reduced by using sheltered micro-sites such as cavities or constructing nests. The structural and thermal properties of the nests of two species, the spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis) and yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula), were measured in relation to three wind speeds. Nest dimensions differ between the two species, despite the similar body mass of the incubating adults, however nest conductance is comparable. As wind speed increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the nests of both species, and further still during incubation recesses. The significance of forced convection through the nest is a near-doubling in heat production required by the parent, even when incubating at relatively low wind speeds. This provides confirmation that selecting a sheltered nest site is important for avian reproductive success. © 2012 Heenan, Seymour.

Franois A.,University of Adelaide | Rowland K.J.,University of Adelaide | Monro T.M.,University of Adelaide
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

A technique for the excitation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) has been demonstrated using a dye-doped microsphere positioned onto the tip of a suspended core microstructured optical fiber. With this configuration, we have shown that both the excitation and collection efficiency of the WGMs modulated fluorescence spectra of the dye are greatly improved compared to a more conventional excitation scheme; an overall efficiency increase by a factor of 200 is demonstrated. It is also shown that positioning the resonator onto the fiber tip does not impact its sensitivity, providing a compact and robust architecture for applications such as localized in-vivo/vitro biosensing. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Lum M.,University of Adelaide | Morona R.,University of Adelaide
Microbial Cell Factories | Year: 2012

Background: Autotransporters are attractive cell surface display vehicles as they lack complex adaptor proteins necessary for protein export. Recent reports have suggested that the native effector domain (α domain) and translocation domain (β domain) interact with each other to drive translocation of the effector domain to the outer membrane. In this report we compared the expression, surface localisation and folding of TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla) and maltose binding protein (MalE or MBP) fused to either full length Shigella flexneri IcsA (IcsA) autotransporter or to the β domain alone (IcsA β) to determine the contribution of the native IcsA α domain in presenting the fusion proteins on the surface of E. coli K-12 UT5600 (ΔompT).Results: Expression of IcsA-Bla was greater than IcsA β-Bla. High levels of IcsA-MalE were detected but IcsA β-MalE was not expressed. All fusion proteins other than IcsA β-MalE were localised to the outer membrane and were detected on the surface of UT5600 via immunofluorescence microscopy. All bacteria expressing IcsA-MalE were labelled with both α-IcsA and α-MBP. UT5600 expressing IcsA β-MalE was not labelled with α-MBP. A third of UT5600 expressing IcsA-Bla were detectable with α-Bla but only 5% of UT5600 (IcsA β-Bla) were labelled with α-Bla. The correct folding of the Bla moiety when fused to IcsA and IcsA βwas also retained as UT5600 expressing either fusion protein exhibited a decreased zone of inhibition in the presence of ampicillin. UT5600 expressing IcsA-Bla was more resistant compared to UT5600 expressing IcsA β-Bla.Conclusions: The export mechanism of autotransporters is not well understood but accumulating evidence suggest a critical role for the native effector or α domain in facilitating its own export via interactions with the translocation or β domain. This is the first report directly comparing expression of heterologous proteins fused to the full length IcsA autotransporter and fusion to the β domain alone. Protein expression and surface presentation of the fusion proteins were dramatically improved when fused to IcsA rather than IcsA β. Future studies involved in designing autotransporters as cell surface display vehicles would benefit from including the native α domain. This work also provides further evidence for a key interaction between the autotransporter α and β domains. © 2012 Lum and Morona; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Silva N.,King's College London | Atlantis E.,University of Adelaide | Ismail K.,King's College London
Current Psychiatry Reports | Year: 2012

We review the validity of the evidence for an association between depression and the risk of insulin resistance (IR). We describe the potentially plausible biological and behavioral mechanisms that explain how depression increases the risk of IR and consequent overt diabetes. We have identified gaps in the literature to guide future research. Evidence for bidirectional associations between depression and IR is inconsistent. Results showing positive associations between depression and IR are derived from cross-sectional studies, whereas negative findings are typically reported in cohort studies. On the other hand, tentative trial evidence suggests that the effective treatment of depression can improve IR, and that lifestyle programs improve IR and reduce depressive symptoms. These emerging themes could lead to potential new multidisciplinary approaches to preventing diabetes. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Rainfall is the major driver of crop growth in Mediterranean agricultural regions and its spatial and temporal distributions determine yield potential. This study uses a long term spatial archive of rainfall observations for the Eyre Peninsula (South Australia) to estimate the spatial and temporal impacts of climate change on wheat yield. The three step process involved: (1) cluster analysis and statistical comparison to spatially distinguish heterogeneous "hazardscapes" (places that represent the physical susceptibility to hazards (Khan, 2012)); (2) using historical rainfall reliabilities to estimate the probability of receiving rainfall within a range of predefined thresholds and season for each hazardscape; (3) applying 2030 and 2070 climate change projections to determine the potential future impacts on rainfall. Nine hazardscapes were spatially differentiated each having temporally different historical seasonal rainfall reliabilities. Variations over space and time mean that the impacts of climate change will be spatially explicit. Projected rainfall reductions for 2030 showed marginal impact on hazardscapes with low seasonal reliabilities, primarily in winter and spring. The 2070 projections showed that some hazardscapes were unlikely to receive past rates of rainfall thus limiting the ongoing prospects of current and perhaps the potential adoption of alternative rain-fed land uses. Reductions in rainfall for hazardscapes with higher historical rainfall reliabilities will cause negative impacts on crop development. The ability to quantify the potential spatial and temporal impacts of climate change on seasonal trends will inform land managers' climate change mitigation and adaptation pathways. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Among both ecologists and the wider community there is a tacit assumption that predators regulate populations of their prey. But there is evidence from a wide taxonomic and geographic range of studies that predators that are adapted to co-evolved prey generally do not regulate their prey. This is because predators either cannot reproduce as fast as their prey and/or are inefficient hunters unable to catch enough prey to sustain maximum reproduction. The greater capacity of herbivores to breed successfully is, however, normally restricted by a lack of enough food of sufficient quality to support reproduction. But whenever this shortage is alleviated by a large pulse of food, herbivores increase their numbers to outbreak levels. Their predators are unable to contain this increase, but their numbers, too, surge in response to this increase in food. Eventually both their populations will crash once the food supply runs out, first for the herbivores and then for the predators. Then an "over-run" of predators will further depress the already declining prey population, appearing to be controlling its abundance. This latter phenomenon has led many ecologists to conclude that predators are regulating the numbers of their prey. However, it is the same process that is revealed during outbreaks that limits populations of both predator and prey in "normal" times, although this is usually not readily apparent. Nevertheless, as all the diverse cases discussed here attest, the abundance of predators and their co-evolved prey are both limited by their food: the predators are passengers, not drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Vaccaro S.R.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

The energy barrier to the activated state for the S4 voltage sensor of a K channel is dependent on the electrostatic force between positively charged S4 residues and negatively charged groups on neighboring segments, the potential difference across the membrane, and the dielectric boundary force on the charged residues near the interface between the solvent and the low dielectric region of the membrane gating pore. The variation of the potential function with transverse displacement and rotation of the S4 sensor across the membrane may be derived from a solution of Poisson's equation for the electrostatic potential. By approximating the energy of an S4 sensor along a path between stationary states by a piecewise linear function of the transverse displacement, the dynamics of slow activation, in the millisecond range, may be described by the lowest frequency component of an analytical solution of interacting diffusion equations of Fokker-Planck type for resting and barrier regions. The solution of the Smoluchowski equations for an S4 sensor in an energy landscape with several barriers is in accord with an empirical master equation for multistep activation in a voltage-dependent K channel. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Puri R.,Cleveland Clinic | Nicholls S.J.,University of Adelaide | Shao M.,Cleveland Clinic | Kataoka Y.,University of Adelaide | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Statins can regress coronary atheroma and lower clinical events. Although pre-clinical studies suggest procalcific effects of statins in vitro, it remains unclear if statins can modulate coronary atheroma calcification in vivo. OBJECTIVES This study compared changes in coronary atheroma volume and calcium indices (CaI) in patients receiving high-intensity statin therapy (HIST), low-intensity statin therapy (LIST), and no-statin therapy. METHODS In a post-hoc patient-level analysis of 8 prospective randomized trials using serial coronary intravascular ultrasound, serial changes in coronary percent atheroma volume (PAV) and CaI were measured across matched coronary segments in patients with coronary artery disease. RESULTS Following propensity-weighted adjustment for differences in baseline and changes in clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonic characteristics, HIST (n = 1,545) associated with PAV regression from baseline (-0.6 ± 0.1%; p < 0.001), whereas both LIST (n = 1,726) and no-statin therapy (n = 224) associated with PAV progression (0.8 ± 0.1% and 1.0 ± 0.1%; p < 0.001, respectively; p < 0.001 for both HIST vs. LIST and HIST vs. no-statin; p = 0.35 for LIST vs. no-statin). Significant increases in CaI from baseline were noted across all groups (median [interquartile range] HIST, 0.044 [0.0-0.12]; LIST, 0.038 [0.0-0.11]; no-statin, 0.020 [0.0-0.10]; p < 0.001 for all), which could relate to statin intensity (p = 0.03 for LIST vs. no-statin; p = 0.007 for HIST vs. no-statin; p = 0.18 for HIST vs. LIST). No correlations were found between changes in CaI and on-treatment levels of atherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein, in either of the HIST groups or the no-statin group. CONCLUSIONS Independent of their plaque-regressive effects, statins promote coronary atheroma calcification. These findings provide insight as to how statins may stabilize plaque beyond their effects on plaque regression. © 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Lim J.C.,University of Adelaide | Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

Accurate prediction of stress-strain relationship of concrete is of vital importance to accurately predict the overall structural behavior of reinforced concrete members. The various types of concrete that are available in the construction industry today makes it essential that the models developed for the prediction of their behavior are of high versatility. Review of the existing literature revealed that existing stress-strain models for unconfined and confined concretes are limited in their application domains, defined by the parametric range of the experimental results considered in their development. The review also indicated that a unified model that is applicable to normal- and light-weight concretes is not yet available. The aim of the present study was to develop a unified confinement model that is applicable to various types of concrete, ranging from light-weight to high-strength. To this end, two large databases of experimental results of concrete specimens tested under uniaxial and triaxial compression were assembled through an extensive review of the literature. The databases covered a wide range of concrete properties, thereby allowing detailed observation of the important factors influencing the compressive behavior of concrete. The analysis of the unconfined concrete database resulted in the development of expressions for the prediction of elastic modulus, compressive strength and corresponding axial strain of various types of concrete. In addition, through a comprehensive analysis of the combined test database a unified stress-strain model was developed to predict the peak and residual conditions and the complete stress-strain behavior of unconfined and actively confined concretes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Brown H.M.,University of Adelaide | Russell D.L.,University of Adelaide
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2014

Background: The remodelling of the blood vasculature has been the subject of much research while rapid progress in the understanding of the factors controlling lymphangiogenesis in the ovary has only been reported more recently. The ovary undergoes cyclic remodelling throughout each menstrual/estrous cycle. This process requires significant vascular remodelling to supply each new cohort of growing follicles. methods: Literature searches were performed to review studies on the ovarian lymphatic vasculature that described spatial, temporal and functional data in human or animal species. The role of ovarian blood and lymphatic vasculature in the pathogenesis of ovarian disease and dysfunction was also explored. results: Research in a number of species including zebrafish, rodents and primates has described the lymphatic vasculature within the remodelling ovary, while recent research in mouse has confirmed hormonal regulation of lymphangiogenic growth factors, their receptors and also a role for the protease, ADAMTS1 in the development of the lymphatic vasculature.With a critical role in the maintenence of fluid homeostasis, the ovarian lymphatic vasculature is important for normal ovarian function and has been linked to syndromes involving ovarian fluid imbalance, including ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and massive ovarian edema. The lymphatic vasculature has also been heavily implicated in the metastatic cancer process. conclusion: The spatial and temporal regulation of the ovarian lymphatic vasculature hasnowbeen reported in a number of species and the data also implicate the ovarian lymphatic vasculature in ovarian pathologies, including cancer and those linked with use of artificial reproduction technologies. © The Author 2013.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Giles M.H.,University of Adelaide | Coventry B.J.,University of Adelaide
Cancer Management and Research | Year: 2013

Background: Isolated limb infusion (ILI) using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneumatic cuff to restrict limb vascular flow proximally to "isolate" the limb from the body and enable delivery of high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy selectively to the limb. The ILI technique was developed at the Sydney Melanoma Unit (now renamed the Melanoma Institute Australia), and only a few other centers have reported separate results. We report our early results using the ILI technique for management of locally recurrent surgically nonresectable melanoma. Methods and results: Twenty-eight ILI procedures were performed in 20 patients treated with one or more procedures between 1997 and 2007. Patient parameters and clinical responses were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 15.9 months after the first ILI, with an overall response rate after one or more infusions of 70%, of which 35% were complete responders and 35% were partial responders, with a further 20% showing stable disease, giving a "clinically significant" response rate of 90%. After one ILI (n = 20), the overall response rate was 70%, with 20% complete responders and 50% partial responders, and 20% with stable disease. Low limb toxicities were generally observed, and no amputations were required. Conclusion: ILI chemotherapy is a useful technique, which can be readily repeated for control of melanoma in the limb. It is generally well tolerated, and is capable of achieving a cure, delayed progression, or effective palliation in selected cases. The longest survivors in this series were 8 and 10 years from the last ILI. © 2013 Giles and Coventry, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Friday 13th risk modelling technology is introduced and illustrated with quantitative analysis of risk and unexpected failure in two case studies: sterilisation and fermentation. Accumulation and combination of a series of indiscernible changes in otherwise well operated plant parameters can lead unexpectedly in one direction and leverage highly significant and sometimes catastrophic changes in process or product. Current risk assessments are limited to largely ineffective single value assessments plus sensitivity analyses. The benefits of applying Friday 13th risk modelling lessons to food manufacturing processes, regulatory bodies and consumers, and to the likelihood of success of targeted intervention strategies by food manufacturers, are discussed.

Gilchrist R.B.,University of Adelaide
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2011

The last 510 years of research in ovarian and oocyte biology has delivered some major new advances in knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes regulating oocyte maturation and oocyte developmental competence. These new insights include, among others: (1) the knowledge that oocytes regulate granulosa and cumulus cell differentiation, ovulation rate and fertility via the secretion of soluble paracrine growth factors; (2) new perspectives on the participation of cyclic nucleotides, phosphodiesterases and gap junctions in the regulation of oocyte meiotic arrest and resumption; and (3) the new appreciation of the mechanisms of LH-induced oocyte maturation and ovulation mediated by the follicular cascade of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptides, the EGF receptor and their intracellular second messengers. These recent insights into oocytefollicle cell interactions provide opportunities for the development of new approaches to oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM). Laboratory IVM methodologies have changed little over the past 2030 years and IVM remains notably less efficient than hormone-stimulated IVF, limiting its wider application in reproductive medicine and animal breeding. The challenge for oocyte biologists and clinicians practicing IVM is to modernise clinical IVM systems to benefit from these new insights into oocytefollicle cell interactions in vivo. © 2011 IETS.

Kimber T.E.,University of Adelaide
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports | Year: 2010

Recent advances in our understanding of the phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of Tourette syndrome are discussed. Tourette syndrome appears to involve dysfunction of limbic and somatosensory "traffic" through the basal ganglia, within corticostriatalthalamocortical circuits. Dynamic alterations in the balance of these inputs may dictate the manifestations (sensory, motor, affective, and behavioral) of the disorder at any given time. Individualized assessment and treatment are the keys to optimal treatment of this condition. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Megson E.,University of Adelaide
International journal of evidence-based healthcare | Year: 2010

For many years an association between the low bone density of osteoporosis and increased risk of periodontal bone loss has been suspected. In this review the relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal disease is considered. For this narrative review a very broad search strategy of the literature was developed using both PubMed and Scopus databases using the search words "perio" and "osteoporosis". The reference lists from the selected papers were also scanned and this provided an additional source of papers for inclusion. The inclusion/exclusion criteria, were also quite liberal with only those papers dealing with bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws, osteoporosis in edentulous individuals, as well as those not written in English being excluded. The data available suggest that reduced bone mineral density is a shared risk factor for periodontitis rather than a causal factor. However, more prospective studies are required to fully determine what, if any, relationship truly exists between periodontitis and reduced bone mineral density. More prospective studies are required to determine what, if any, relationships exist between periodontal disease and reduced bone mineral density. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Hughes T.,University of Adelaide | White D.,University of Adelaide
Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program | Year: 2013

With the approval in many countries of nilotinib and dasatinib for frontline therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia, clinicians now have to make a difficult choice. Because none of the 3 available tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown a clear survival advantage, they all represent reasonable choices. However, in individual patients, the case may be stronger for a particular TKI. In the younger patient, in whom the prospect of eventually achieving treatment-free remission is likely to be of great importance, dasatinib or nilotinib may be preferred, although their advantage over imatinib in this setting remains to be proven. In patients with a higher risk of transformation (which is currently based on prognostic scoring), the more potent TKIs may be preferred because they appear to be more effective at reducing the risk of transformation to BC. However, imatinib still represents an excellent choice for many chronic myeloid leukemia patients. All of these considerations need to be made in the context of the patient's comorbidities, which may lead to one or more TKIs being ruled out of contention. Whatever first choice of TKI is made, treatment failure or intolerance must be recognized early because a prompt switch to another TKI likely provides the best chance of achieving optimal response.

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2015

The frailty syndrome refers to the concurrence of a number of specific clinical manifestations that include unintentional weight loss, decreased muscle mass (sarcopenia), exhaustion, reduced physical strength and activity, and slow ambulation. It involves multiple systems, is an increasing problem in elderly populations, and is strongly associated with increases in both morbidity and mortality. Despite its recognition clinically, the frailty syndrome is not often identified in forensic situations and is only infrequently mentioned in the associated literature. As there is a direct relationship between the frailty syndrome and significant adverse health outcomes the syndrome has clear medicolegal significance. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

Seymour R.S.,University of Adelaide
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2010

Effect of size of inflorescences, flowers and cones on maximum rate of heat production is analysed allometrically in 23 species of thermogenic plants having diverse structures and ranging between 1.8 and 600 g. Total respiration rate (C, μmol s-1) varies with spadix mass (M, g) according to in 15 species of Araceae. Thermal conductance (C, mW °C-1) for spadices scales according to C = 18.5M0.73. Mass does not significantly affect the difference between floral and air temperature. Aroids with exposed appendices with high surface area have high thermal conductance, consistent with the need to vaporize attractive scents. True flowers have significantly lower heat production and thermal conductance, because closed petals retain heat that benefits resident insects. The florets on aroid spadices, either within a floral chamber or spathe, have intermediate thermal conductance, consistent with mixed roles. Mass-specific rates of respiration are variable between species, but reach 900 nmol s-1 g-1 in aroid male florets, exceeding rates of all other plants and even most animals. Maximum mass-specific respiration appears to be limited by oxygen delivery through individual cells. Reducing mass-specific respiration may be one selective influence on the evolution of large size of thermogenic flowers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zammit M.,University of Adelaide
Alcheringa | Year: 2010

Ichthyosaur fossils have been recorded from four landmasses in the Australasian region-Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Timor-and occur in all three systems of the Mesozoic. Most of the remains are non-diagnostic, but at least three genera have been identified: Mixosaurus, from the Middle Triassic of Timor; Shonisaurus, from the Upper Triassic of New Caledonia; and Platypterygius, from the Lower Cretaceous of Australia and New Zealand. Of these, Platypterygius contains the only material that can be diagnosed to species level. However, current taxonomy of the specimens is controversial, with two synonyms, P. australis and P. longmani, persisting in the literature. An examination of cranial traits in the 'quasi-holotype' of P. australis vs P. longmani demonstrates that they represent the same taxon. Thus, P. longmani should be regarded as the junior synonym. A neotype is also here designated for P. australis to replace the original, which is presumed lost. © 2010 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists.

Berger B.,University of Adelaide | Parent B.,University of Adelaide | Tester M.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Drought is a complex stress which elicits a wide variety of plant responses. As such, genetic studies of drought are particularly difficult. Elucidation of the genetic basis of components contributing to drought tolerance is likely to be more tractable than that of overall drought tolerance. Certain of the traits which contribute to drought tolerance in plants and the high-throughput phenotyping techniques available to measure those traits are described in this paper. On the basis of the dynamic nature of drought, plant development, and the resulting stress response, the focus is on non-destructive imaging techniques which allow a temporal resolution and monitoring of the same plants throughout the experiment. Information on the physiological changes in response to drought over time is vital in order to identify and characterize different drought-tolerance mechanisms. High-throughput imaging provides a valuable new tool which allows the dissection of plant responses to drought into a series of component traits. © 2010 The Author.

Thiel S.,University of Adelaide | Heinson G.,University of Adelaide
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

From long-period magnetotelluric data across the Gawler Craton, we obtain a three-dimensional resistivity image of the lithosphere and provide constraints on tectonothermal events dating back to the Proterozoic. Contrary to common observations of Archean cratons displaying high electrical resistivity in the mantle lithosphere, the magnetotelluric data show low resistivity of around 10Ω m at 80km depth underneath the 1595Ma Gawler Range Volcanics, a silicic large igneous province. The resistivity distribution appears to be a signature of plume-modified orogenesis with low-degree partial melting at the base of the lithosphere in a back-arc setting. The enhanced conductivity is explained through higher hydrogen and iron content in the crystal lattice and also along the grain boundaries of the mantle constituting minerals. Older, arc-related magmatism to the southwest across 1620-1610Ma St. Peter Suite does not display enhanced conductivity and suggests a depleted mantle lithosphere. The data show that Yellowstone-type mantle plume analogues are preserved through time and still display an elevated electrical signature in the lithosphere today. Key Points 3D resistivity model of the South Australian Gawler Craton is produced Mantle conductor at 80 km depth in tectonically quiet Archean craton Conductor is result of Proterozoic plume interaction and led to IOCG deposits ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Balasuriya S.,University of Adelaide | Balasuriya S.,Connecticut College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

A new analytical tool for determining the optimum frequency for a micromixing strategy to mix two fluids across their interface is presented. The frequency dependence of the flux is characterized in terms of a Fourier transform related to the apparatus geometry. Illustrative microfluidic mixing examples based on electromagnetic forcing and fluid pumping strategies are presented. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Cutts K.A.,University of Adelaide | Cutts K.A.,Stellenbosch University | Kelsey D.E.,University of Adelaide | Hand M.,University of Adelaide
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

Oxidised metasediments in the western Gawler Craton southern Australia record late Paleoproterozoic high-temperature (HT) to ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism. The HT-UHT rocks are magnetite-rich and come from drill core in an unexposed region of the Gawler Craton. Coarse-grained cordierite-bearing assemblages that potentially contained osumilite are overprinted by orthopyroxene-sillimanite-bearing assemblages, which in turn are overprinted by garnet. This microstructural record indicates a metamorphic evolution involving early high- T, low- P conditions that were overprinted by lower thermal gradient assemblages. In situ LA-ICP-MS monazite U-Pb age dating yields a range of ages between 1850 and 1530. Ma with large populations at ca 1690-1650. Ma and ca 1600. Ma. Elsewhere in the Gawler Craton HT and UHT metamorphism occurred in the earliest Mesoproterozoic (ca 1580. Ma). The timing of the Australian UHT events coincides with several other documented examples and occurred during the postulated existence of the Columbia supercontinent. If arguments that link the formation of UHT belts to supercontinental amalgamation are valid, then the existence of ca 1700 to 1600. Ma UHT metamorphism may place additional constraints on the timing of Columbian assembly. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Pasbakhsh P.,Sunway University | Churchman G.J.,University of Adelaide | Keeling J.L.,Geological Survey of Western Australia
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2013

There is increasing research interest on new industrial applications for the clay mineral halloysite where greater use is made of its natural tubular morphology, nano-scale diameter and contrasting chemistry on external and internal surfaces. Halloysite nanotubes, commonly referred to as HNTs, have potential applications as microfibre fillers, carriers for the supply and controlled or sustained release of active agents for drug delivery and anticorrosion coatings, in nanoreactors or nanotemplates, and for the uptake of contaminants or pollutants. In this study, various properties were measured on 6 halloysites from different geographical and geological environments from Australia, New Zealand and the USA. From the results, inferences were drawn on their comparative suitability for new uses. The characterisation included identification of impurities by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology, surface area and pore volume by electron microscopy and nitrogen absorption, the determination of exchangeable cations, and measurement of zeta potential over a wide range of pH. Halloysite content in individual samples ranged from 84 to 98%. Impurities included minor quartz, cristobalite, kaolinite, gibbsite, alunite, iron oxides and anatase. Variation in halloysite morphology and the levels of impurities had the most effect on surface area and internal pore volume. Samples with low levels of impurities and regular, thin-walled tubes reported the highest pore volumes associated with the cylindrical cavity or lumen in halloysite tubes. Surface areas varied from 22 to 81m2.g-1 and the proportion of pore space associated with the HNT lumen ranged from 11 to 39%. When the properties of the 6 different halloysites were assessed relative to the requirements for halloysite as nanotubes for either additives or carriers, one showed exceptional characteristics for both types of application but it occurs only rarely. Another halloysite that is moderately suitable for use as an additive but not a carrier occurs in a large deposit. The other samples each showed some limitations of suitability for use as an additive and/or as a carrier. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Conn S.,University of Adelaide | Gilliham M.,University of Adelaide
Annals of Botany | Year: 2010

Background Plants contain relatively few cell types, each contributing a specialized role in shaping plant function. With respect to plant nutrition, different cell types accumulate certain elements in varying amounts within their storage vacuole. The role and mechanisms underlying cell-specific distribution of elements in plants is poorly understood.ScopeThe phenomenon of cell-specific elemental accumulation has been briefly reviewed previously, but recent technological advances with the potential to probe mechanisms underlying elemental compartmentation have warranted an updated evaluation. We have taken this opportunity to catalogue many of the studies, and techniques used for, recording cell-specific compartmentation of particular elements. More importantly, we use three case-study elements (Ca, Cd and Na) to highlight the basis of such phenomena in terms of their physiological implications and underpinning mechanisms; we also link such distributions to the expression of known ion or solute transporters. Conclusions Element accumulation patterns are clearly defined by expression of key ion or solute transporters. Although the location of element accumulation is fairly robust, alterations in expression of certain solute transporters, through genetic modifications or by growth under stress, result in perturbations to these patterns. However, redundancy or induced pleiotropic expression effects may complicate attempts to characterize the pathways that lead to cell-specific elemental distribution. Accumulation of one element often has consequences on the accumulation of others, which seems to be driven largely to maintain vacuolar and cytoplasmic osmolarity and charge balance, and also serves as a detoxification mechanism. Altered cell-specific transcriptomics can be shown, in part, to explain some of this compensation. © The Author 2009.

Sumby K.M.,University of Adelaide | Grbin P.R.,University of Adelaide | Jiranek V.,University of Adelaide
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

This review focuses on the considerable amount of research directed at defining the accumulation of esters during fermentation and their contribution to aromas in foods and beverages. From this research it is clear that esters are extremely important for the aroma profile of fermented beverages and various dairy products. A large amount of this research is focused on wine and has yielded the genes involved in ester synthesis and hydrolysis in organisms such as Saccharomyces sp. It is also clear from recent research in both the fermented beverage and dairy context that lactic acid bacteria possess an extensive collection of ester synthesising and hydrolysing activities. This review describes the major esters reported in wine and the enzymes responsible for their hydrolysis and synthesis. Ester impact on wine aroma and formation during primary and malolactic fermentation is also evaluated. Finally the potential applications of current knowledge are outlined. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Read J.L.,University of Adelaide | Cunningham R.,Australian National University
Austral Ecology | Year: 2010

The effect of different levels of cattle grazing on an arid Australian small terrestrial mammal and lizard assemblage was assessed in a long-tem series of cross-fence comparisons. Cross-fenced sites were closely matched for edaphic and vegetation characteristics and experienced near identical weather patterns, to ensure that cattle grazing pressure was the principal determinant of any differences in fauna assemblages. In addition, the effects of removal of cattle, cats, foxes and rabbits from three of these long-term monitoring sites were assessed to determine the relative impacts of cattle grazing and feral animals. Small mammal captures, with the exception of Mus musculus, revealed a significant negative response to cattle grazing pressure but this response was of a considerably lower magnitude than the dramatic increase in rodent captures and species richness within the feral animal-proof Arid Recovery Reserve. Higher kangaroo numbers in ungrazed controls, compared with treatments grazed by cattle, possibly negated the benefits to small mammals of removing cattle grazing. No reptile species responded significantly to the grazing treatments although reptile richness and captures of geckos and skinks were the lowest and agamid captures were the highest at heavily grazed sites. Nephrurus levis was the only reptile species to increase significantly, while captures of some smaller geckoes declined, within the feral-proof treatment. Feral predation exerted a more significant effect on most small mammal species than the levels of cattle grazing assessed in this study, yet reptile responses to grazing or feral animals were less apparent and were likely primarily driven by changes in vegetation cover or secondary trophic impacts. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Ecological Society of Australia.

Cooper A.,University of Adelaide | Turney C.,University of New South Wales | Hughen K.A.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Brook B.W.,University of Adelaide | And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

The mechanisms of Late Pleistocene megafauna extinctions remain fiercely contested, with human impact or climate change cited as principal drivers. We compared ancient DNA and radiocarbon data from 31 detailed time series of regional megafaunal extinctions and replacements over the past 56,000 years with standard and new combined records of Northern Hemisphere climate in the Late Pleistocene. Unexpectedly, rapid climate changes associated with interstadial warming events are strongly associated with the regional replacement or extinction of major genetic clades or species of megafauna. The presence of many cryptic biotic transitions before the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary revealed by ancient DNA confirms the importance of climate change in megafaunal population extinctions and suggests that metapopulation structures necessary to survive such repeated and rapid climatic shifts were susceptible to human impacts. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

Bunting M.D.,University of Adelaide | Comerford I.,University of Adelaide | McColl S.R.,University of Adelaide
Immunology and Cell Biology | Year: 2011

T lymphocytes are generated throughout life, arising from bone marrow-derived progenitors that complete an essential developmental process in the thymus. Thymic T cell education leads to the generation of a self-restricted and largely self-tolerant peripheral T-cell pool and is facilitated by interactions with thymic stromal cells residing in distinct supportive niches. The signals governing thymocyte precursor migration into the thymus, directing thymocyte navigation through thymic microenvironments and mature T-cell egress into circulation were, until recently, largely unknown, but presumed to be mediated to a large extent by chemokine signalling. Recent studies have now uncovered various specific functions for members of the chemokine superfamily in the thymus. These studies have not only revealed distinct but also in some cases overlapping roles for several chemokine family members in various thymocyte migration events and have also shown that homing and positioning of other cells in the thymus, such as dendritic cells and natural killer T cells is also chemokine-dependent. Here, we discuss current understanding of the role of chemokines in the thymus and highlight key future avenues for investigation in this field. © 2011 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. All rights reserved.

White T.C.R.,University of Adelaide
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2010

It has been proposed that the colour of many plant galls evolved as an aposematic signal to protect the contained gall-maker from attack by chewing herbivores. But the evidence would suggest the more likely hypothesis is that the colour is caused by the galler inducing the gall to senesce early, thus releasing nutrients from the dying tissues of the gall to the benefit of the gall-maker. External agents, like chewing herbivores or natural enemies of the gall-maker, may subsequently learn to use these colours as signals. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Fordham D.A.,University of Adelaide | Brook B.W.,University of Adelaide
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

Tropical islands are species foundries, formed either as a by-product of volcanism, when previously submerged seabed is thrust upwards by tectonics, or when a peninsula is isolated by rising sea level. After colonisation, the geographical isolation and niche vacancies provide the competitive impetus for an evolutionary radiation of distinct species-island endemics. Yet the very attributes which promote speciation in evolutionary time also leave island endemics highly vulnerable to recent and rapid impacts by modern people. Indeed, the majority of documented human-driven extinctions have been exacted upon island endemics. The causes include over-exploitation, invasive species brought by people and destruction of island's naturally constrained habitats. Imminent threats include inundation by rising sea levels and other adaptive pressures related to anthropogenic global warming. We review recent work which underscores the susceptibility of island endemics to the drivers of global change, and suggest a methodological framework under which, we argue, the science and mitigation of island extinctions can be most productively advanced. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Pathiraja S.,University of New South Wales | Westra S.,University of Adelaide | Sharma A.,University of New South Wales
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

Continuous simulation for design flood estimation is increasingly becoming a viable alternative to traditional event-based methods. The advantage of continuous simulation approaches is that the catchment moisture state prior to the flood-producing rainfall event is implicitly incorporated within the modeling framework, provided the model has been calibrated and validated to produce reasonable simulations. This contrasts with event-based models in which both information about the expected sequence of rainfall and evaporation preceding the flood-producing rainfall event, as well as catchment storage and infiltration properties, are commonly pooled together into a single set of "loss" parameters which require adjustment through the process of calibration. To identify the importance of accounting for antecedent moisture in flood modeling, this paper uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model calibrated to 45 catchments in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Flood peaks derived using the historical daily rainfall record are compared with those derived using resampled daily rainfall, for which the sequencing of wet and dry days preceding the heavy rainfall event is removed. The analysis shows that there is a consistent underestimation of the design flood events when antecedent moisture is not properly simulated, which can be as much as 30% when only 1 or 2 days of antecedent rainfall are considered, compared to 5% when this is extended to 60 days of prior rainfall. These results show that, in general, it is necessary to consider both short-term memory in rainfall associated with synoptic scale dependence, as well as longer-term memory at seasonal or longer time scale variability in order to obtain accurate design flood estimates. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Gabrielian L.,University of Adelaide
Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement | Year: 2013

Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) following acute brain injury requires the accumulation of additional water in the intracranial vault. One source of such water is the vasculature, although the mechanisms associated with control of blood-brain barrier permeability are unclear. We have recently shown that acute brain injury, such as neurotrauma and stroke, results in perivascular accumulation of the neuropeptide, substance P. This accumulation is associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability and formation of vasogenic edema. Administration of a substance P antagonist targeting the tachykinin NK1 receptor profoundly reduced the increased blood-brain barrier permeability and edema formation, and in small animal models of acute brain injury, improved functional outcome. In a large, ovine model of experimental traumatic brain injury, trauma resulted in a significant increase in ICP. Administration of an NK1 antagonist caused a profound reduction in post--traumatic ICP, with levels returning to normal within 4 h of drug administration. Substance P NK1 antagonists offer a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of acute brain injury.

Bowen J.M.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care | Year: 2013

Purpose of review Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are increasingly common treatments for cancer; however, their effective use is hampered by unwanted side effects. One of the most common of these is TKI-induced diarrhea, although so far very little is known about its mechanisms and the best management approaches. As such, this review will briefly cover the extent of the problem, models for researching the problem and touch on future directions for management approaches to the problem. Recent findings As there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of TKI-induced diarrhea in humans, this review will discuss the rodent models that have been used in the investigation of TKI-induced gut injury. This will be put into context with the pharmacological targets of TKIs and how this new information might help to better tailor treatment and management of patients on these drugs. Summary The recognition of TKI-induced diarrhea as a significant treatment side effect has prompted efforts into uncovering the pathogenesis of this complication. This will enable future patients to be better managed throughout their treatment with these highly effective cancer drugs. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Doeltgen S.H.,University of Adelaide | Ridding M.C.,University of Adelaide
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2011

Objective: Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) administered at a low stimulus intensity can reduce the excitability of short interval intracortical inhibitory (SICI) networks without affecting the facilitatory intracortical motor networks involved in motor evoked potential (MEP) generation. We sought to determine whether low-intensity, facilitatory, short duration cTBS (300 stimuli over 20s; cTBS 300) could modulate SICI without influencing cortical circuits involved in MEP generation. Methods: MEPs and SICI were assessed at baseline and 5min and 20min following cTBS 300 applied at intensities of 60%, 65% or 70% of resting motor threshold (RMT). In addition, the effect of cTBS 300 applied at 60% RMT on low level SICI (20% test MEP suppression) was examined. Results: Low-intensity cTBS 300 facilitated MEP amplitude when applied at 70% RMT, and inhibited MEP amplitude when applied at 65% RMT. In contrast, none of the cTBS 300 protocols had significant effects on moderate or low levels of SICI. Conclusions: The effects of cTBS 300 on MEP generating motor networks are highly sensitive to stimulation intensity. Low-intensity cTBS 300 does not have isolated, facilitatory effects on SICI networks. Significance: These results further highlight the difficulties of selectively facilitating the inhibitory circuits within M1 that are responsible for SICI with currently available rTMS paradigms. © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Higgins D.,University of Adelaide | Austin J.J.,University of Adelaide
Science and Justice | Year: 2013

Teeth and bones are frequently the only sources of DNA available for identification of degraded or fragmented human remains. The unique composition of teeth and their location in the jawbone provide additional protection to DNA compared to bones making them a preferred source of DNA in many cases. Despite this, post-mortem changes in the structure and composition of teeth, and the location and diagenesis of DNA within them are poorly understood. This review summarises current knowledge of tooth morphology with respect to DNA content and preservation, and discusses the way in which post-mortem changes will affect the recovery of DNA from teeth under a range of commonly used extraction protocols. We highlight the benefits and pitfalls of using specific tooth tissues for DNA extraction and make recommendations for tooth selection and sampling that will maximise DNA typing success. A comprehensive understanding of tooth structure and an appreciation of the relationship between DNA and mineralized tissues in post-mortem teeth are critical for optimal sample selection. More informed sampling methods that target specific tooth tissues will increase the likelihood of successful genetic analysis and allow for efficient and timely missing persons case work and disaster victim identification response. © 2013 Forensic Science Society.

Li X.,University of Adelaide | Hu W.,University of Adelaide | Shen C.,University of Adelaide | Zhang Z.,Binghamton University State University of New York | And 2 more authors.
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology | Year: 2013

Visual object tracking is a significant computer vision task which can be applied to many domains, such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction, and video compression. Despite extensive research on this topic, it still suffers from difficulties in handling complex object appearance changes caused by factors such as illumination variation, partial occlusion, shape deformation, and camera motion. Therefore, effective modeling of the 2D appearance of tracked objects is a key issue for the success of a visual tracker. In the literature, researchers have proposed a variety of 2D appearance models. To help readers swiftly learn the recent advances in 2D appearance models for visual object tracking, we contribute this survey, which provides a detailed review of the existing 2D appearance models. In particular, this survey takes a module-based architecture that enables readers to easily grasp the key points of visual object tracking. In this survey, we first decompose the problem of appearance modeling into two different processing stages: visual representation and statistical modeling. Then, different 2D appearance models are categorized and discussed with respect to their composition modules. Finally, we address several issues of interest as well as the remaining challenges for future research on this topic. The contributions of this survey are fourfold. First, we review the literature of visual representations according to their feature-construction mechanisms (i.e., local and global). Second, the existing statistical modeling schemes for tracking-by-detection are reviewed according to their model-constructionmechanisms: generative, discriminative, and hybrid generative-discriminative. Third, each type of visual representations or statisticalmodeling techniques is analyzed and discussed from a theoretical or practical viewpoint. Fourth, the existing benchmark resources (e.g., source codes and video datasets) are examined in this survey. © 2013 ACM.

Moran J.L.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Solomon P.J.,University of Adelaide
BMC Medical Research Methodology | Year: 2012

Background: For the analysis of length-of-stay (LOS) data, which is characteristically right-skewed, a number of statistical estimators have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression with log dependent variable. Methods. Using a cohort of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 2008-2009, 12 different methods were used for estimation of intensive care (ICU) length of stay. These encompassed risk-adjusted regression analysis of firstly: log LOS using OLS, linear mixed model [LMM], treatment effects, skew-normal and skew-t models; and secondly: unmodified (raw) LOS via OLS, generalised linear models [GLMs] with log-link and 4 different distributions [Poisson, gamma, negative binomial and inverse-Gaussian], extended estimating equations [EEE] and a finite mixture model including a gamma distribution. A fixed covariate list and ICU-site clustering with robust variance were utilised for model fitting with split-sample determination (80%) and validation (20%) data sets, and model simulation was undertaken to establish over-fitting (Copas test). Indices of model specification using Bayesian information criterion [BIC: lower values preferred] and residual analysis as well as predictive performance (R2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean absolute error [MAE]) were established for each estimator. Results: The data-set consisted of 111663 patients from 131 ICUs; with mean(SD) age 60.6(18.8) years, 43.0% were female, 40.7% were mechanically ventilated and ICU mortality was 7.8%. ICU length-of-stay was 3.4(5.1) (median 1.8, range (0.17-60)) days and demonstrated marked kurtosis and right skew (29.4 and 4.4 respectively). BIC showed considerable spread, from a maximum of 509801 (OLS-raw scale) to a minimum of 210286 (LMM). R2 ranged from 0.22 (LMM) to 0.17 and the CCC from 0.334 (LMM) to 0.149, with MAE 2.2-2.4. Superior residual behaviour was established for the log-scale estimators. There was a general tendency for over-prediction (negative residuals) and for over-fitting, the exception being the GLM negative binomial estimator. The mean-variance function was best approximated by a quadratic function, consistent with log-scale estimation; the link function was estimated (EEE) as 0.152(0.019, 0.285), consistent with a fractional-root function. Conclusions: For ICU length of stay, log-scale estimation, in particular the LMM, appeared to be the most consistently performing estimator(s). Neither the GLM variants nor the skew-regression estimators dominated. © 2012 Moran and Solomon; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hao N.,University of Adelaide | Bhakti V.L.D.,University of Adelaide | Peet D.J.,University of Adelaide | Whitelaw M.L.,University of Adelaide
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

Basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) transcription factors function broadly in development, homeostasis and stress response. Active bHLH/PAS heterodimers consist of a ubiquitous signal-regulated subunit (e.g., hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α/2α/3α; the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, AhR) or tissue-restricted subunit (e.g., NPAS1/3/4, Single Minded 1/2), paired with a general partner protein, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt or Arnt2). We have investigated regulation of the neuron-enriched Arnt paralogue, Arnt2. We find high Arnt/Arnt2 ratios in P19 embryonic carcinoma cells and ES cells are dramatically reversed to high Arnt2/Arnt on neuronal differentiation. mRNA half-lives of Arnt and Arnt2 remain similar in both parent and neuronal differentiated cells. The GC-rich Arnt2 promoter, while heavily methylated in Arnt only expressing hepatoma cells, is methylation free in P19 and ES cells, where it is bivalent with respect to active H3K4me3 and repressive H3K27me3 histone marks. Typical of a 'transcription poised' developmental gene, H3K27me3 repressive marks are removed from Arnt2 during neuronal differentiation. Our data are consistent with a switch to predominant Arnt2 expression in neurons to allow specific functions of neuronal bHLH/PAS factors and/or to avoid neuronal bHLH/PAS factors from interfering with AhR/Arnt signalling. © 2013 The Author(s).

Davey K.R.,University of Adelaide
Education for Chemical Engineers | Year: 2011

Results from a case study of student peer assessment, as an alternate learning activity to traditional lecturer- and tutor-assessments, in a two-year, Master of Chemical Engineering Coursework-program show that, overall, whilst students gave higher marks than the lecturer in summative grading (Student:Lecturer S/L ∼1.2), there was no correlation between student Assessors who gave high marks and Assessees who received high marks, or, between Assessors who gave low marks and Assessees who received low marks. Each of 14 students (4 female and 10 male) enrolled in a one-semester, introductory course in Pinch Analysis were required to anonymously mark the solutions of a randomly selected class colleague to each of nine assigned problems using, as a guide, idealized solutions provided by the lecturer. The assigned problems involved four-descriptive and five-numeric types. None of the students had taken part in peer assessment beforehand. Student Assessors generally gave higher marks for descriptive questions than the lecturer (S/L ∼1.4). However, both students and lecturer marked the numeric questions equally on average. Assessee expectations that class-peers would mark harder than the lecturer were therefore not borne out. An independent and unique Student Experience of Learning & Teaching (SELT) survey revealed broad student agreement that peer assessment was an effective way to learn (13/13) and that it stimulated interest in the course material (13/13). Students (12/13) stated that idealized solutions of the lecturer were essential for successful peer assessment outcomes. Research results show therefore that these students highly valued this complementary and self-reflective learning experience. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

The blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is disrupted following spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in vasogenic edema and increased intrathecal pressure (ITP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) has been implicated in the development of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, edema, and increased intracranial pressure following brain injury, although it has not been investigated in SCI. The balloon compression model of experimental SCI has many advantages in that it replicates the "closed" environment observed clinically. Accordingly, this study characterized whether this model produces an increase in BSCB permeability and edema, and whether a SP, NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (NAT) reduces such BSCB disruption and edema formation. At 30 min post-injury, animals were administered 2.5 mg/kg NAT or saline. Subgroups of animals were assessed for BSCB permeability (Evan's Blue) and spinal cord edema (wet weight/dry weight). BSCB permeability and edema were significantly increased in injured groups compared with sham (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between vehicle and NAT treatment. We conclude that the balloon compression model of SCI produces significant BSCB disruption although NAT treatment did not attenuate BSCB permeability or edema. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the role of SP following SCI.

Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with the problem of asynchronous l2-L filtering for discrete-time stochastic Markov jump systems with sensor nonlinearity. The sensor nonlinearity is assumed to occur randomly according to a stochastic variable satisfying the Bernoulli distribution. A sufficient condition is first given such that the resultant filtering error system, which is a kind of nonhomogeneous Markov jump system, is stochastically stable with a guaranteed l2-L performance index. Then the existence criterion of the desired asynchronous filter with piecewise homogeneous Markov chain is proposed in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness and potential of the developed theoretical results. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Carneiro G.,University of Adelaide
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2013

We introduce a new methodology for the problem of artistic image analysis, which among other tasks, involves the automatic identification of visual classes present in an art work. In this paper, we advocate the idea that artistic image analysis must explore a graph that captures the network of artistic influences by computing the similarities in terms of appearance and manual annotation. One of the novelties of our methodology is the proposed formulation that is a principled way of combining these two similarities in a single graph. Using this graph, we show that an efficient random walk algorithm based on an inverted label propagation formulation produces more accurate annotation and retrieval results compared with the following baseline algorithms: bag of visual words, label propagation, matrix completion, and structural learning. We also show that the proposed approach leads to a more efficient inference and training procedures. This experiment is run on a database containing 988 artistic images (with 49 visual classification problems divided into a multiclass problem with 27 classes and 48 binary problems), where we show the inference and training running times, and quantitative comparisons with respect to several retrieval and annotation performance measures. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

Connell S.D.,University of Adelaide | Russell B.D.,University of Adelaide
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Predictions about the ecological consequences of oceanic uptake of CO 2 have been preoccupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks the direct effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa, particularly those that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts. We used two experiments to investigate whether increased CO2 could exacerbate kelp loss by facilitating non-calcareous algae that, we hypothesized, (i) inhibit the recovery of kelp forests on an urbanized coast, and (ii) form more extensive covers and greater biomass under moderate future CO2 and associated temperature increases. Our experimental removal of turfs from a phase-shifted system (i.e. kelp- to turf-dominated) revealed that the number of kelp recruits increased, thereby indicating that turfs can inhibit kelp recruitment. Future CO2 and temperature interacted synergistically to have a positive effect on the abundance of algal turfs, whereby they had twice the biomass and occupied over four times more available space than under current conditions. We suggest that the current preoccupation with the negative effects of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers overlooks potentially profound effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Li H.,Bohai University | Gao H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Gao H.,King Abdulaziz University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with the stabilization problem for a class of Markovian stochastic jump systems against sensor fault, actuator fault and input disturbances simultaneously. In the proposed approach, the original plant is first augmented into a new descriptor system, where the state vector, disturbance vector and fault vector are assembled into the state vector of the new system. Then, a novel augmented sliding mode observer is presented for the augmented system and is utilized to eliminate the effects of sensor faults and disturbances. An observer-based mode-dependent control scheme is developed to stabilize the resulting overall closed-loop jump system. A practical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wakefield S.L.,University of Adelaide | Lane M.,University of Adelaide | Mitchell M.,University of Adelaide
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2011

The preimplantation embryo is sensitive to its environment and, despite having some plasticity to adapt, environmental perturbations can impair embryo development, metabolic homeostasis, fetal and placental development, and offspring health. This study used an in vitro model of embryo culture with increasing mitochondrial inhibition to directly establish the effect of impaired mitochondrial function on embryonic, fetal, and placental development. Culture in the absence of the carbohydrate pyruvate significantly increased blastocyst glucose oxidation via glycolysis to maintain normal levels of ATP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. This culture resulted in a significant reduction in blastocyst development, trophectoderm cell number, and respiration rate but, importantly, did not impair implantation rates or fetal and placental development. In contrast, increasing concentrations of the mitochondrial inhibitor amino-oxyacetate (AOA) impaired glycolysis, TCA cycle activity, respiration rate, and ATP production; incrementally reduced blastocyst development; and decreased blastocyst inner cell mass and trophectoderm cell numbers. Importantly, AOA did not affect implantation rates; however, 5 μM AOA significantly reduced placental growth but not fetal growth, increasing the fetal:placental weight ratio. Furthermore, 50 μM AOA significantly reduced both placental and fetal growth but not the fetal:placental weight ratio. Hence, this study demonstrates that a threshold of mitochondrial function is required for normal development, and despite developmental plasticity of the embryo, impaired mitochondrial function in the embryo affects subsequent fetal and placental growth. These results highlight the importance of mitochondrial function in regulating pre- and postimplantation development; however, the effect on offspring health remains unknown. © 2011 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

Smitz J.E.J.,Free University of Brussels | Thompson J.G.,University of Adelaide | Gilchrist R.B.,University of Adelaide
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2011

An innovative approach to in vitro maturation (IVM) for application in infertility treatment and fertility preservation is required to bring this patient-friendly treatment into routine practice. Current approaches to IVM never report more than a 10 to 15% implantation rate per embryo transferred, which is two to three times lower and early pregnancy losses are higher than in conventional in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The cornerstone of such an innovative culture technique is the use of pharmacological compounds that allow synchronization of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation processes within the oocyte. The rationale of a prolonged oocyte maturation period is to promote a longer interaction between the immature oocyte with adequately conditioned cumulus cells. Successful introduction of a new approach to IVM will reduce the requirement of fertility hormones and will be less invasive to the patient's daily life by reducing the need for monitoring of serum hormone levels and intravaginal ultrasound. The new IVM conditions will reduce a whole range of minor and major complications in assisted reproductive technology and finally will also reduce the total cost for treatment. The minimal invasiveness of this procedure will benefit cancer patients who want to store gonadal tissue before undergoing therapy that devastates subsequent germ-cell competence. Copyright © 2011 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Gilchrist R.B.,University of Adelaide | Ritter L.J.,University of Adelaide
Reproduction | Year: 2011

It is widely held that mammalian cumulus cell (CC) expansion requires oocyte-paracrine signalling, however in three of the four species studied to date, CC expansion occurs in the absence of the oocyte. This study was conducted to examine the paracrine and SMAD/MAPK intracellular signalling mechanism mediating porcine CC expansion, and to compare these to the mouse. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and oocyte-free complexes (OOXs) from pigs and eCG-primed mice were treated in vitro with FSH and a broad range of TGFB superfamily antagonists. Expansion of porcine COCs and OOXs was unaffected by neutralisation of growth differentiation factor 9, TGFB, activin A, activin B and a broad spectrum bone morphogenetic protein antagonist. A SMAD-responsive luciferase reporter assay confirmed that porcine oocytes secreted factors that activate SMAD3 and SMAD1/5/8 in granulosa cells, but murine oocytes activated SMAD3 only. Treatment of COCs with a SMAD2/3 phosphorylation inhibitor (SB431542) partially inhibited porcine CC expansion and expression of TNFAIP6, but ablated murine CC expansion. SB431542 was equally effective at attenuating porcine CC expansion in the presence or absence of the oocyte. By contrast, a SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation inhibitor (dorsomorphin) had no effect on porcine or murine CC function. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signalling pathways prevented porcine COC expansion and expression of most matrix genes examined. The activation of CC SMAD signalling by oocytes, and the requirement of SMAD2/3 signalling for expansion, is notably contrasted in pigs and mice. Nonetheless, porcine CC SMAD2/3 signalling is likely to be needed for optimal matrix formation, possibly by facilitating essential MAPK signals. © 2011 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Larg A.,University of Adelaide | Moss J.R.,University of Adelaide
PharmacoEconomics | Year: 2011

Cost-of-illness (COI) studies aim to assess the economic burden of health problems on the population overall, and they are conducted for an ever widening range of health conditions and geographical settings. While they attract much interest from public health advocates and healthcare policy makers, inconsistencies in the way in which they are conducted and a lack of transparency in reporting have made interpretation difficult, and have ostensibly limited their usefulness. Yet there is surprisingly little in the literature to assist the non-expert in critically evaluating these studies. This article aims to provide non-expert readers with a straightforward guide to understanding and evaluating traditional COI studies. The intention is to equip a general audience with an understanding of the most important issues that influence the validity of a COI study, and the ability to recognize the most common limitations in such work. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Ong Z.Y.,University of South Australia | Muhlhausler B.S.,University of South Australia | Muhlhausler B.S.,University of Adelaide
FASEB Journal | Year: 2011

Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal "junk-food" diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of μ-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, highsugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life. © FASEB.

Ma T.Y.,University of Adelaide | Tang Y.,Flinders University | Dai S.,University of Adelaide | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Small | Year: 2014

Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets, due to their interesting two-dimensional graphene-like structure and unique physicochemical properties, have attracted great research attention recently. Here, a new approachis developed to prepare, for the first time, proton-functionalized ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets by sonication-exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4 under an acid condition. This method not only reduces the exfoliation time from more than 10 h to 2 h, but also endows the nanosheets with positive charges. Besides retaining the properties of g-C3N4, the obtained nanosheets with the thickness of 2-4 nm (i.e., 6-12 atomic monolayers) also exhibit large specific surface area of 305 m2 g-1, enhanced fluorescence intensity, and excellent water dispersion stability due to their surface protonation and ultrathin morphology. The well-dispersed protonated g-C 3N4 nanosheets are able to interact with negatively charged heparin, which results in the quenching of g-C3N4 fluorescence. A highly sensitive and highly selective heparin sensing platform based on protonated g-C3N4 nanosheets is established. This metal-free and fluorophore label-free system can reach the lowest heparin detection limit of 18 ng mL-1. Proton-functionalized g-C 3N4 ultrathin nanosheets with positively charged surface are synthesized by liquid exfoliating acidified bulk g-C3N 4. The obtained g-C3N4 nanosheets with 6-12 atomic monolayers and large surface area up to 305 m2 g-1 exhibit outstanding sensitivity and selectivity in the fluorescence-quenching sensing of heparin under both ideal and physiological conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Tune P.,University of Adelaide
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

We revisit the problem of computing submatrices of the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), which lower bounds the variance of any unbiased estimator of a vector parameter θ. We explore iterative methods that avoid direct inversion of the Fisher information matrix, which can be computationally expensive when the dimension of θ is large. The computation of the bound is related to the quadratic matrix program, where there are highly efficient methods for solving it. We present several methods, and show that algorithms in prior work are special instances of existing optimization algorithms. Some of these methods converge to the bound monotonically, but in particular, algorithms converging nonmonotonically are much faster. We then extend the work to encompass the computation of the CRB when the Fisher information matrix is singular and when the parameter θ is subject to constraints. As an application, we consider the design of a data streaming algorithm for network measurement. © 2012 IEEE.

Eyre H.A.,University of Adelaide | Eyre H.A.,James Cook University | Baune B.T.,University of Adelaide
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity | Year: 2014

Physical activity (PA) is emerging as a safe and effective tool in the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. PA subtypes include aerobic, resistance, flexibility, neuromotor (involving balance, agility and co-ordination), mind-body (e.g. tai chi, qi gong and yoga) and mixed type trainings. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that PA subtypes can have positive clinical effects, however the effects on the symptomatology may vary according to the PA subtype. It therefore stands to reason that various PA subtypes may modulate the immune system and neuroplastic processes differently. This systematic review aims to assess the immunomodulatory and neuroplastic profiles of various PA subtypes, particularly in unipolar depression and age-related cognitive decline (ARCD). The literature suggests several unique immunomodulatory and neuroplastic profiles for PA subtypes (i.e. resistance, aerobic and mind-body) in depression and ARCD. In depression, levels of various cytokines at baseline may predict treatment response to subtypes of PA and pharmacological agents. The pro-neuroplastic effects of resistance and aerobic PA in ARCD may differ due to variances in neurotrophin profiles. At this stage of literature in the field, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions on the specific immunomodulatory and neuroplastic pathways involved in these PA subtypes given of the small number of comparative studies and methodological heterogeneity between studies (e.g. study population age and illness severity, as well as duration and intensity of PA intervention). This important field requires well-designed, high-quality comparative studies to better describe unique immunomodulatory and neuroplastic profiles. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Yeung D.T.,University of Adelaide | Hughes T.P.,University of Adelaide
Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis | Year: 2012

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein as a result of the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation. The elucidation of its molecular pathogenesis led to the identification of a therapeutic target and the subsequent synthesis and introduction of a small-molecule inhibitor for this target, imatinib. Because CML is the first disease successfully treated by targeted kinase inhibition, it served as a paradigm for discovery of disease mechanism and drug development in other diseases in which constitutive kinase expression plays a central role in pathogenesis. Despite the spectacular success of imatinib, not all CML patients derive great benefit from it. This review will cover some of the currently known prognostic markers of disease response and potential resistance mechanisms. © 2012 by Begell House, Inc.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2013

This paper presents results of an experimental study on the behavior of square and rectangular high-strength concrete (HSC)-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (HSCFFT) under concentric compression. The effects of the tube thickness, sectional aspect ratio, and corner radius on the axial compressive behavior of concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFT) were investigated experimentally through the tests of 24 CFFTs that were manufactured using unidirectional carbon fiber sheets and high-strength concrete with 78 MPa average compressive strength. As the first experimental investigation on the axial compressive behavior of square and rectangular HSCFFTs, the results of the study reported in this paper allow a number of significant conclusions to be drawn. First and foremost, test results indicate that sufficiently confined square and rectangular HSCFFTs can exhibit highly ductile behavior. The results also indicate that confinement effectiveness of FRP tubes increases with an increase in corner radius and decreases with an increase in sectional aspect ratio. It is also observed and discussed that HSCFFTs having tubes of low confinement effectiveness may experience a significant strength loss at the point of transition on their stress-strain curves. Furthermore, it is found that the behavior of HSCFFTs at this region differ from that of normal-strength CFFTs and that it is more sensitive to the effectiveness of a confining tube. Examination of the test results have also lead to a number of important observations on the influence of the key confinement parameters on the development and distribution of the hoop strains on the tubes of CFFTs, which are presented and discussed in the paper. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide | Lim J.C.,University of Adelaide
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

A large number of experimental studies have been conducted over the last two decades to understand the behavior of FRP-confined concrete columns. This paper presents a comprehensive test database constructed from the results of axial compression tests on 832 circular FRP-confined concrete specimens published in the literature. The database was assembled through an extensive review of the literature that covered 3042 test results from 253 experimental studies published between 1991 and the middle of 2013. The suitability of the results for the database was determined using carefully chosen selection criteria to ensure a reliable database. This database brings reliable test results of FRP-confined concrete together to form a unified framework for future reference. Close examination of the test results reported in the database led to a number of important observations on the influence of important parameters on the behavior of FRP-confined concrete. A new design-oriented model that was developed to quantify these observations is presented in the final part of the paper. It is shown that the predictions of the proposed model are in close agreement with the test results and the model provides improved predictions of the ultimate conditions of FRP-confined concrete compared to any of the existing models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2013

This paper reports on the development and testing of three new concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tube (CFFT) systems. These CFFT systems were designed to enhance the effectiveness of square and rectangular FRP tubes in confining concrete. In the design of the rectangular CFFTs two different enhancement techniques were considered; namely, corner strengthening and provision of an internal FRP panel. The technique used in the development of the square CFFT system involved the incorporation of four internal concrete-filled FRP cylinders as an integral part of the CFFT. The performance of these systems was investigated experimentally through axial compression tests of 10 unique CFFTs. The results of the experimental study indicate that the new CFFT systems presented in this paper offer significantly improved performance relative to conventional CFFTs with similar material and geometric properties. Examination of the test results have led to a number of significant conclusions with respect to the confinement effectiveness of each new CFFT system. These results are presented and a discussion is provided on the parameters that influenced the compressive behavior of these CFFT systems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Makrides M.,Womens and Childrens Health Research Institute | Makrides M.,University of Adelaide
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2013

A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) during the perinatal period is postulated to be important for the neurodevelopmental outcome of children. This paper reviews the results of two large scale intervention trials in which equivalent dietary doses of DHA were assessed. One trial assessed the ex utero effect of DHA supplementation for preterm infants born <33 weeks' gestation while the other trial assessed the in utero effect of DHA supplementation during the second half of pregnancy. Ex utero DHA supplementation, which aimed to achieve the level of DHA accumulation that would occur in the womb, appeared more effective in improving the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm children rather than in utero DHA supplementation of unborn infants. Significant treatment by sex and treatment by birth weight interactions were noted indicating that boys and girls respond differently to DHA supplementation and that birth weight may also be important in predicating the DHA responsiveness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Vincent T.,University of Adelaide | Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of concrete compressive strength and confinement method on confined high and ultra high-strength concrete (HSC and UHSC) specimens. A total of 55 fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete specimens were tested under monotonic axial compression. All specimens were cylinders with 152 mm diameter and 305 mm height and confined by carbon FRP (CFRP). Three different concrete mixes were examined, with average compressive strengths of 35, 65 and 100 MPa. The effect of the confinement method was also examined with FRP-wrapped specimens compared to FRP tube-encased specimens. Axial and lateral behavior was recorded to observe the axial stress-strain relationship and lateral strain behavior for concentric compression. Ultimate axial and lateral conditions are tabulated and the complete stress-strain curves have been provided. The experimental results presented in this paper provide a performance comparison between FRP-confined conventional normal-strength concrete (NSC) and the lesser understood area of FRP-confined HSC and UHSC. The results of this experimental study clearly indicate that above a certain confinement threshold, FRP-confined HSC and UHSC exhibits highly ductile behavior, however for the same normalized confinement pressures, axial performance of FRP-confined concrete reduces as concrete strength increases. The results also indicate that ultimate conditions of FRP-wrapped specimens are similar to those confined by FRP tubes, however a performance difference is evident at the transition region. The performance of 10 existing stress-strain models were assessed against the experimental datasets and the performance of these models discussed. The results of this model assessment revealed the need for further development for stress-strain models developed specifically for FRP-confined HSC or UHSC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vincent T.,University of Adelaide | Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of fiber angle and specimen end condition on axial compressive behavior of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP)-confined concrete. A total of 24 aramid FRP (AFRP)-confined concrete specimens with circular cross-sections were tested. 18 of these specimens were manufactured as concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs), whereas the remaining 6 specimens were FRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The specimens were manufactured using two different concrete mixes with average compressive strengths of 50 and 80 MPa. The influence of fiber orientation was examined through a group of CFFT specimens manufactured using an automated filament winding technique, with fibers aligned at 45, 60 or 75 degrees with respect to the longitudinal axis. Additional filament wound specimens with fibers aligned along the hoop direction were also prepared to allow a comparison between specimens with inclined fibers and hoop oriented fibers. The effect of specimen end condition was examined on both CFFTs and FRP-wrapped specimens. This parameter was selected to study the influence of loading the FRP jacket on the axial compressive behavior. The results of this experimental study indicate that specimen performance is optimized when fibers are aligned in the hoop direction and the performance diminishes with decreasing fiber angle. The results also indicate that the performance of FRP-wrapped specimens is similar to that of CFFT specimens and the influence of specimen end condition is negligible. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper presents results of an experimental program undertaken to investigate the behavior of square and rectangular ultra high-strength concrete (UHSC)-filled fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (UHSCFFTs) under axial compression. The effects of the amount of confinement, cross-sectional aspect ratio and corner radius were investigated experimentally through the tests of 24 concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs) that were manufactured using unidirectional carbon fiber sheets and UHSC with 108 MPa average compressive strength. As the first experimental investigation on the axial compressive behavior of square and rectangular UHSCFFTs, the results of the study reported in this paper allows a number of significant conclusions to be drawn. Of primary importance, test results indicate that sufficiently confined square and rectangular UHSCFFTs can exhibit highly ductile behavior. The results also indicate that confinement effectiveness of FRP tubes increases with an increase in corner radius and as sectional aspect ratio approaches unity. It is found that UHSCFFTs having tubes of low confinement effectiveness may experience significant strength loss along the initial portions of the second branches on their stress-strain curves. Furthermore, it is observed that the behavior of UHSCFFTs at this region differs from their normal-strength concrete counterparts and is more sensitive to the effectiveness of confining tube. The second half of the paper presents the performance assessment of the existing FRP-confined concrete models in predicting the ultimate conditions of the HSC and UHSCFFTs. The results of this assessment demonstrate that the existing models provide unconservative estimates for specimens with higher concrete strengths. To address this, a new model that was developed on the basis of a comprehensive experimental test database and is applicable to both NSC and HSC of strengths up to 120 MPa is proposed. The model comparisons demonstrate that the proposed model provides significantly improved predictions of the ultimate conditions of FRP-confined HSC compared to the existing models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Du X.,University of Adelaide | Shi B.,University of Adelaide | Liang J.,University of Adelaide | Bi J.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

Functionalized dendrimer-like hybrid silica nanoparticles with hierarchical pores are designed and synthesized. The unique structure, large surface area, and excellent biocompability render such materials attractive nanocarriers for the advanced delivery of various sized drugs and genes simultaneously. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Chang D.,University of Adelaide
Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures | Year: 2013

Fracture and fatigue assessment of structures weakened by multiple site damage, such as two or more interacting cracks, is currently a very challenging problem. The main objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model and an approach to investigate fatigue crack closure behaviour of two through-the-thickness collinear cracks of equal length in a plate of arbitrary thickness under remote tensile cyclic loading. The developed mathematical model of the problem under consideration is based on the Dugdale strip yield model and plasticity-induced crack closure concept. The approach utilises the fundamental solution for an edge dislocation in a plate of finite thickness and the distributed dislocation technique to obtain an effective and accurate solution to the system of governing equations. The obtained results show a very good agreement with the previously published analytical solutions for limiting cases. In particular, the new results confirm that the crack closure behaviour and the opening stress variation in the case of two collinear cracks are significantly dependent on the separation gap between two cracks as well as the plate thickness. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Ltd.

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

When a woman has had a previous caesarean birth and requires induction of labour in a subsequent pregnancy, there are two options for her care: elective repeat caesarean or planned induction of labour. While there are risks and benefits for both elective repeat caesarean birth and planned induction of labour, current sources of information are limited to non-randomised cohort studies. Studies designed in this way have significant potential for bias and consequently conclusions based on these results are limited in their reliability and should be interpreted with caution. To assess, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 January 2012). Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies who planned a repeat elective caesarean section with outcomes in women who planned induction of labour, where a previous birth had been by caesarean. There was no data extraction performed. There were no randomised controlled trials identified. Planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a prior caesarean birth are both associated with benefits and harms. Evidence for these care practices is drawn from non-randomised studies, associated with potential bias. Any results and conclusions must therefore be interpreted with caution. Randomised controlled trials are required to provide the most reliable evidence regarding the benefits and harms of both planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth.

Nuberg I.K.,University of Adelaide
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2015

This paper describes the fuelwood economy of Papua New Guinea (PNG) based on a survey of domestic users (n=3994), commercial and industrial users (n=66) and fuelwood vendors (n=157). The survey period (2009) covered urban and rural, coastal and highland districts of known fuelwood-stress. The survey region represents 11% of the national population. It reveals that the fuelwood economy has a relatively flat structure with a very short and direct supply chain. Fuelwood is regularly or occasionally used by 85% of the population for domestic and commercial cooking, even in urban areas where there is good access to electricity and other energy sources. Proportions of the population selling fuelwood at some time in the survey period were 3% and 10% of urban and rural populations respectively. Those generating an income using fuelwood were 26% and 58% respectively. Fuelwood consumption is estimated to be 1.8m3/person/year which is 6 times greater than the average of south and south-east Asian countries. It is estimated that 2.08millionm3/y of fuelwood is freely collected for domestic use in the survey region, while the amount traded was USD7.14 million. The survey provides details of regional variations in fuelwood consumption, gender relations, income generation, and conflict associated with fuelwood, tree planting activity and attitudes to the need for woodlots. It describes and quantifies fuelwood flows from various sources to users and argues the point that the impact of fuelwood collection on forests is only localised. The fuelwood economy is largely informal with no public engagement in supply, marketing, distribution, pricing, and taxation. This paper argues the case for a national fuelwood policy which will encourage the private sector to invest in fuelwood trade and create economies of scale while still protecting smaller informal actors. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Twidale C.R.,University of Adelaide
Geomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement | Year: 2014

Pediments have been regarded as smooth, gently inclined, surfaces that front receding escarpments, are epigene forms shaped by running water, and are well represented in arid and semi-arid lands. Covered pediments carrying a cover of coarse allochthonous detritus largely conform to this model, but are of limited distribution. The more common mantled and rock forms however do not. Many of the mantled pediments developed in sedimentary terrains are associated with scarps that have been worn back, but the mantle comprises a surficial wash over a weathered mantle in situ: they are first-stage etch forms. Many mantled pediments shaped in granite front scarps that demonstrably recede only slowly, and others lack a backing upland and scarp. Though many are drained by stream networks some lack any surface drainage, and in any event, though diffuse drainage can erode friable materials, they do not greatly affect coherent rocks such as fresh granite. The mantle consists of a veneer of introduced material over weathered granite in situ: the bedrock is shaped by subsurface moisture attack or mantle-controlled planation. They too are first-stage etch forms. Diffuse wash can remove friable grus and where the mantle has been stripped the weathering front is exposed in rock pediments and platforms, both of which are etch forms.

Goldwater P.N.,SA Pathology at the Womens and Childrens Hospital | Goldwater P.N.,University of Adelaide
BMC Medicine | Year: 2011

Several theories of the underlying mechanisms of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have been proposed. These theories have born relatively narrow beach-head research programs attracting generous research funding sustained for many years at expense to the public purse. This perspective endeavors to critically examine the evidence and bases of these theories and determine their plausibility; and questions whether or not a safe and reasoned hypothesis lies at their foundation. The Opinion sets specific criteria by asking the following questions: 1. Does the hypothesis take into account the key pathological findings in SIDS? 2. Is the hypothesis congruent with the key epidemiological risk factors? 3. Does it link 1 and 2? Falling short of any one of these answers, by inference, would imply insufficient grounds for a sustainable hypothesis. Some of the hypotheses overlap, for instance, notional respiratory failure may encompass apnea, prone sleep position, and asphyxia which may be seen to be linked to co-sleeping. For the purposes of this paper, each element will be assessed on the above criteria. © 2011 Goldwater; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Rieger N.A.,University of Adelaide | Lam F.F.,University of Adelaide
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques | Year: 2010

Background: A prospective case series of transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic colectomies using conventional laparoscopic trocars and instruments is described. Methods Seven selected patients with colonic neoplasm underwent transumbilical SIL colectomy between November 2008 and March 2009. Three trocars via a single small umbilical incision were used. The bowel was mobilized and the vessels ligated intracorporeally with an extracorporeal anastomosis. Results This series of seven patients (6 men and 1 woman) had no conversion to standard multiport laparoscopy or open surgery. Six of the patients had pathology in the right colon, and one had a carcinoma at the splenic flexure. The patients had an average age of 71 years (range, 63-83 years) and an average body mass index (BMI) of 24.3 kg/m2 (range, 21-28 kg/m2). The average operating time was 89 min (range, 75-115 min). No significant blood loss or complications occurred. The average length of hospital stay was 5.4 days (range, 4-11 days). The average incision length was 3.1 cm (range, 2.5-4.5 cm). Histopathology showed adequate tumor excision margins and an average lymph node yield of 15 nodes (range, 7-26 nodes). Conclusions Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for colectomy is feasible. It can be performed without specialized instrumentation and at no extra cost. Further evaluation is required.

Huang D.M.,University of Adelaide
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Classical molecular dynamics simulations and statistical thermodynamics are used to investigate the miscibility of blends of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene C60 for blend ratios typically used in organic photovoltaic devices over a range of temperatures. Depending on which of two slightly different simulation force fields is used, the calculations suggest that amorphous P3HT/fullerene blends are either miscible or immisicble under typical processing conditions. The former result is consistent with recent experiments and suggests that experimentally observed nano-scale phase separation is driven by polymer or fullerene crystallisation. But the inconsistency between the different force fields indicates that these blends are close to phase coexistence between the separated and homogeneously mixed phases and suggests that care must be taken in interpreting simulation data on P3HT/fullerene blends. These findings have implications for organic photovoltaics, in which the microstructure of conjugated-polymer/fullerene blends plays a crucial role in device performance. © CSIRO 2014.

Tran D.N.H.,University of Adelaide | Kabiri S.,University of Adelaide | Losic D.,University of Adelaide
Carbon | Year: 2014

A simple and green chemistry approach for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using non-aromatic and thiol-free amino acids as the reductant was successfully demonstrated. l-Aspartic acid and valine amino acids were used as models to prove that the reduction method is generic to other amino acids. The significance of the proposed method is that it eliminates the use of toxic and harmful chemicals to humans and the environment, which makes it compatible for the large-scale production of graphene. Reduced GO nanosheets showed good stability in aqueous dispersions due to the strong electrostatic repulsion on the graphene surface. Structural studies confirmed the deoxygenation of GO from the loss of hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy groups, and preparation of graphene sheets between 20 and 70 nm suitable for broad biomedical applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology | Year: 2012

The increasing numbers of obese and morbidly obese individuals in the community are having a direct effect on forensic facilities. In addition to having to install more robust equipment for handling large bodies, the quality of autopsy examinations may be reduced by the physical difficulties that arise in trying to position bodies correctly so that normal examinations can proceed. Accelerated putrefaction is often an added complication. Metabolic disturbances resulting from obesity increase susceptibility to a range of conditions that are associated with sudden and unexpected death, and surgery may have increased complications. The rates of a number of different malignancies, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma and multiple myeloma, and carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, gallbladder, thyroid, prostate, breast and endometrium, are increased. In addition, obese individuals have higher rates of diabetes mellitus, and sepsis. The unexpected collapse of an obese individual should raise the possibility of a wide range of conditions, many of which may be more difficult to demonstrate at autopsy than in an individual with a normal body mass index. Although sudden cardiac death due to cardiomegaly, pulmonary thromboembolism, or ischemic heart disease may be the most probable diagnosis in an unexpected collapse, the range of possible underlying conditions is extensive and often only determinable after full postmortem examination. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bain E.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

The effectiveness of antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection of the fetus, infant, and child prior to very preterm birth, when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth, has been established. There is currently no consensus as to the regimen to use in terms of the dose, duration, the use of repeat dosing and timing. To assess the comparative effectiveness and adverse effects of different magnesium sulphate regimens for neuroprotection of the fetus in women considered at risk of preterm birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2011). Randomised trials comparing different magnesium sulphate regimens when used for neuroprotection of the fetus in women considered at risk of preterm birth. We planned to include cluster trials. We planned to exclude quasi-randomised trials and those with a crossover design. We planned to include trials published as full-text papers, along with those published in abstract form only. We planned that at least two review authors would assess trial eligibility. No eligible completed trials were identified. Although strong evidence supports the use of antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection of the fetus prior to very preterm birth, no trials comparing different treatment regimens have been completed. Research should be directed towards comparisons of different dosages and other variations in regimens, evaluating both maternal and infant outcomes.

Kabiri S.,University of Adelaide | Tran D.N.H.,University of Adelaide | Altalhi T.,University of Adelaide | Losic D.,University of Adelaide
Carbon | Year: 2014

We report a green approach for synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube aerogels with three dimensional (3D) interconnected networks prepared from natural graphite rocks. A onestep reaction under the synergic effects of the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and acid treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by ferrous ion is employed eliminating the use of harsh chemicals for the reduction of GO. CNTs are incorporated into the network to increase the robustness and hydrophobicity of aerogels with excellent porosity and oleophilic properties. The prepared aerogels exhibit outstanding adsorption performance for the removal of petroleum products, fats and organic solvents especially under continuous vacuum regime showing adsorption capacity of 28 L of oil per gram of aerogel. The proposed synthetic method is simple and economical for the scalable production of highly porous 3D graphene-carbon nanotube aerogels, which can be successfully used for efficient and cost-effective oil spill clean-up and water purification. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Van Duivenvoorde W.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology | Year: 2014

The Tektaş Burnu ship (440-425 BC) sank along a rough and desolate stretch of the Turkish Aegean coast. Archaeological excavation of the shipwreck site by the stitute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University resulted the retrieval of hundreds of small fragments from the ship's wooden hull and its metal fasteners. Recent study of this artefact assemblage suggests that the coastal trader was built with pe planks and made-frames, and assembled by a shell-based construction method. Fasteners clude pegged mortise-and-tenon jots and double-clenched copper nails, and the ship may have had laced extremities consistent with other contemporaneous shipwrecks. © 2013 The Nautical Archaeology Society.

Meylan M.H.,University of Newcastle | Bennetts L.G.,University of Adelaide | Kohout A.L.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2014

In situ measurements of ocean surface wave spectra evolution in the Antarctic marginal ice zone are described. Analysis of the measurements shows significant wave heights and peak periods do not vary appreciably in approximately the first 80km of the ice-covered ocean. Beyond this region, significant wave heights attenuate and peak periods increase. It is shown that attenuation rates are insensitive to amplitudes for long-period waves but increase with increasing amplitude above some critical amplitude for short-period waves. Attenuation rates of the spectral components of the wavefield are calculated. It is shown that attenuation rates decrease with increasing wave period. Further, for long-period waves the decrease is shown to be proportional to the inverse of the period squared. This relationship can be used to efficiently implement wave attenuation through the marginal ice zone in ocean-scale wave models. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

Young M.D.,University of Adelaide
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

Most of the world's water entitlement and allocation regimes evolved during periods of abundance and, hence, are not well suited to the management of water scarcity. Development of the institutional arrangements necessary to manage changing demands and supplies is in its infancy.Design criteria for the development of a set of institutional arrangements for the robust management of scarce water resources is offered and then used to develop a generic framework for the allocation and use of water. Variations to account for differences in ground, regulated and unregulated water resources are offered. The question of how best to sequence reform of existing water entitlement and allocation regimes is also addressed.The result is a recommendation for the use of water sharing plans to determine how much water may be used at any point in time and an unbundled suite of arrangements that enable efficient but separated management of long term and short term considerations and, also, the control of externalities.System-wide adjustment is facilitated through the periodic revision of water sharing plans. Individual adjustment to changing circumstances is facilitated through trade in entitlements and allocations.Before the introduction of institutional arrangements that encourage adjustment through trade it is recommended that the abstraction regime used be converted into one that accounts for return flows and allocates water according to shareholder entitlement. Seniority, beneficial-use criteria and opportunities to third parties to prevent adjustment according to pre-specified rules should be repealed. Well-designed regimes can be extended to include dam-capacity shares and allow the use of market-based instruments in delivery of water-quality objectives. Pooling can be used to lower the costs of risk management. © 2013 .

Abbott D.,University of Adelaide
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2010

We take a fresh look at the major nonrenewable and renewable energy sources and examine their long-term viability, scalability, and the sustainability of the resources that they use. We achieve this by asking what would happen if each energy source was a single supply of power for the world, as a gedanken experiment. From this perspective, a solar hydrogen economy emerges as a dominant solution to the world's energy needs. If we globally tap sunlight over only 1% of the incident area at only an energy conversion efficiency of 1%, it is simple to show that this meets our current world energy consumption. As 9% of the planet surface area is taken up by desert and efficiencies well over 1% are possible, in practice, this opens up many exciting future opportunities. Specifically, we find solar thermal collection via parabolic reflectorswhere focussed sunlight heats steam to about 600 °C to drive a turbineis the best available technology for generating electricity. For static power storage, to provide electricity at night, there are a number of viable options that are discussed. For mobile power storage, such as for fueling vehicles, we argue the case for both liquid and gaseous hydrogen for use in internal combustion engines. We outline a number of reasons why emiconductor solar cells and hydrogen fuel cells do not appear to scale up for a global solution. We adopt an approach that envisions exploiting massive economy of scale by establishing large arrays of solar collectors in hot desert regions of the world. For nonrenewable sources we argue that we cannot wait for them to be exhaustedwe need to start conserving them imminently. What is often forgotten in the energy debate is that oil, natural gas, and coal are not only used as energy sources, but we also rely on them for embodying many crucial physical products. It is this fact that requires us to develop a solar hydrogen platform with urgency. It is argued that a solar future is unavoidable, as ultimately humankind has no other choice. © 2006 IEEE.

Reid R.,University of Adelaide
Plant Science | Year: 2010

High boron concentrations in soil and in irrigation water reduce crop productivity in many areas of the world. Plant tolerance to boron toxicity has been identified in a range of genotypes and recent research has revealed a physiological mechanism behind this tolerance in cereals. Cultivars with high levels of expression of a gene encoding a boron-efflux transporter in roots and shoots have been reported to show tolerance to high boron in soils and in solution culture experiments conducted under controlled conditions in glasshouses and growth rooms. However, field trials of tolerant cultivars in rain-fed semi-arid environments have been disappointing with few showing even modest improvements in yield, and others showing either no effect or a decrease in yields. © 2009.

Evans J.D.,University of Adelaide | Sumby C.J.,University of Adelaide | Doonan C.J.,University of Adelaide
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Post-synthetic metalation (PSMet) offers expansive scope for a targeted approach to tailoring the properties of MOFs. Numerous methods for carrying-out PSMet chemistry have been reported, however, these can be categorized into three general strategies: (a) addition to coordinating groups; (b) counter-ion exchange in charged frameworks; or, (c) host-guest encapsulation of metal-containing entities within the pores of the framework. PSMet has been applied to enhance the performance characteristics of parent MOFs for gas storage and separation, and catalysis. Notably, PSMet is a prominent strategy in the field of MOF catalysis as it offers a route to design size-selective catalysts, based on the premise of reticular chemistry in MOFs and the ability to incorporate a range of catalytically-active metal centres. Other applications for materials produced via or utilising PSMet strategies include enhancing gas storage or molecular separations, the triggered release of drugs, sensing and tunable light emission for luminescent materials. This review surveys seminal examples of PSMet to highlight the broad scope of this technique for enhancing the performance characteristics of MOFs and to demonstrate how the PSMet concept can be developed for future applications. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Yelland L.N.,University of Adelaide | Salter A.B.,University of Adelaide | Ryan P.,University of Adelaide
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Modified Poisson regression, which combines a log Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation, is a useful alternative to log binomial regression for estimating relative risks. Previous studies have shown both analytically and by simulation that modified Poisson regression is appropriate for independent prospective data. This method is often applied to clustered prospective data, despite a lack of evidence to support its use in this setting. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the modified Poisson regression approach for estimating relative risks from clustered prospective data, by using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. A simulation study is conducted to compare log binomial regression and modified Poisson regression for analyzing clustered data from intervention and observational studies. Both methods generally perform well in terms of bias, type I error, and coverage. Unlike log binomial regression, modified Poisson regression is not prone to convergence problems. The methods are contrasted by using example data sets from 2 large studies. The results presented in this article support the use of modified Poisson regression as an alternative to log binomial regression for analyzing clustered prospective data when clustering is taken into account by using generalized estimating equations. © 2011 The Author.

Neuroinflammation and blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an important mediator of both neuroinflammation and BBB dysfunction through its NK1 receptor in a process known as neurogenic inflammation. Increased SP content has previously been reported following 6-OHDA treatment in vitro, with the levels of SP correlating with cell death. The present study used an in vivo 6-OHDA lesion model to determine if dopaminergic degeneration was associated with increased SP in the substantia nigra and whether this degeneration could be prevented by using a SP, NK1 receptor antagonist. Unilateral, intrastriatal 6-OHDA lesions were induced and SP (10 μg/2 μL) or the NK1 receptor antagonists, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (2 μL at 50 nM) or L-333,060 (2 μL at 100 nM), administered immediately after the neurotoxin. Nigral SP content was then determined using immunohistochemical and ELISA methods, neuroinflammation and barrier integrity was assessed using Iba-1, ED-1, GFAP and albumin immunohistochemistry, while dopaminergic cell loss was assessed with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. Motor function in all animals was assessed using the rotarod task. Intrastriatal 6-OHDA lesioning produced an early and sustained increase in ipsilateral nigral SP content, along with a breakdown of the BBB and activation of microglia and astrocytes. Further exacerbation of SP levels accelerated disease progression, whereas NK1 receptor antagonist treatment protected dopaminergic neurons, preserved barrier integrity, reduced neuroinflammation and significantly improved motor function. We propose that neurogenic inflammation contributes to dopaminergic degeneration in early experimental PD and demonstrate that an NK1 receptor antagonist may represent a novel neuroprotective therapy. © 2012 Thornton, Vink.

Idris Y.,University of Adelaide | Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2013

This paper reports on an experimental program that investigated the seismic behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC)-filled fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) tubes (HSCFFTs), designed to perform as building columns. Five square and one circular concrete-filled FRP tube (CFFT) columns were tested under constant axial compression and reversed-cyclic lateral loading. The main parameters of the experimental study were the axial load level, column cross-sectional shape, concrete strength, amount and type of FRP confinement, and FRP tube corner radius. Examination of the test data resulted in a number of significant conclusions with regard to the influence of the investigated column parameters on the performance of CFFT columns. Of primary importance, the results indicate that square HSCFFT columns are capable of developing very high inelastic deformation capacities under simulated seismic loading. The results also indicate that increasing the FRP tube corner radius up to a certain threshold leads to a significant increase in column lateral drift capacities. By contrast, increasing the corner radius beyond that threshold value provides no additional improvement in the hysteretic behavior of square CFFT columns. The influence of the cross-sectional shape is found to be significant, with the circular CFFT exhibiting a larger lateral drift capacity compared with the companion square CFFTs. A set of comparable columns from previous stus has also been included in the discussion to clarify the influence of each parameter on the column behavior. The results of the experimental program are presented together with a discussion on the influence of the main parameters on the seismic behavior of CFFT columns. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Niven R.J.,University of Adelaide | Bardsley D.K.,University of Adelaide
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2013

Australian coastal areas have been identified as highly vulnerable to climate change, with major projected impacts including sea level rise, extreme weather events, increased erosion, and a change in coastal processes and wave patterns. Such impacts would cause coastal settlements and ecosystems to face increasingly uncertain conditions. In response to increased risk, effective coastal management at local and regional scales is needed, with governing bodies providing significant leadership. This research explores the challenges of applying effective adaptation responses to projected climate change in vulnerable coastal systems on the South Coast of the Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia. In particular, the option of planned retreat as a management response to coastal risk is critically examined, with the incorporation of learning from Byron Bay, NSW. A mixed methods approach was undertaken by integrating documentary interrogation with the analysis of interview responses from key coastal managers. It was determined that despite the increase in adaptation planning and development of management strategy options to manage sea level rise on the Fleurieu Peninsula, there is a lack of implementation of adaptation responses. In addition, planning seems to focus largely on the implications of sea level rise on infrastructure, often overlooking other risks and possible ecological impacts. Inconsistencies in governance are reflected at all levels, indicating a need for comprehensive improvements to ensure the incorporation of appropriate risk responses into planning decisions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Ballmer S.W.,Syracuse University | Ottaway D.J.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

A folded resonant Fabry-Perot cavity has the potential to significantly reduce the impact of coating thermal noise on the performance of kilometer scale gravitational wave detectors. When constructed using only spherical mirror surfaces it is possible to utilize the extremely robust TEM00 mode optical mode. In this paper we investigate the potential thermal noise improvements that can be achieved for third generation gravitational wave detectors using realistic constraints. Comparing the previously proposed beam configurations such as e.g. higher order Laguerre-Gauss modes, we find that similar or better thermal noise improvement factors can be achieved, while avoiding degeneracy issues associated with those beams. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Ramalho G.,University of Lisbon | Tsushima K.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study the octet to decuplet baryon electromagnetic transitions using the covariant spectator quark model and predict the transition magnetic dipole form factors for those involving the strange baryons. Utilizing SU(3) symmetry, the valence quark contributions are supplemented by the pion cloud dressing based on the one estimated in the γ*N→Δ reaction. Although the valence quark contributions are dominant in general, the pion cloud effects turn out to be very important to describe the experimental data. We also show that other mesons besides the pion, in particular the kaon, may be relevant for some reactions such as γ*Σ +→Σ*+, based on our analysis for the radiative decay widths of the strange decuplet baryons. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Gilliham M.,University of Adelaide | Tyerman S.D.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2016

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration increases rapidly in tissues when plants encounter abiotic or biotic stress, and GABA manipulation affects growth. This, coupled to GABA's well-described role as a neurotransmitter in mammals, led to over a decade of speculation that GABA is a signal in plants. The discovery of GABA-regulated anion channels in plants provides compelling mechanistic proof that GABA is a legitimate plant-signaling molecule. Here we examine research avenues unlocked by this finding and propose that these plant 'GABA receptors' possess novel properties ideally suited to translating changes in metabolic status into physiological responses. Specifically, we suggest they have a role in signaling altered cycling of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates during stress via eliciting changes in electrical potential differences across membranes. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein amino acid, regulates the activity of aluminum-activated anion transporters (ALMTs); these, like mammalian GABAA receptors, are anion channels that alter the electrical potential across membranes.ALMTs are a multigenic protein family found in all plants that are involved in multiple physiological processes. Contrary to their name, most ALMTs are not activated by aluminum; instead, they are activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA.ALMTs share little homology with mammalian GABAA receptors; the only region of similarity so far identified is a domain of 12 amino residues containing a phenylalanine or tyrosine required for GABA sensitivity.Malate activation and GABA inhibition of ALMTs provide a mechanism for indicating changes in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity via membrane signaling and the propagation of these signals from cell to cell. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

INTRODUCTION: A large of amount of literature exists on the factors that influence the recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners (GPs) in Australia and other countries. The selection of a rural practice location is known to be influenced by professional, personal and family, community and economic factors. Most of this research has been undertaken on the either the baby boomer generation or their predecessors, and this is likely to have influenced the responses gained. Generation X and Y doctors are known to have a different perception regarding workload, lifestyle and the support required to practise. The aim of this study was to explore, from a Generation X perspective, factors deemed important by general practice graduates in selecting a rural practice at completion of their training. The study also aimed to identify the process general practice graduates use to identify a potential rural practice, and when they commence this process. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were held with 15 rural pathway general practice registrars in their final year of training with 2 regional training providers in South Australia. The interview topics included source of information on potential practices, their ideal rural practice and community, the process used to select a practice, and when they commenced this process. Phenomenological hermeneutic thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken to identify themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: For an ideal rural practice, registrars wished to work in a practice with a friendly atmosphere, good business structure, support from senior GPs and in close proximity to a hospital. They also wanted reasonable on-call arrangements, the chance to develop further skills (such as anaesthetics or obstetrics) and the freedom to practise according to their interests. They also emphasised the importance of a good team and an ethical practice. In terms of community, registrars wanted a positive living place, access to amenities such as childcare, good schools and the opportunity of work for their spouses. They also appreciated attractions such as the beach, or green farmland. Word of mouth, referrals by colleagues and experience of a practice were the most common approaches to finding a suitable rural practice. The majority of the registrars commenced selection of a rural practice in their last 6 months of training. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the factors identified by the Generation X registrars were similar to those identified by the previous generation. However, they also identified factors such as a positive team environment and practice with good ethics as important. The results can be used to tailor the marketing of rural practices to Generation X general practice registrars.

Goggin M.,University of Adelaide | Moore S.,University of Adelaide | Esterman A.,University of South Australia
Archives of Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

Objectives: To describe the refractive outcome of toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by comparing the postoperative refractive astigmatism with the preoperative keratometric astigmatism target. Method: In a university department of a publicly funded hospital, 38 eyes of 29 patients underwent routine cataract surgery with insertion of a toric implant (SN60TT AcrySof Toric). Surgically induced astigmatism was derived using vector analysis of refractive outcome vs predicted postoperative keratometric astigmatism and compared with the targeted induced astigmatism. Results: Postoperative remaining refractive astigmatism of 0.97 diopters (D) was achieved vs a target of 0.61 D. A mean (SD) surgically induced astigmatism value of 1.78 (0.89) D was derived compared with a mean (SD) targeted induced astigmatism value of 1.58 (0.47) D (calculated by the manufacturer's online calculator, which predicts IOL corneal plane equivalent cylinder power and postoperative keratometric cylinder). Conclusions: Toric IOLs are a safe, predictable method of astigmatic correction. However, some remaining astigmatism is commonly present owing to the necessary nonzero astigmatic targets imposed by the steps between IOL cylinder powers, variability of axis, and power effects of surgical incisions as well as by underestimation of the corneal plane cylinder power of the IOLs by the manufacturer. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Chaumont F.,Catholic University of Louvain | Tyerman S.D.,University of Adelaide
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Plant growth and development are dependent on tight regulation of water movement. Water diffusion across cell membranes is facilitated by aquaporins that provide plants with the means to rapidly and reversibly modify water permeability. This is done by changing aquaporin density and activity in the membrane, including posttranslational modifications and protein interaction that act on their trafficking and gating. At the whole organ level aquaporins modify water conductance and gradients at key "gatekeeper" cell layers that impact on whole plant water flow and plant water potential. In this way they may act in concert with stomatal regulation to determine the degree of isohydry/anisohydry. Molecular, physiological, and biophysical approaches have demonstrated that variations in root and leaf hydraulic conductivity can be accounted for by aquaporins but this must be integrated with anatomical considerations. This Update integrates these data and emphasizes the central role played by aquaporins in regulating plant water relations. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Chen S.,University of Adelaide | Duan J.,University of Adelaide | Jaroniec M.,Kent State University | Qiao S.-Z.,University of Adelaide
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

A three-dimensional (3D) electrode composed of nitrogen, oxygen dualdoped graphene-carbon nanotube hydrogel film is fabricated, which greatly favors the transport and access of gas and reaction intermediates, and shows a remarkable oxygen-evolution catalytic performance in both alkaline and acidic solutions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Liang J.,University of Adelaide | Jiao Y.,University of Adelaide | Jaroniec M.,Kent State University | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Doping duo: Mesoporous graphene doped with both N and S atoms (N-S-G) was prepared in one step and studied as an electrochemical catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The catalyst shows excellent ORR performance comparable to that of commercial Pt/C. The outstanding activity of N-S-G results from both the large number and the synergistic effect of the dopant heteroatoms. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Kotousov A.,University of Adelaide | Chang D.,University of Adelaide
Engineering Fracture Mechanics | Year: 2014

Fracture assessment of structures weakened with multiple site damage (MSD), such as two or more interacting cracks, currently represents a challenging problem. Strength calculations of structural components with MSD are still largely based on two-dimensional solutions for single (or isolated) cracks available in various texts and handbooks or derived from a simplified finite element analysis. Such simplifications could often result in non-conservative predictions. Therefore, there is a strong motivation for the development of more advanced modelling approaches, which could incorporate effects of the interaction between multiple cracks, thickness-induced constraints and other nonlinear phenomena. The primary purpose of this work is to develop and validate a simplified three-dimensional analytical model for the evaluation of the residual strength of two through-the-thickness cracks in a plate of finite thickness subjected to uni-axial loading. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Lim J.C.,University of Adelaide | Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

Confinement of high-strength concrete (HSC) columns with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has been receiving increasing research attention due to the advantageous engineering properties offered by the composite system. The use of silica fume as a concrete additive is a widely accepted practice in producing HSC. However, the influence of the presence and amount of silica fume on the efficiency of FRP confinement is not clearly understood. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the influence of silica fume on the compressive behavior of FRP-confined HSC. 30 FRP-confined and 30 unconfined concrete cylinders containing different amounts of silica fume were tested under axial compression in two phases. In the first phase of the study, specimens with a constant water-cementitious binder ratio were tested. The results of this phase indicate that for a given water-cementitious binder ratio, the compressive strength of unconfined concrete increases with an increase in the amount of silica fume. It is found that this increase in strength leads to an increased concrete brittleness, which adversely affects the effectiveness of FRP confinement. In the second phase, water-cementitious binder ratios of the specimens were adjusted to attain a constant unconfined concrete strength for specimens containing different amounts of silica fume. The results of these tests indicate that for a given unconfined concrete strength, strength enhancement ratios of FRP-confined HSC specimens are not influenced by the silica fume content of the concrete mix. On the other hand, it is found that the silica fume content influences the axial strain enhancement ratios of these specimens. In addition, the transition zones of the stress-strain curves of FRP-confined HSC are observed to be sensitive to the amount of silica fume used in the mix. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide | Idris Y.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Structural Engineering (United States) | Year: 2014

This paper reports on an experimental study on the seismic behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)-concrete-steel double-skin tubular (DST) columns. Nine DST and one concrete-filled FRP-tube (CFFT) columns that were made of high-strength concrete were tested under constant axial compression and reversed-cyclic lateral loading. The main parameters of the experimental study were axial load level, amount and type of FRP confinement, concrete strength, sectional shape and thickness of the inner steel tube, and provision (or absence) of a concrete filling inside the steel tube. Of primary importance, the results indicate that DST columns are capable of developing very high inelastic deformation capacities under simulated seismic loading. The results also indicate that the presence of a concrete filling inside the inner steel tube significantly and positively influences the seismic behavior of DST columns. It is found that the performance of the void-filled DST column is superior to that of a companion CFFT column having identical geometric and material properties apart from the main internal steel reinforcing bars. These early observations suggest that DST columns may provide an attractive alternative to CFFT columns in the construction of new earthquake-resistant columns. No detrimental effect of the increased concrete strength on the displacement capacity of the DST columns is observed, provided that the amount of confinement is increased proportionally with the concrete strength. The influence of the cross-sectional geometry of the inner steel tube is found to be significant, whereas the thickness of the steel tube is found to have only a minor influence on the behavior of DST columns. It is observed that the FRP-tube material has some influence on the lateral displacement capacity of DST columns, with the specimens confined by FRP tubes manufactured using fibers with higher ultimate tensile strains developing slightly higher displacement capacities. Examination of the test results has led to a number of significant conclusions with regard to the influence of the important column parameters on the performance of DST columns. These results are presented together with a discussion of the influence of the main parameters on the seismic behavior of DST columns. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide | Fanggi B.L.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2014

This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was undertaken to investigate the effects of key parameters on the compressive behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)-concrete-steel double-skin tubular columns (DSTCs). A total of 24 normal-strength and high-strength concrete-filled DSTCs were manufactured and tested under axial compression. The key parameters examined included the concrete strength; thickness of FRP tube; diameter, strength, and thickness of inner steel tube; and presence (absence) of concrete filling inside it. The results indicate that both normal- and high-strength concretes in a DSTC system is confined effectively by FRP and steel tubes, resulting in a highly ductile compressive behavior. The results also indicate that increasing the inner steel tube diameter leads to an increase in the ultimate axial stress and strain of concrete in DSTCs. It is observed that the concrete filling of the inner steel tubes results in a slight decrease in the ultimate axial strain and a slight increase in ultimate stress of DSTCs. No clear influence of the strength of inner steel tube is observed on the ultimate condition of concrete in DSTCs. It is found that, for a given nominal confinement ratio, an increase in the concrete strength results in a decrease in the ultimate axial strain of DSTCs. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide | Vincent T.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2014

Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (CFFTs) have received significant research attention over the last two decades. However, experimental studies on the behavior of CFFTs filled with high-strength concrete (HSC) remain very limited. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the axial compressive behavior of 83 monotonically-loaded circular CFFTs. The effects of fiber type, concrete strength, specimen size, and manufacturing method on the compressive behavior of CFFTs were investigated. The CFFTs were manufactured with carbon FRP (CFRP), high-modulus CFRP (HMCFRP), or aramid FRP (AFRP) tubes, and their average unconfined concrete strengths ranged between 34-110 MPa. The diameters of the test specimens ranged from 75-300 mm with all specimens maintaining a 2:1 height-to-diameter ratio. The effect of the CFFT manufacturing method was investigated through AFRP specimens that were manufactured through either an automated filament winding or manual wet layup technique. The experimentally recorded stress-strain relationships are presented graphically and the ultimate axial stresses and strains and hoop rupture strains are tabulated. The large quantity of the results presented in this paper allows for a number of significant conclusions to be drawn. The results clearly indicate that over a certain confinement threshold, high-strength CFFTs (HSCFFTs) exhibit a highly ductile behavior. However, for the same nominal confinement ratio, compressive behavior of CFFTs degrades as concrete strength increases. The results also indicate that the compressive behavior of CFFTs is significantly influenced by the manufacturing method and fiber type with an improvement in compressive behavior linked to an increase in fiber rupture strain. Finally, the influence of specimen size was found to be negligible for the range of diameters tested in this study. Further experimental observations on these and other key parameters are presented and discussed in the paper. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Dent J.,University of Adelaide
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

The report from the HUNT Study provides the most convincing evidence yet that weight loss has beneficial effects on occurrence and severity of heartburn and regurgitation and their response to acid suppressant therapy. These data should re-invigorate clinicians to encourage weight loss in their reflux disease patients.

Plumptre C.D.,University of Adelaide | Ogunniyi A.D.,University of Adelaide | Paton J.C.,University of Adelaide
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for massive global morbidity and mortality. The pneumococcus attaches a variety of proteins to its cell surface, many of which contribute to virulence; one such family are the polyhistidine triad (Pht) proteins PhtA, PhtB, PhtD, and PhtE. In this study, we have examined the mechanism of Pht surface attachment using PhtD as a model. Analysis of deletion and point mutants identified a three-amino-acid region of PhtD (Q27-H28-R29) that is critical for the process. The analogous region in PhtE was also necessary for its attachment to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that a large proportion of the total amount of each Pht protein is released into bacterial culture supernatants. Other surface proteins were also released, albeit to lesser extents, and this was not due to pneumococcal autolysis. The extent of release of surface proteins was strain dependent and was not affected by the capsule. Lastly, we compared the fitness of wild-type and δphtABDE pneumococci in vivo in a mouse coinfection model. Release of Pht proteins by the wild type did not complement the mutant strain, consistent with surface-attached rather than soluble forms of the Pht proteins playing the major role in virulence. The significant degree of release of Pht proteins from intact bacteria may have implications for the use of these proteins in novel vaccines. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

Snelgrove S.L.,University of Adelaide
Transplantation | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: The healthy kidney contains an extensive population of renal mononuclear phagocytes (RMPs), with substantial phenotypic and functional diversity. However, how this diverse population is affected by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an obligate part of renal transplantation, is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and functional alterations in RMPs induced by IRI. METHODS: RMPs were studied 24 and 72 hours after 30 minutes of renal ischemia or sham operation. Kidneys were digested and the phenotypes of renal leukocyte populations were analyzed via flow cytometry. Multiphoton microscopy was used to image renal dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo using CD11c reporter mice. The capacity of renal DCs to present antigen was examined by assessment of proliferation of ovalbumin-specific T cells in RIP-mOVA mice following sham or IRI procedures. RESULTS: IRI induced influx of monocytes, DCs, macrophages and neutrophils into the kidney. Classification of RMP subpopulations based on CD11b/CD11c expression demonstrated that the RMPs that increased in response to IRI were predominantly newly-recruited monocyte-derived inflammatory DCs. In vivo multiphoton imaging of CD11c-EYFP mice revealed that intrarenal DCs exhibited increased number and activity of dendrites in the postischemic period. IRI also promoted DC-dependent cross-presentation of renal antigens to CD8 T cells in the draining lymph node. CONCLUSION: In response to renal IRI, RMP populations are skewed towards those derived from inflammatory monocyte precursors. In addition, renal DCs undergo functional activation, increasing their capacity to activate antigen-specific CD8 T cells in renal draining lymph nodes. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cozzolino D.,University of Adelaide
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Although both near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis (MVA) have been extensively used to measure chemical composition (e.g. protein, moisture, oil) in a wide number of grains few reports can be found on the use of this methods for varietal discrimination and traceability of cereals. In this overview applications of NIR spectroscopy and MIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to aid on the authentication and traceability of cereals are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen S.,University of Adelaide | Xing W.,China University of Petroleum - East China | Duan J.,University of Adelaide | Hu X.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

The fast growing interest in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles has stimulated extensive research in high performance energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors. Nanostructured electrodes can achieve high electrochemical performances in supercapacitors owing to their high surface atom ratio, tuneable texture and unique size-dependent properties that can afford effective electrolyte diffusion and improved charge transportation and storage during charging-discharging. This review reports on the recent progress in designing and fabricating different kinds of nanostructured electrodes, including electrical double layer based electrodes such as porous carbons and graphene, and Faradic reaction based electrodes such as metal oxides/hydroxides and conductive polymers. Furthermore, the review also summarizes the advances of hybrid electrodes, which store charges by both mechanisms, such as porous carbons-metal oxides/hydroxides, porous carbons-conductive polymers, graphene-metal oxides/hydroxides, and graphene-conductive polymers. Finally, we provide some perspectives as to the future directions of this intriguing field. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Potter A.J.,University of Adelaide | Trappetti C.,University of Adelaide | Paton J.C.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

The thiol-containing tripeptide glutathione is an important cellular constituent of many eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In addition to its disulfide reductase activity, glutathione is known to protect cells from many forms of physiological stress. This report represents the first investigation into the role of glutathione in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We demonstrate that pneumococci import extracellular glutathione using the ABC transporter substrate binding protein GshT. Mutation of gshT and the gene encoding glutathione reductase (gor) increases pneumococcal sensitivity to the superoxide generating compound paraquat, illustrating the importance of glutathione utilization in pneumococcal oxidative stress resistance. In addition, the gshT and gor mutant strains are hypersensitive to challenge with the divalent metal ions copper, cadmium, and zinc. The importance of glutathione utilization in pneumococcal colonization and invasion of the host is demonstrated by the attenuated phenotype of the gshT mutant strain in a mouse model of infection. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

The potential influence of gastric emptying on the "incretin effect," mediated by glucose-dependent insu-linotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusions at 2 (ID2) and 4 (ID4) kcal/min (equating to two rates of gastric emptying within the physiological range) on the size of the incretin effect, gastrointestinal glucose disposal (GIGD), plasma GIP, GLP-1, and gluca-gon secretion in health and type 2 diabetes. We studied 10 male BMI-matched controls and 11 male type 2 patients managed by diet or metformin only. In both groups, GIP, GLP-1, and the magnitude of incretin effect were greater with ID4 than ID2, as was GIGD; plasma glucagon was suppressed by ID2, but not ID4. There was no difference in the incretin effect between the two groups. Based on these data, we conclude that the rate of small intestinal glucose exposure (i.e., glucose load) is a major determinant of the comparative secretion of GIP and GLP-1, as well as the magnitude of the incretin effect and GIGD in health and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

Blunden P.G.,University of Manitoba | Melnitchouk W.,Jefferson Lab | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We present a new formulation of one of the major radiative corrections to the weak charge of the proton-that arising from the axial-vector hadron part of the γZ box diagram, e□γZA. This formulation, based on dispersion relations, relates the γZ contributions to moments of the F3γZ interference structure function. It has a clear connection to the pioneering work of Marciano and Sirlin, and enables a systematic approach to improved numerical precision. Using currently available data, the total correction from all intermediate states is e□γZA=0.0044(4) at zero energy, which shifts the theoretical estimate of the proton weak charge from 0.0713(8) to 0.0705(8). The energy dependence of this result, which is vital for interpreting the Q weak experiment, is also determined. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Becher A.,Oxford PharmaGenesis Ltd | Dent J.,University of Adelaide
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to become more prevalent with age. Aim To assess systematically how age affects the prevalence of GERD and its oesophageal complications. Methods Systematic PubMed searches were used to identify population-based studies on the age-related prevalence and incidence of GERD, and clinical studies on age-related changes in oesophageal complications in GERD. Results Nine population-based studies and seven clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. Four of seven prevalence studies observed no significant effect of age on GERD symptom prevalence, two did not report on statistical significance and one observed a significant age-related increase in symptom prevalence. The two population-based endoscopic surveys showed no significant effect of age on reflux oesophagitis prevalence. Clinical studies in patients with GERD showed an increase in reflux oesophagitis severity and a decrease in heartburn severity with age, and age-related increases in oesophageal acid exposure and anatomical disruption of the gastro-oesophageal junction. Conclusions Epidemiological studies do not show an increase in GERD symptom prevalence with age. However, in individuals with GERD, ageing is associated with more severe patterns of acid reflux and reflux oesophagitis; despite this, symptoms associated with GERD become less severe and more nonspecific with ageing. Thus, the real prevalence of GERD may well increase with age. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Shanahan P.E.,University of Adelaide | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide | Young R.D.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Recent lattice QCD calculations have reported evidence for the existence of a bound state with strangeness -2 and baryon number 2 at quark masses somewhat higher than the physical values. By developing a description of the dependence of this binding energy on the up, down and strange quark masses that allows a controlled chiral extrapolation, we explore the hypothesis that this state is to be identified with the H dibaryon. Taking as input the recent results of the HAL and NPLQCD Collaborations, we show that the H dibaryon is likely to be unbound by 13±14MeV at the physical point. © 2011 American Physical Society.