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The University of Adelaide is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia. It is associated with five Nobel laureates, 104 Rhodes scholars and is a member of the Group of Eight, as well as the sandstone universities.Its main campus is on North Terrace in the Adelaide city centre, adjacent to the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. The university has five campuses throughout the state: North Terrace; Roseworthy College at Roseworthy; The Waite Institute at Urrbrae; Thebarton; and the National Wine Centre in the Adelaide Park Lands. It has a sixth campus, the Ngee Ann – Adelaide Education Centre , in Singapore.The 20th Vice-Chancellor of the University is Professor Warren Bebbington. Formerly Deputy Vice-Chancellor at the University of Melbourne, he commenced in July 2012. Wikipedia.

Balasuriya S.,University of Adelaide | Balasuriya S.,Connecticut College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

A new analytical tool for determining the optimum frequency for a micromixing strategy to mix two fluids across their interface is presented. The frequency dependence of the flux is characterized in terms of a Fourier transform related to the apparatus geometry. Illustrative microfluidic mixing examples based on electromagnetic forcing and fluid pumping strategies are presented. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Makrides M.,Womens and Childrens Health Research Institute | Makrides M.,University of Adelaide
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2013

A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) during the perinatal period is postulated to be important for the neurodevelopmental outcome of children. This paper reviews the results of two large scale intervention trials in which equivalent dietary doses of DHA were assessed. One trial assessed the ex utero effect of DHA supplementation for preterm infants born <33 weeks' gestation while the other trial assessed the in utero effect of DHA supplementation during the second half of pregnancy. Ex utero DHA supplementation, which aimed to achieve the level of DHA accumulation that would occur in the womb, appeared more effective in improving the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm children rather than in utero DHA supplementation of unborn infants. Significant treatment by sex and treatment by birth weight interactions were noted indicating that boys and girls respond differently to DHA supplementation and that birth weight may also be important in predicating the DHA responsiveness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Tune P.,University of Adelaide
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

We revisit the problem of computing submatrices of the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), which lower bounds the variance of any unbiased estimator of a vector parameter θ. We explore iterative methods that avoid direct inversion of the Fisher information matrix, which can be computationally expensive when the dimension of θ is large. The computation of the bound is related to the quadratic matrix program, where there are highly efficient methods for solving it. We present several methods, and show that algorithms in prior work are special instances of existing optimization algorithms. Some of these methods converge to the bound monotonically, but in particular, algorithms converging nonmonotonically are much faster. We then extend the work to encompass the computation of the CRB when the Fisher information matrix is singular and when the parameter θ is subject to constraints. As an application, we consider the design of a data streaming algorithm for network measurement. © 2012 IEEE.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Composites Part B: Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper presents results of an experimental program undertaken to investigate the behavior of square and rectangular ultra high-strength concrete (UHSC)-filled fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (UHSCFFTs) under axial compression. The effects of the amount of confinement, cross-sectional aspect ratio and corner radius were investigated experimentally through the tests of 24 concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs) that were manufactured using unidirectional carbon fiber sheets and UHSC with 108 MPa average compressive strength. As the first experimental investigation on the axial compressive behavior of square and rectangular UHSCFFTs, the results of the study reported in this paper allows a number of significant conclusions to be drawn. Of primary importance, test results indicate that sufficiently confined square and rectangular UHSCFFTs can exhibit highly ductile behavior. The results also indicate that confinement effectiveness of FRP tubes increases with an increase in corner radius and as sectional aspect ratio approaches unity. It is found that UHSCFFTs having tubes of low confinement effectiveness may experience significant strength loss along the initial portions of the second branches on their stress-strain curves. Furthermore, it is observed that the behavior of UHSCFFTs at this region differs from their normal-strength concrete counterparts and is more sensitive to the effectiveness of confining tube. The second half of the paper presents the performance assessment of the existing FRP-confined concrete models in predicting the ultimate conditions of the HSC and UHSCFFTs. The results of this assessment demonstrate that the existing models provide unconservative estimates for specimens with higher concrete strengths. To address this, a new model that was developed on the basis of a comprehensive experimental test database and is applicable to both NSC and HSC of strengths up to 120 MPa is proposed. The model comparisons demonstrate that the proposed model provides significantly improved predictions of the ultimate conditions of FRP-confined HSC compared to the existing models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Brierley S.M.,University of Adelaide
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by several distinct populations of neurons, whose cell bodies either reside within (intrinsic) or outside (extrinsic) the gastrointestinal wall. Normally, most individuals are unaware of the continuous, complicated functions of these neurons. However, for patients with gastrointestinal disorders, such as IBD and IBS, altered gastrointestinal motility, discomfort and pain are common, debilitating symptoms. Although bouts of intestinal inflammation underlie the symptoms associated with IBD, increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that infection and inflammation are also key risk factors for the development of other gastrointestinal disorders. Notably, a strong correlation exists between prior exposure to gut infection and symptom occurrence in IBS. This Review discusses the evidence for neuroplasticity (structural, synaptic or intrinsic changes that alter neuronal function) affecting gastrointestinal function. Such changes are evident during inflammation and, in many cases, long after healing of the damaged tissues, when the nervous system fails to reset back to normal. Neuroplasticity within distinct populations of neurons has a fundamental role in the aberrant motility, secretion and sensation associated with common clinical gastrointestinal disorders. To find appropriate therapeutic treatments for these disorders, the extent and time course of neuroplasticity must be fully appreciated.

Ong Z.Y.,University of South Australia | Muhlhausler B.S.,University of South Australia | Muhlhausler B.S.,University of Adelaide
FASEB Journal | Year: 2011

Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal "junk-food" diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; P<0.01). mRNA expression of μ-opioid receptor (Mu) was 1.6-fold higher (P<0.01) and dopamine active transporter (DAT) was 2-fold lower (P<0.05) in JF offspring at 6 wk of age. By 3 mo, these differences were reversed, and Mu mRNA expression was 2.8-fold lower (P<0.01) and DAT mRNA expression was 1.9-fold higher (P<0.01) in the JF offspring. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to high-fat, highsugar diets results in altered development of the central reward system, resulting in increased fat intake and altered response of the reward system to excessive junk-food intake in postnatal life. © FASEB.

Chang D.,University of Adelaide
Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures | Year: 2013

Fracture and fatigue assessment of structures weakened by multiple site damage, such as two or more interacting cracks, is currently a very challenging problem. The main objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model and an approach to investigate fatigue crack closure behaviour of two through-the-thickness collinear cracks of equal length in a plate of arbitrary thickness under remote tensile cyclic loading. The developed mathematical model of the problem under consideration is based on the Dugdale strip yield model and plasticity-induced crack closure concept. The approach utilises the fundamental solution for an edge dislocation in a plate of finite thickness and the distributed dislocation technique to obtain an effective and accurate solution to the system of governing equations. The obtained results show a very good agreement with the previously published analytical solutions for limiting cases. In particular, the new results confirm that the crack closure behaviour and the opening stress variation in the case of two collinear cracks are significantly dependent on the separation gap between two cracks as well as the plate thickness. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Ltd.

Cooper A.,University of Adelaide | Stringer C.B.,Natural History Museum in London
Science | Year: 2013

The distribution of Denisovan DNA in modern human populations raises questions about where these ancient humans lived and where they interbred with modern humans.

Moran J.L.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Solomon P.J.,University of Adelaide
BMC Medical Research Methodology | Year: 2012

Background: For the analysis of length-of-stay (LOS) data, which is characteristically right-skewed, a number of statistical estimators have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression with log dependent variable. Methods. Using a cohort of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 2008-2009, 12 different methods were used for estimation of intensive care (ICU) length of stay. These encompassed risk-adjusted regression analysis of firstly: log LOS using OLS, linear mixed model [LMM], treatment effects, skew-normal and skew-t models; and secondly: unmodified (raw) LOS via OLS, generalised linear models [GLMs] with log-link and 4 different distributions [Poisson, gamma, negative binomial and inverse-Gaussian], extended estimating equations [EEE] and a finite mixture model including a gamma distribution. A fixed covariate list and ICU-site clustering with robust variance were utilised for model fitting with split-sample determination (80%) and validation (20%) data sets, and model simulation was undertaken to establish over-fitting (Copas test). Indices of model specification using Bayesian information criterion [BIC: lower values preferred] and residual analysis as well as predictive performance (R2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), mean absolute error [MAE]) were established for each estimator. Results: The data-set consisted of 111663 patients from 131 ICUs; with mean(SD) age 60.6(18.8) years, 43.0% were female, 40.7% were mechanically ventilated and ICU mortality was 7.8%. ICU length-of-stay was 3.4(5.1) (median 1.8, range (0.17-60)) days and demonstrated marked kurtosis and right skew (29.4 and 4.4 respectively). BIC showed considerable spread, from a maximum of 509801 (OLS-raw scale) to a minimum of 210286 (LMM). R2 ranged from 0.22 (LMM) to 0.17 and the CCC from 0.334 (LMM) to 0.149, with MAE 2.2-2.4. Superior residual behaviour was established for the log-scale estimators. There was a general tendency for over-prediction (negative residuals) and for over-fitting, the exception being the GLM negative binomial estimator. The mean-variance function was best approximated by a quadratic function, consistent with log-scale estimation; the link function was estimated (EEE) as 0.152(0.019, 0.285), consistent with a fractional-root function. Conclusions: For ICU length of stay, log-scale estimation, in particular the LMM, appeared to be the most consistently performing estimator(s). Neither the GLM variants nor the skew-regression estimators dominated. © 2012 Moran and Solomon; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

King B.,Flinders University | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide | Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum
Systematic Biology | Year: 2015

Virtually all models for reconstructing ancestral states for discrete characters make the crucial assumption that the trait of interest evolves at a uniform rate across the entire tree. However, this assumption is unlikely to hold in many situations, particularly as ancestral state reconstructions are being performed on increasingly large phylogenies. Here, we show how failure to account for such variable evolutionary rates can cause highly anomalous (and likely incorrect) results, while three methods that accommodate rate variability yield the opposite, more plausible, and more robust reconstructions. The random local clock method, implemented in BEAST, estimates the position and magnitude of rate changes on the tree; split BiSSE estimates separate rate parameters for pre-specified clades; and the hidden rates model partitions each character state into a number of rate categories. Simulations show the inadequacy of traditional models when characters evolve with both asymmetry (different rates of change between states within a character) and heterotachy (different rates of character evolution across different clades). The importance of accounting for rate heterogeneity in ancestral state reconstruction is highlighted empirically with a new analysis of the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles, which reveal a predominance of forward (oviparous-viviparous) transitions and very few reversals. © 2015 © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Williams M.,University of Adelaide
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2012

River history is reflected in the nature of the sediments carried and deposited over time. Using examples drawn from around the world, this account illustrates how river sediments have been used to reconstruct past environmental changes at a variety of scales in time and space. Problems arising from a patchy alluvial record and from influences external to the river basin can make interpretation difficult. The Nile is treated in some detail because its history is further complicated by tectonic, volcanic and climatic events in its headwaters and by enduring human impacts. It arose soon after 30Ma. Since that time approximately 100 000 km 3 of rock have been eroded from its Ethiopian sources and deposited in the eastern Mediterranean, with minor amounts of sediment laid down along its former flood plains in Egypt and Sudan. From these fragmentary alluvial remains, a detailed history of Nile floods and droughts has been reconstructed for the last 15 kyr, and, with less detail, for the past 150 kyr, which shows strong accordance with global fluctuations in the strength of the summer monsoon, which are in turn perhaps modulated by changes in solar insolation caused by changes in the Earth's orbit and by variations in solar irradiance. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society.

Megson E.,University of Adelaide
International journal of evidence-based healthcare | Year: 2010

For many years an association between the low bone density of osteoporosis and increased risk of periodontal bone loss has been suspected. In this review the relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal disease is considered. For this narrative review a very broad search strategy of the literature was developed using both PubMed and Scopus databases using the search words "perio" and "osteoporosis". The reference lists from the selected papers were also scanned and this provided an additional source of papers for inclusion. The inclusion/exclusion criteria, were also quite liberal with only those papers dealing with bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws, osteoporosis in edentulous individuals, as well as those not written in English being excluded. The data available suggest that reduced bone mineral density is a shared risk factor for periodontitis rather than a causal factor. However, more prospective studies are required to fully determine what, if any, relationship truly exists between periodontitis and reduced bone mineral density. More prospective studies are required to determine what, if any, relationships exist between periodontal disease and reduced bone mineral density. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Bowen J.M.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care | Year: 2013

Purpose of review Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are increasingly common treatments for cancer; however, their effective use is hampered by unwanted side effects. One of the most common of these is TKI-induced diarrhea, although so far very little is known about its mechanisms and the best management approaches. As such, this review will briefly cover the extent of the problem, models for researching the problem and touch on future directions for management approaches to the problem. Recent findings As there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of TKI-induced diarrhea in humans, this review will discuss the rodent models that have been used in the investigation of TKI-induced gut injury. This will be put into context with the pharmacological targets of TKIs and how this new information might help to better tailor treatment and management of patients on these drugs. Summary The recognition of TKI-induced diarrhea as a significant treatment side effect has prompted efforts into uncovering the pathogenesis of this complication. This will enable future patients to be better managed throughout their treatment with these highly effective cancer drugs. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pathiraja S.,University of New South Wales | Westra S.,University of Adelaide | Sharma A.,University of New South Wales
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012

Continuous simulation for design flood estimation is increasingly becoming a viable alternative to traditional event-based methods. The advantage of continuous simulation approaches is that the catchment moisture state prior to the flood-producing rainfall event is implicitly incorporated within the modeling framework, provided the model has been calibrated and validated to produce reasonable simulations. This contrasts with event-based models in which both information about the expected sequence of rainfall and evaporation preceding the flood-producing rainfall event, as well as catchment storage and infiltration properties, are commonly pooled together into a single set of "loss" parameters which require adjustment through the process of calibration. To identify the importance of accounting for antecedent moisture in flood modeling, this paper uses a continuous rainfall-runoff model calibrated to 45 catchments in the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Flood peaks derived using the historical daily rainfall record are compared with those derived using resampled daily rainfall, for which the sequencing of wet and dry days preceding the heavy rainfall event is removed. The analysis shows that there is a consistent underestimation of the design flood events when antecedent moisture is not properly simulated, which can be as much as 30% when only 1 or 2 days of antecedent rainfall are considered, compared to 5% when this is extended to 60 days of prior rainfall. These results show that, in general, it is necessary to consider both short-term memory in rainfall associated with synoptic scale dependence, as well as longer-term memory at seasonal or longer time scale variability in order to obtain accurate design flood estimates. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Carneiro G.,University of Adelaide
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2013

We introduce a new methodology for the problem of artistic image analysis, which among other tasks, involves the automatic identification of visual classes present in an art work. In this paper, we advocate the idea that artistic image analysis must explore a graph that captures the network of artistic influences by computing the similarities in terms of appearance and manual annotation. One of the novelties of our methodology is the proposed formulation that is a principled way of combining these two similarities in a single graph. Using this graph, we show that an efficient random walk algorithm based on an inverted label propagation formulation produces more accurate annotation and retrieval results compared with the following baseline algorithms: bag of visual words, label propagation, matrix completion, and structural learning. We also show that the proposed approach leads to a more efficient inference and training procedures. This experiment is run on a database containing 988 artistic images (with 49 visual classification problems divided into a multiclass problem with 27 classes and 48 binary problems), where we show the inference and training running times, and quantitative comparisons with respect to several retrieval and annotation performance measures. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

With an aging population who wish to remain living in the community, this article explores the experiences and benefits of receiving volunteer services from a home support program established to assist people with increasing needs to remain living independently. Face to face interviews explored how the services of informal carers (volunteers) provided through the program made a difference to the daily lives of 16 recipients. Improved life satisfaction was identified through the themes of being helped with daily activities, positive human contact, and fear of a poorer quality of life. It was found that addressing recipients' social, emotional, and mobility needs supported them to remain living at home. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Thiang G.C.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics | Year: 2015

Equivalence classes of gapped Hamiltonians compatible with given symmetry constraints, such as those underlying topological insulators, can be defined in many ways. For the non-chiral classes modeled by vector bundles over Brillouin tori, physically relevant equivalences include isomorphism, homotopy, and K-theory, which are inequivalent but closely related. We discuss an important subtlety which arises in the chiral Class AIII systems, where the winding number invariant is shown to be relative rather than absolute as is usually assumed. These issues are then analyzed and reconciled in the language of K-theory. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Balasuriya S.,University of Adelaide
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2015

A passive method for obtaining good mixing within microdroplets is to introduce curves in the boundaries of the microchannels in which they flow. This article develops a method which quantifies the role of piecewise circular or straight channel boundaries on the transport within a two-cell microdroplet. Transport between the two cells is quantified as an easily computable time-varying flux, which quantifies how lobes intrude from one cell to the other as the droplet traverses the channel. The computation requires neither numerically solving unsteady boundary value problems nor performing trajectory integration, thereby providing an efficient new method for investigating the role of channel geometry on intra-droplet transport. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Howard C.Q.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

A common method used in tuning adaptivepassive tuned vibration neutralizers is to adjust its resonance frequency to match the excitation frequency, which has the characteristic that the phase angle between its vibrating mass and its support is -90°. A sliding-Goertzel algorithm is presented and demonstrated for extracting the vibration signals at the frequency of interest. The benefit of using the sliding Goertzel algorithm compared to other methods when used in vibration environments with multiple tones is that additional band-pass notch filtering is not required. This algorithm could also be used for adaptive tuned mass dampers, adaptive Helmholtz resonators, and adaptive quarter-wave tubes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kimber T.E.,University of Adelaide
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports | Year: 2010

Recent advances in our understanding of the phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of Tourette syndrome are discussed. Tourette syndrome appears to involve dysfunction of limbic and somatosensory "traffic" through the basal ganglia, within corticostriatalthalamocortical circuits. Dynamic alterations in the balance of these inputs may dictate the manifestations (sensory, motor, affective, and behavioral) of the disorder at any given time. Individualized assessment and treatment are the keys to optimal treatment of this condition. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Li C.,University of California at Davis | Distelfeld A.,University of California at Davis | Comis A.,University of Adelaide | Dubcovsky J.,University of California at Davis
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

Summary The transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the temperate cereals is mainly regulated by seasonal cues including vernalization (determined mainly by VRN1 and VRN2 genes) and photoperiod (determined mainly by PPD1 and CO2 genes). The wheat VRN3 gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis FT, plays a central role in the integration of the competing signals from these two pathways. Under long days, VRN3 transcription is down-regulated by VRN2, a unique flowering repressor in cereals, and up-regulated by CO2. Overexpression of VRN3 overcomes VRN2 repression and promotes VRN1 transcription and flowering initiation. Using yeast two- and three-hybrid assays we show here that the CCT domains present in VRN2 and CO2 proteins interact with the same subset of eight NF-Y proteins, and that these CCT proteins compete with NF-YA for interactions with NF-YB proteins. We have confirmed all these interactions in vitro, and the interactions between VRN2 and two of the three NF-YB proteins were further confirmed in planta. In addition, we show that mutations in the CCT domain of VRN2 that eliminate the vernalization requirement in winter wheat also reduce the strength of the interactions between VRN2 and NF-Y proteins, and the ability of VRN2 to compete with CO2. Taken together, our results suggest that the interactions between CCT and NF-Y proteins play an important role in the integration of the vernalization and photoperiod seasonal signals, and provide a flexible combinatorial system to integrate multiple developmental and environmental signals in the regulation of flowering initiation in the temperate cereals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ellis R.D.,University of Queensland | McWhorter T.J.,University of Adelaide | Maron M.,University of Queensland
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2012

The need to understand how anthropogenic landscape alteration affects fauna populations has never been more pressing. The importance of developing an understanding of the processes behind local extinction is widely acknowledged, but inference from spatial patterns of fauna distribution continues to dominate. However, this approach is limited in its ability to generate strong predictions about future distributions and local extinctions, especially when population-level responses to landscape alteration are subject to long time lags. We review the potential for indices of physiological stress and condition to contribute to understanding of how landscape pattern affects species persistence. Such measures can indicate habitat quality from the perspective of the individual animal, and can reveal environmental stressors before their negative consequences begin to manifest at a population level. Spatial patterns of chronic stress may therefore yield valuable insight into how landscape alteration influences species. We propose that the emerging disciplines of conservation physiology and macrophysiology have much to offer spatial ecology, and have great potential to reveal the physiological pathways through which habitat alteration affects fauna populations and their persistence in fragmented landscapes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Vaccaro S.R.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

The energy barrier to the activated state for the S4 voltage sensor of a K channel is dependent on the electrostatic force between positively charged S4 residues and negatively charged groups on neighboring segments, the potential difference across the membrane, and the dielectric boundary force on the charged residues near the interface between the solvent and the low dielectric region of the membrane gating pore. The variation of the potential function with transverse displacement and rotation of the S4 sensor across the membrane may be derived from a solution of Poisson's equation for the electrostatic potential. By approximating the energy of an S4 sensor along a path between stationary states by a piecewise linear function of the transverse displacement, the dynamics of slow activation, in the millisecond range, may be described by the lowest frequency component of an analytical solution of interacting diffusion equations of Fokker-Planck type for resting and barrier regions. The solution of the Smoluchowski equations for an S4 sensor in an energy landscape with several barriers is in accord with an empirical master equation for multistep activation in a voltage-dependent K channel. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Silva N.,Kings College London | Atlantis E.,University of Adelaide | Ismail K.,Kings College London
Current Psychiatry Reports | Year: 2012

We review the validity of the evidence for an association between depression and the risk of insulin resistance (IR). We describe the potentially plausible biological and behavioral mechanisms that explain how depression increases the risk of IR and consequent overt diabetes. We have identified gaps in the literature to guide future research. Evidence for bidirectional associations between depression and IR is inconsistent. Results showing positive associations between depression and IR are derived from cross-sectional studies, whereas negative findings are typically reported in cohort studies. On the other hand, tentative trial evidence suggests that the effective treatment of depression can improve IR, and that lifestyle programs improve IR and reduce depressive symptoms. These emerging themes could lead to potential new multidisciplinary approaches to preventing diabetes. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Among both ecologists and the wider community there is a tacit assumption that predators regulate populations of their prey. But there is evidence from a wide taxonomic and geographic range of studies that predators that are adapted to co-evolved prey generally do not regulate their prey. This is because predators either cannot reproduce as fast as their prey and/or are inefficient hunters unable to catch enough prey to sustain maximum reproduction. The greater capacity of herbivores to breed successfully is, however, normally restricted by a lack of enough food of sufficient quality to support reproduction. But whenever this shortage is alleviated by a large pulse of food, herbivores increase their numbers to outbreak levels. Their predators are unable to contain this increase, but their numbers, too, surge in response to this increase in food. Eventually both their populations will crash once the food supply runs out, first for the herbivores and then for the predators. Then an "over-run" of predators will further depress the already declining prey population, appearing to be controlling its abundance. This latter phenomenon has led many ecologists to conclude that predators are regulating the numbers of their prey. However, it is the same process that is revealed during outbreaks that limits populations of both predator and prey in "normal" times, although this is usually not readily apparent. Nevertheless, as all the diverse cases discussed here attest, the abundance of predators and their co-evolved prey are both limited by their food: the predators are passengers, not drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Adams R.J.,University of Adelaide
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy | Year: 2010

A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual's competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been promoted as one such potential approach. © 2010 Adams.

Reynolds L.K.,University of Virginia | Waycott M.,University of Adelaide | Mcglathery K.J.,University of Virginia
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

Ecological restoration assists the recovery of degraded ecosystems; however, restoration can have deleterious effects such as outbreeding depression when source material is not chosen carefully and has non-local adaptations. We surveyed 23 eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations along the North American Atlantic coast to evaluate genetic structure and connectivity among restored and naturally recruited populations. While populations along the North America Atlantic coast were genetically distinctive, significant migration was detected among populations. All estimates of connectivity (FST, migration rate base on rare alleles, and Bayesian modelling) showed a general north to south pattern of migration, corresponding to the typical long-shore currents in this region. Individual naturally recruited meadows in the Virginia coastal bays appear to be the result of dispersal from different meadows north of the region. This supports the hypothesis that recruitment into this region is typically a slow, episodic process rather than a permanent, continuous connection between the populations. While natural recovery of populations that were catastrophically lost in the 1930s has been slow, large-scale seed-based restoration has been very successful at quickly restoring landscape-scale areal coverage (over 1600 ha in just 10 years). Our results show that restoration was also successful at restoring meadows with high genetic diversity. Naturally recruited meadows were less diverse and exhibited signs of genetic drift. Synthesis. Our analyses demonstrate that metapopulation dynamics are important to the natural recovery of seagrass ecosystems that have experienced catastrophic loss over large spatial scales; however, natural recovery processes are slow and inefficient at recovering genetic diversity and population structure when recruitment barriers exist, such as a limited seed source. Seed-based restoration provides a greater abundance of propagules, rapidly facilitates the recovery of populations with higher genetic diversity, and when seed sources are chosen carefully protects regional genetic structure. First-order estimates indicated that the genetic diversity achieved by active restoration in 10 years would have otherwise taken between 125 and 185 years to achieve through natural recruitment events. We demonstrate that metapopulations are important to recovery of seagrass ecosystems that have experienced catastrophic loss over large spatial scales. However, natural recovery is slow and inefficient at recovering genetic diversity when recruitment barriers exist. Seed-based restoration rapidly facilitates the recovery of populations to higher genetic diversity, and when seed sources are chosen carefully protects regional genetic structure. © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Augello M.A.,Thomas Jefferson University | Hickey T.E.,University of Adelaide | Knudsen K.E.,Thomas Jefferson University
EMBO Journal | Year: 2011

FOXA transcription factors are potent, context-specific mediators of development that hold specialized functions in hormone-dependent tissues. Over the last several years, FOXA1 has emerged as a critical mediator of nuclear steroid receptor signalling, manifest at least in part through regulation of androgen receptor and oestrogen receptor activity. Recent findings point towards a major role for FOXA1 in modulating nuclear steroid receptor activity in breast and prostate cancer, and suggest that FOXA1 may significantly contribute to pro-tumourigenic phenotypes. The present review article will focus on the mechanisms, consequence, and clinical relevance of FOXA1-mediated steroid nuclear receptor signalling in human malignancy. © 2011 European Molecular Biology Organization | All Rights Reserved.

Rengasamy P.,University of Adelaide
Australian Journal of Soil Research | Year: 2010

Pot experiments were conducted using a sandy loam soil and various electrolyte solutions such as NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO 4, and Hoagland nutrient solution containing all macro- and micro-nutrient elements in appropriate proportions, inducing different electrical conductivity (EC) levels of the soil solution during the growth of Krichauff wheat while the water content in the pot soils was maintained at field capacity. The resulting differences in dry matter production after 40 days of growth clearly indicated the continuous operation of osmotic effect as the EC of the soil solution increased from 0.7 to 41.0dS/m. However, the osmotic effect became dominant and severely restricted plant growth when the soil solution EC increased above a 'threshold value', which was 25dS/m, corresponding to an osmotic pressure of 900kPa, in this experiment. Below this EC value, particularly at low EC values, ionic effects due to Na+, Ca 2+,+, SO42-, and Cl- were also evident, but it could not be concluded whether these effects were due to toxicity or ion imbalance. The osmotic effect at EC values above the threshold resulted in greatly reduced water uptake from pot soils, the unused water being in the range 8996% of the field capacity of the soil. Water use efficiency is a major factor in profitable and sustainable dryland agriculture. Both soil management and selection and breeding of salt-tolerant plants should concentrate on ensuring that the threshold EC value for severe osmotic effects is not reached under field conditions. © CSIRO 2010.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2013

This paper presents results of an experimental study on the behavior of square and rectangular high-strength concrete (HSC)-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tubes (HSCFFT) under concentric compression. The effects of the tube thickness, sectional aspect ratio, and corner radius on the axial compressive behavior of concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFT) were investigated experimentally through the tests of 24 CFFTs that were manufactured using unidirectional carbon fiber sheets and high-strength concrete with 78 MPa average compressive strength. As the first experimental investigation on the axial compressive behavior of square and rectangular HSCFFTs, the results of the study reported in this paper allow a number of significant conclusions to be drawn. First and foremost, test results indicate that sufficiently confined square and rectangular HSCFFTs can exhibit highly ductile behavior. The results also indicate that confinement effectiveness of FRP tubes increases with an increase in corner radius and decreases with an increase in sectional aspect ratio. It is also observed and discussed that HSCFFTs having tubes of low confinement effectiveness may experience a significant strength loss at the point of transition on their stress-strain curves. Furthermore, it is found that the behavior of HSCFFTs at this region differ from that of normal-strength CFFTs and that it is more sensitive to the effectiveness of a confining tube. Examination of the test results have also lead to a number of important observations on the influence of the key confinement parameters on the development and distribution of the hoop strains on the tubes of CFFTs, which are presented and discussed in the paper. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Goldney R.D.,University of Adelaide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: To review publications addressing suicidal behaviour in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1967-2012. Method: A PubMed/MEDLINE search using the words suicide, attempted suicide (and their synonyms) and Aust NZ J Psychiatr was carried out, and an examination of all tables of contents of the journal for the years 1967-2012 was performed. Results: In 342 (7.4%) of 4599 articles there was reference to suicidal behaviour. This ratio was consistent over time, although the nature of their content changed from broader epidemiological and clinical review studies to more focused reports. Conclusions: Papers addressing suicidal behaviour have been published consistently in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry since its inception in 1967. Early clinical reviews remain pertinent to the present time. © TheRoyal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2013.

Adams M.,South Australian Museum | Adams M.,University of Adelaide | Raadik T.A.,Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research | Raadik T.A.,University of Canberra | And 2 more authors.
Systematic Biology | Year: 2014

Several recent estimates of global biodiversity have concluded that the total number of species on Earth lies near the lower end of the wide range touted in previous decades. However, none of these recent estimates formally explore the real elephant in the room, namely, what proportion of species are taxonomically invisible to conventional assessments, and thus, as undiagnosed cryptic species, remain uncountable until revealed by multi-gene molecular assessments. Here we explore the significance and extent of so-called hyper-cryptic species complexes, using the Australian freshwater fish Galaxias olidus as a proxy for any organism whose taxonomy ought to be largely finalized when compared to those in little-studied or morphologically undifferentiated groups. Our comprehensive allozyme (838 fish for 54 putative loci), mtDNA (557 fish for 605 bp of cytb), and morphological (1963-3389 vouchers for 17-58 characters) assessment of this species across its broad geographic range revealed a 1500% increase in species-level biodiversity, and suggested that additional taxa may remain undiscovered. Importantly, while all 15 candidate species were morphologically diagnosable a posteriori from one another, single-gene DNA barcoding proved largely unsuccessful as an a priori method for species identification. These results lead us to draw two strong inferences of relevance to estimates of global biodiversity. First, hyper-cryptic complexes are likely to be common in many organismal groups. Second, no assessment of species numbers can be considered best practice in the molecular age unless it explicitly includes estimates of the extent of cryptic and hyper-cryptic biodiversity. [Galaxiidae; global estimates; hyper-diverse; mountain galaxias; species counts; species richness.] © 2014 The Author(s) 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Pickard W.F.,Washington University in St. Louis | Abbott D.,University of Adelaide
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012

The storage of power line frequency electrical energy as electrical energy is limited to capacitors and inductors, and neither has proven particularly practical where massive amounts of energy are involved. When electric power is needed, the stored energy is back-converted to electricity and returned to the grid. These conversions, however, are not ideally efficient, and each process is characterized by a figure of merit called the cycle efficiency, defined as the ratio of the total joules delivered to the grid over a suitable study period divided by the total joules received from the grid during the same period. As the number of grid-connected CSP farms increases, the resulting spatial diversity provides opportunity for averaging out the intermittency. Also, if CSP farms are connected across several time zones, and even across seasonal boundaries, the need for storage is lessened. It makes little sense to convert electricity to heat to store it because of the low efficiency of back conversion.

Li H.,Bohai University | Gao H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Gao H.,King Abdulaziz University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with the stabilization problem for a class of Markovian stochastic jump systems against sensor fault, actuator fault and input disturbances simultaneously. In the proposed approach, the original plant is first augmented into a new descriptor system, where the state vector, disturbance vector and fault vector are assembled into the state vector of the new system. Then, a novel augmented sliding mode observer is presented for the augmented system and is utilized to eliminate the effects of sensor faults and disturbances. An observer-based mode-dependent control scheme is developed to stabilize the resulting overall closed-loop jump system. A practical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wu Z.-G.,Zhejiang University | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Su H.,Zhejiang University | Chu J.,Zhejiang University
Automatica | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with the problem of asynchronous l2-L filtering for discrete-time stochastic Markov jump systems with sensor nonlinearity. The sensor nonlinearity is assumed to occur randomly according to a stochastic variable satisfying the Bernoulli distribution. A sufficient condition is first given such that the resultant filtering error system, which is a kind of nonhomogeneous Markov jump system, is stochastically stable with a guaranteed l2-L performance index. Then the existence criterion of the desired asynchronous filter with piecewise homogeneous Markov chain is proposed in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness and potential of the developed theoretical results. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Young G.D.,University of Adelaide
Heart Lung and Circulation | Year: 2012

Pacemaker and implantable defibrillator implantation rates have increased significantly over the last decade. This, along with increasing complexity of the devices, has placed a large burden on the physicians and technicians that provide the follow up services for these patients. Recently technological advances have allowed remote interrogation of pacemakers and defibrillators with subsequent transmission of this information to a remote location for assessment. The technology behind remote device follow up, the potential advantages and the status of this technology is addressed in this article. © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ).

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2015

The frailty syndrome refers to the concurrence of a number of specific clinical manifestations that include unintentional weight loss, decreased muscle mass (sarcopenia), exhaustion, reduced physical strength and activity, and slow ambulation. It involves multiple systems, is an increasing problem in elderly populations, and is strongly associated with increases in both morbidity and mortality. Despite its recognition clinically, the frailty syndrome is not often identified in forensic situations and is only infrequently mentioned in the associated literature. As there is a direct relationship between the frailty syndrome and significant adverse health outcomes the syndrome has clear medicolegal significance. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

White T.C.R.,University of Adelaide
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2010

It has been proposed that the colour of many plant galls evolved as an aposematic signal to protect the contained gall-maker from attack by chewing herbivores. But the evidence would suggest the more likely hypothesis is that the colour is caused by the galler inducing the gall to senesce early, thus releasing nutrients from the dying tissues of the gall to the benefit of the gall-maker. External agents, like chewing herbivores or natural enemies of the gall-maker, may subsequently learn to use these colours as signals. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

The blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is disrupted following spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in vasogenic edema and increased intrathecal pressure (ITP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) has been implicated in the development of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, edema, and increased intracranial pressure following brain injury, although it has not been investigated in SCI. The balloon compression model of experimental SCI has many advantages in that it replicates the "closed" environment observed clinically. Accordingly, this study characterized whether this model produces an increase in BSCB permeability and edema, and whether a SP, NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist, N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (NAT) reduces such BSCB disruption and edema formation. At 30 min post-injury, animals were administered 2.5 mg/kg NAT or saline. Subgroups of animals were assessed for BSCB permeability (Evan's Blue) and spinal cord edema (wet weight/dry weight). BSCB permeability and edema were significantly increased in injured groups compared with sham (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between vehicle and NAT treatment. We conclude that the balloon compression model of SCI produces significant BSCB disruption although NAT treatment did not attenuate BSCB permeability or edema. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the role of SP following SCI.

Davey K.R.,University of Adelaide
Education for Chemical Engineers | Year: 2011

Results from a case study of student peer assessment, as an alternate learning activity to traditional lecturer- and tutor-assessments, in a two-year, Master of Chemical Engineering Coursework-program show that, overall, whilst students gave higher marks than the lecturer in summative grading (Student:Lecturer S/L ∼1.2), there was no correlation between student Assessors who gave high marks and Assessees who received high marks, or, between Assessors who gave low marks and Assessees who received low marks. Each of 14 students (4 female and 10 male) enrolled in a one-semester, introductory course in Pinch Analysis were required to anonymously mark the solutions of a randomly selected class colleague to each of nine assigned problems using, as a guide, idealized solutions provided by the lecturer. The assigned problems involved four-descriptive and five-numeric types. None of the students had taken part in peer assessment beforehand. Student Assessors generally gave higher marks for descriptive questions than the lecturer (S/L ∼1.4). However, both students and lecturer marked the numeric questions equally on average. Assessee expectations that class-peers would mark harder than the lecturer were therefore not borne out. An independent and unique Student Experience of Learning & Teaching (SELT) survey revealed broad student agreement that peer assessment was an effective way to learn (13/13) and that it stimulated interest in the course material (13/13). Students (12/13) stated that idealized solutions of the lecturer were essential for successful peer assessment outcomes. Research results show therefore that these students highly valued this complementary and self-reflective learning experience. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

Chronic pain patients have increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell Interkeukin-1β production following TLR2 and TLR4 simulation. Here we have used a human-to-rat and rat-to-human approach to further investigate whether peripheral blood immune responses to TLR agonists might be suitable for development as possible systems biomarkers of chronic pain in humans. Study 1: using a graded model of chronic constriction injury in rats, behavioral allodynia was assessed followed by in vitro quantification of TLR2 and TLR4 agonist-induced stimulation of IL-1β release by PBMCs and spinal cord tissues (n = 42; 6 rats per group). Statistical models were subsequently developed using the IL-1β responses, which distinguished the pain/no pain states and predicted the degree of allodynia. Study 2: the rat-derived statistical models were tested to assess their predictive utility in determining the pain status of a published human cohort that consists of a heterogeneous clinical pain population (n = 19) and a pain-free population (n = 11). The predictive ability of one of the rat models was able to distinguish pain patients from controls with a ROC AUC of 0.94. The rat model was used to predict the presence of pain in a new chronic pain cohort and was able to accurately predict the presence of pain in 28 out of the 34 chronic pain participants. These clinical findings confirm our previous discoveries of the involvement of the peripheral immune system in chronic pain. Given that these findings are reflected in the prospective graded rat data, it suggests that the TLR response from peripheral blood and spinal cord were related to pain and these clinical findings do indeed act as system biomarkers for the chronic pain state. Hence, they provide additional impetus to the neuroimmune interaction to be a drug target for chronic pain.

Balasuriya S.,Connecticut College | Finn M.D.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

With enhancing mixing in micro- or nanofluidic applications in mind, the problem of maximizing fluid transport across a fluid interface subject to an available energy budget is examined. The optimum cross-interface perturbing velocity is obtained explicitly in the time-periodic instance using an Euler-Lagrange constrained optimization approach. Numerical investigations which calculate transferred lobe areas and cross-interface flux are used to verify that the predicted strategy achieves optimum transport. Explicit active protocols for achieving this optimal transport are suggested. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Melo J.V.,University of Adelaide
Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program | Year: 2011

Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who have achieved a complete molecular response (CMR) defined by no detectable BCR-ABL mRNA on imatinib (IM) treatment often ask whether it is necessary for treatment to continue. We now know that approximately 40% of patients with a stable CMR for at least 2 years are able to stop IM treatment and remain in molecular remission for at least 2 years. This exciting observation has raised hopes that many patients can be cured of CML without the need for transplantation and its attendant risks. One might argue that for many patients maintenance therapy with IM or an alternative kinase inhibitor is so well tolerated that there is no imperative to stop treatment; however, chronic medical therapy may be associated with impaired quality of life and reduced compliance. Inferences about the biology of CML in patients responding to kinase inhibitors can be drawn from clinical experience, molecular monitoring data, and experimental observations. We summarize this information herein, and propose 3 possible pathways to "cure" of CML by kinase inhibitors: stem-cell depletion, stem-cell exhaustion, and immunological control.

Gilchrist R.B.,University of Adelaide
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2011

The last 510 years of research in ovarian and oocyte biology has delivered some major new advances in knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes regulating oocyte maturation and oocyte developmental competence. These new insights include, among others: (1) the knowledge that oocytes regulate granulosa and cumulus cell differentiation, ovulation rate and fertility via the secretion of soluble paracrine growth factors; (2) new perspectives on the participation of cyclic nucleotides, phosphodiesterases and gap junctions in the regulation of oocyte meiotic arrest and resumption; and (3) the new appreciation of the mechanisms of LH-induced oocyte maturation and ovulation mediated by the follicular cascade of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptides, the EGF receptor and their intracellular second messengers. These recent insights into oocytefollicle cell interactions provide opportunities for the development of new approaches to oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM). Laboratory IVM methodologies have changed little over the past 2030 years and IVM remains notably less efficient than hormone-stimulated IVF, limiting its wider application in reproductive medicine and animal breeding. The challenge for oocyte biologists and clinicians practicing IVM is to modernise clinical IVM systems to benefit from these new insights into oocytefollicle cell interactions in vivo. © 2011 IETS.

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

A number of questions must be asked before asthma can be accepted as a valid diagnosis: were the episodes of shortness of breath investigated? Are there changes at autopsy in keeping with asthma? Did asthma either contribute to the terminal episode, cause death, or was it coincidental? Finally, is it possible that other conditions may have accounted for the clinical manifestations? A review of files at FSSA over a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 identified six cases where shortness of breath and/or wheezing had been incorrectly attributed to asthma. Five were due to pulmonary thromboembolism and one to multiple injuries. In the latter case, an irreducible, left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was present. There was no morphological evidence of asthma in any case. Autopsy examination may, therefore, be crucial in revealing other conditions that may have caused or contributed to episodic breathlessness that may have been incorrectly attributed to asthma. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Suh J.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2014

Asia has accounted for the vast majority of the world's rice and meat-duck production. In the integrated rice–duck farming (IRDF) system, ducklings are released into rice paddies in order to maximize the use of renewable resources in a closed-cycle flow of nutrients during rice vegetation periods. Rice–duck farming used to be widely adopted in tropical and subtropical eastern Asian countries, but has remained unpopular in the wake of prevailing agricultural productivism characterized by specialization, intensification, mechanization and excessive dependence on agrochemicals. This paper sets out institutional pathways that can redevelop IRDF in Asia. These include organic food certification systems, organic farmers' cooperatives, community-wide organic farming, localized technical extension and educational services, and between-farm rice–duck integration. A comprehensive package of these institutional tools would further expedite the expansion of IRDF particularly in low-income Southeast Asia where the rice or duck farming landscape is overwhelmingly dominated by smallholders. © 2014 Taylor & Francis

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide | Summersides G.,Forensic Science SA
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

Abstract: To determine whether vitreous humor sodium levels might be of use in evaluating deaths associated with immersion, samples of vitreous humor were prospectively evaluated at autopsy over a 4-year period from 2006 to 2009. There were 19 cases of saltwater immersion (age range 9-76years; mean age 44years; M:F, 2.8:1) and 16 freshwater immersions (age range 2-81years; mean age 27years; M:F, 2.2:1). In the group of saltwater drownings, vitreous humor sodium levels were elevated, ranging from 145 to 184mM (mean=160.2±9.9mM), and in the cases of freshwater drowning, the levels were reduced, ranging from 73 to 148mM (mean=129.8±17mM; p<0.0001). Alterations in electrolyte levels may have been because of hemoconcentration or dilution from electrolyte fluxes in the lungs, or from passive diffusion during immersion. This study has demonstrated that vitreous sodium level is an easily performed test that may be a useful adjunct to the investigation of possible immersion deaths. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Van Duivenvoorde W.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology | Year: 2014

The Tektaş Burnu ship (440-425 BC) sank along a rough and desolate stretch of the Turkish Aegean coast. Archaeological excavation of the shipwreck site by the stitute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University resulted the retrieval of hundreds of small fragments from the ship's wooden hull and its metal fasteners. Recent study of this artefact assemblage suggests that the coastal trader was built with pe planks and made-frames, and assembled by a shell-based construction method. Fasteners clude pegged mortise-and-tenon jots and double-clenched copper nails, and the ship may have had laced extremities consistent with other contemporaneous shipwrecks. © 2013 The Nautical Archaeology Society.

Goldwater P.N.,Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Goldwater P.N.,University of Adelaide
BMC Medicine | Year: 2011

Several theories of the underlying mechanisms of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have been proposed. These theories have born relatively narrow beach-head research programs attracting generous research funding sustained for many years at expense to the public purse. This perspective endeavors to critically examine the evidence and bases of these theories and determine their plausibility; and questions whether or not a safe and reasoned hypothesis lies at their foundation. The Opinion sets specific criteria by asking the following questions: 1. Does the hypothesis take into account the key pathological findings in SIDS? 2. Is the hypothesis congruent with the key epidemiological risk factors? 3. Does it link 1 and 2? Falling short of any one of these answers, by inference, would imply insufficient grounds for a sustainable hypothesis. Some of the hypotheses overlap, for instance, notional respiratory failure may encompass apnea, prone sleep position, and asphyxia which may be seen to be linked to co-sleeping. For the purposes of this paper, each element will be assessed on the above criteria. © 2011 Goldwater; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide | Cau A.,Museo Geologico e Paleontologico Giovanni Capellini | Cau A.,University of Bologna | And 3 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Recent discoveries have highlighted the dramatic evolutionary transformation of massive, ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs into light, volant birds.Here,we apply Bayesian approaches (originally developed for inferring geographic spread and rates of molecular evolution in viruses) in a different context: to infer size changes and rates of anatomical innovation (across up to 1549 skeletal characters) in fossils.These approaches identify two drivers underlying the dinosaur-bird transition.The theropod lineage directly ancestral to birds undergoes sustained miniaturization across 50 million years and at least 12 consecutive branches (internodes) and evolves skeletal adaptations four times faster than other dinosaurs.The distinct, prolonged phase of miniaturization along the bird stem would have facilitated the evolution of many novelties associated with small body size, such as reorientation of body mass, increased aerial ability, and paedomorphic skulls with reduced snouts but enlarged eyes and brains.

Deussen A.R.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Women may experience differing types of pain and discomfort following birth, including cramping after birth pains associated with uterine involution. To assess the effectiveness and safety of analgesia for relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2010) and the reference lists of trials and review articles. All identified published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing two different types of analgesia or analgesia with placebo or analgesia with no treatment, for the relief of after birth pains following vaginal birth. Types of analgesia included pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Two review authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We have included 18 studies (involving 1498 women) in this review. However, only nine of the included studies (with 750 women) reported 24 comparisons of analgesia with other analgesia or placebo and had data that could be included in our meta-analyses. The majority of studies investigated pharmacological analgesics and these were grouped into classes for this review. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were significantly better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine involution as assessed by their summed pain intensity differences (SPID) (mean difference (MD) 4.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.87 to 5.82; three studies, 204 women) and summed pain relief scores (MD 5.94; 95% CI 3.83 to 8.01; three studies, 204 women). NSAIDS were compared with opioids in one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. A larger study of 127 women found NSAIDs to be significantly better than opioids at reducing pain intensity six hours following study intervention (MD -0.70; 95% CI -1.04 to -0.35). Opioids were compared with placebo in three studies that could be included in meta-analyses; one small study of 23 women reporting SPID and summed pain relief and found no difference. One study of 95 women found no difference in pain intensity six hours following the study intervention. A third study of 108 women found significantly more women in the placebo group reported no pain relief than women in the opioid group (risk ratio 0.10; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.23). Aspirin was significantly better than paracetamol when pain intensity score was assessed six hours after study intervention (MD 0.85; 95% CI 0.29 to 1.41; one study 48 women) at relieving pain from uterine involution. Paracetamol was not better than placebo when pain intensity was assessed six hours after the study intervention in one study of 48 women. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) including aspirin were better than placebo at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth. NSAIDs were better than paracetamol and paracetamol was not better than placebo, though numbers of participants for these comparisons were small. Data for opioids compared with NSAIDs and opioids compared with placebo were conflicting, with some measures showing similar effect and others indicating NSAIDs were better than opioids and opioids were not better than placebo. There were insufficient data to make conclusions regarding the effectiveness of opioids at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution.The median year of publication of included studies was 1981; therefore more research is needed to assess the effectiveness of current pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesia at relieving pain from uterine cramping/involution following vaginal birth.

Rumbold A.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage, maternal adverse outcomes and fetal and infant adverse outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (21 June 2010). All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions, prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). At least two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We identified 28 trials assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Overall, the included trials involved 96,674 women and 98,267 pregnancies. Three trials were cluster randomised and combined contributed data for 62,669 women and 64,210 pregnancies in total. No significant differences were seen between women taking any vitamins compared with controls for total fetal loss (relative risk (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.14), early or late miscarriage (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.25) or stillbirth (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.13) and most of the other primary outcomes, using fixed-effect models. Compared with controls, women given any type of vitamin(s) pre or peri-conception were more likely to have a multiple pregnancy (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.70, three trials, 20,986 women). Taking any vitamin supplements prior to pregnancy or in early pregnancy does not prevent women experiencing miscarriage or stillbirth. However, women taking vitamin supplements may be more likely to have a multiple pregnancy. There is insufficient evidence to examine the effects of different combinations of vitamins on miscarriage, stillbirth or other maternal and infant outcomes.

Crowther C.A.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

It has been unclear whether repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids are beneficial. To assess the effectiveness and safety of repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2011), searched reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted authors for further data. Randomised controlled trials of women who had already received a single course of corticosteroids seven or more days previously and considered still at risk of preterm birth. We assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 10 trials (more than 4730 women and 5650 babies) with low to moderate risk of bias. Treatment of women who remain at risk of preterm birth seven or more days after an initial course of prenatal corticosteroids with repeat dose(s), compared with no repeat corticosteroid treatment, reduced the risk of their infants experiencing the primary outcomes respiratory distress syndrome (risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.91, eight trials, 3206 infants, numbers needed to treat (NNT) 17, 95% CI 11 to 32) and serious infant outcome (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.94, seven trials, 5094 infants, NNT 30, 95% CI 19 to 79).Treatment with repeat dose(s) of corticosteroid was associated with a reduction in mean birthweight (mean difference (MD) -75.79 g, 95% CI -117.63 to -33.96, nine trials, 5626 infants). However, outcomes that adjusted birthweight for gestational age (birthweight Z scores, birthweight multiples of the median and small-for-gestational age) did not differ between treatment groups.At early childhood follow-up no statistically significant differences were seen for infants exposed to repeat prenatal corticosteroids compared with unexposed infants for the primary outcomes (total deaths; survival free of any disability or major disability; disability; or serious outcome) or in the secondary outcome growth assessments. The short-term benefits for babies of less respiratory distress and fewer serious health problems in the first few weeks after birth support the use of repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids for women still at risk of preterm birth seven days or more after an initial course. These benefits were associated with a small reduction in size at birth. The current available evidence reassuringly shows no significant harm in early childhood, although no benefit.Further research is needed on the long-term benefits and risks for the woman and baby. Individual patient data meta-analysis may clarify how to maximise benefit and minimise harm.    

Twidale C.R.,University of Adelaide
Geomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement | Year: 2014

Pediments have been regarded as smooth, gently inclined, surfaces that front receding escarpments, are epigene forms shaped by running water, and are well represented in arid and semi-arid lands. Covered pediments carrying a cover of coarse allochthonous detritus largely conform to this model, but are of limited distribution. The more common mantled and rock forms however do not. Many of the mantled pediments developed in sedimentary terrains are associated with scarps that have been worn back, but the mantle comprises a surficial wash over a weathered mantle in situ: they are first-stage etch forms. Many mantled pediments shaped in granite front scarps that demonstrably recede only slowly, and others lack a backing upland and scarp. Though many are drained by stream networks some lack any surface drainage, and in any event, though diffuse drainage can erode friable materials, they do not greatly affect coherent rocks such as fresh granite. The mantle consists of a veneer of introduced material over weathered granite in situ: the bedrock is shaped by subsurface moisture attack or mantle-controlled planation. They too are first-stage etch forms. Diffuse wash can remove friable grus and where the mantle has been stripped the weathering front is exposed in rock pediments and platforms, both of which are etch forms.

Abbott D.,University of Adelaide
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2010

We take a fresh look at the major nonrenewable and renewable energy sources and examine their long-term viability, scalability, and the sustainability of the resources that they use. We achieve this by asking what would happen if each energy source was a single supply of power for the world, as a gedanken experiment. From this perspective, a solar hydrogen economy emerges as a dominant solution to the world's energy needs. If we globally tap sunlight over only 1% of the incident area at only an energy conversion efficiency of 1%, it is simple to show that this meets our current world energy consumption. As 9% of the planet surface area is taken up by desert and efficiencies well over 1% are possible, in practice, this opens up many exciting future opportunities. Specifically, we find solar thermal collection via parabolic reflectorswhere focussed sunlight heats steam to about 600 °C to drive a turbineis the best available technology for generating electricity. For static power storage, to provide electricity at night, there are a number of viable options that are discussed. For mobile power storage, such as for fueling vehicles, we argue the case for both liquid and gaseous hydrogen for use in internal combustion engines. We outline a number of reasons why emiconductor solar cells and hydrogen fuel cells do not appear to scale up for a global solution. We adopt an approach that envisions exploiting massive economy of scale by establishing large arrays of solar collectors in hot desert regions of the world. For nonrenewable sources we argue that we cannot wait for them to be exhaustedwe need to start conserving them imminently. What is often forgotten in the energy debate is that oil, natural gas, and coal are not only used as energy sources, but we also rely on them for embodying many crucial physical products. It is this fact that requires us to develop a solar hydrogen platform with urgency. It is argued that a solar future is unavoidable, as ultimately humankind has no other choice. © 2006 IEEE.

Young M.D.,University of Adelaide
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

Most of the world's water entitlement and allocation regimes evolved during periods of abundance and, hence, are not well suited to the management of water scarcity. Development of the institutional arrangements necessary to manage changing demands and supplies is in its infancy.Design criteria for the development of a set of institutional arrangements for the robust management of scarce water resources is offered and then used to develop a generic framework for the allocation and use of water. Variations to account for differences in ground, regulated and unregulated water resources are offered. The question of how best to sequence reform of existing water entitlement and allocation regimes is also addressed.The result is a recommendation for the use of water sharing plans to determine how much water may be used at any point in time and an unbundled suite of arrangements that enable efficient but separated management of long term and short term considerations and, also, the control of externalities.System-wide adjustment is facilitated through the periodic revision of water sharing plans. Individual adjustment to changing circumstances is facilitated through trade in entitlements and allocations.Before the introduction of institutional arrangements that encourage adjustment through trade it is recommended that the abstraction regime used be converted into one that accounts for return flows and allocates water according to shareholder entitlement. Seniority, beneficial-use criteria and opportunities to third parties to prevent adjustment according to pre-specified rules should be repealed. Well-designed regimes can be extended to include dam-capacity shares and allow the use of market-based instruments in delivery of water-quality objectives. Pooling can be used to lower the costs of risk management. © 2013 .

Meylan M.H.,University of Newcastle | Bennetts L.G.,University of Adelaide | Kohout A.L.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2014

In situ measurements of ocean surface wave spectra evolution in the Antarctic marginal ice zone are described. Analysis of the measurements shows significant wave heights and peak periods do not vary appreciably in approximately the first 80km of the ice-covered ocean. Beyond this region, significant wave heights attenuate and peak periods increase. It is shown that attenuation rates are insensitive to amplitudes for long-period waves but increase with increasing amplitude above some critical amplitude for short-period waves. Attenuation rates of the spectral components of the wavefield are calculated. It is shown that attenuation rates decrease with increasing wave period. Further, for long-period waves the decrease is shown to be proportional to the inverse of the period squared. This relationship can be used to efficiently implement wave attenuation through the marginal ice zone in ocean-scale wave models. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Nuberg I.K.,University of Adelaide
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2015

This paper describes the fuelwood economy of Papua New Guinea (PNG) based on a survey of domestic users (n=3994), commercial and industrial users (n=66) and fuelwood vendors (n=157). The survey period (2009) covered urban and rural, coastal and highland districts of known fuelwood-stress. The survey region represents 11% of the national population. It reveals that the fuelwood economy has a relatively flat structure with a very short and direct supply chain. Fuelwood is regularly or occasionally used by 85% of the population for domestic and commercial cooking, even in urban areas where there is good access to electricity and other energy sources. Proportions of the population selling fuelwood at some time in the survey period were 3% and 10% of urban and rural populations respectively. Those generating an income using fuelwood were 26% and 58% respectively. Fuelwood consumption is estimated to be 1.8m3/person/year which is 6 times greater than the average of south and south-east Asian countries. It is estimated that 2.08millionm3/y of fuelwood is freely collected for domestic use in the survey region, while the amount traded was USD7.14 million. The survey provides details of regional variations in fuelwood consumption, gender relations, income generation, and conflict associated with fuelwood, tree planting activity and attitudes to the need for woodlots. It describes and quantifies fuelwood flows from various sources to users and argues the point that the impact of fuelwood collection on forests is only localised. The fuelwood economy is largely informal with no public engagement in supply, marketing, distribution, pricing, and taxation. This paper argues the case for a national fuelwood policy which will encourage the private sector to invest in fuelwood trade and create economies of scale while still protecting smaller informal actors. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Pasbakhsh P.,Sunway University | Churchman G.J.,University of Adelaide | Keeling J.L.,Geological Survey of Western Australia
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2013

There is increasing research interest on new industrial applications for the clay mineral halloysite where greater use is made of its natural tubular morphology, nano-scale diameter and contrasting chemistry on external and internal surfaces. Halloysite nanotubes, commonly referred to as HNTs, have potential applications as microfibre fillers, carriers for the supply and controlled or sustained release of active agents for drug delivery and anticorrosion coatings, in nanoreactors or nanotemplates, and for the uptake of contaminants or pollutants. In this study, various properties were measured on 6 halloysites from different geographical and geological environments from Australia, New Zealand and the USA. From the results, inferences were drawn on their comparative suitability for new uses. The characterisation included identification of impurities by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology, surface area and pore volume by electron microscopy and nitrogen absorption, the determination of exchangeable cations, and measurement of zeta potential over a wide range of pH. Halloysite content in individual samples ranged from 84 to 98%. Impurities included minor quartz, cristobalite, kaolinite, gibbsite, alunite, iron oxides and anatase. Variation in halloysite morphology and the levels of impurities had the most effect on surface area and internal pore volume. Samples with low levels of impurities and regular, thin-walled tubes reported the highest pore volumes associated with the cylindrical cavity or lumen in halloysite tubes. Surface areas varied from 22 to 81m2.g-1 and the proportion of pore space associated with the HNT lumen ranged from 11 to 39%. When the properties of the 6 different halloysites were assessed relative to the requirements for halloysite as nanotubes for either additives or carriers, one showed exceptional characteristics for both types of application but it occurs only rarely. Another halloysite that is moderately suitable for use as an additive but not a carrier occurs in a large deposit. The other samples each showed some limitations of suitability for use as an additive and/or as a carrier. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

When a woman has had a previous caesarean birth and requires induction of labour in a subsequent pregnancy, there are two options for her care: elective repeat caesarean or planned induction of labour. While there are risks and benefits for both elective repeat caesarean birth and planned induction of labour, current sources of information are limited to non-randomised cohort studies. Studies designed in this way have significant potential for bias and consequently conclusions based on these results are limited in their reliability and should be interpreted with caution. To assess, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 January 2012). Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies who planned a repeat elective caesarean section with outcomes in women who planned induction of labour, where a previous birth had been by caesarean. There was no data extraction performed. There were no randomised controlled trials identified. Planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a prior caesarean birth are both associated with benefits and harms. Evidence for these care practices is drawn from non-randomised studies, associated with potential bias. Any results and conclusions must therefore be interpreted with caution. Randomised controlled trials are required to provide the most reliable evidence regarding the benefits and harms of both planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth.

Shu W.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Shen H.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Shen H.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2014

In rough set theory, attribute reduction is a challenging problem in the applications in which data with numbers of attributes available. Moreover, due to dynamic characteristics of data collection in decision systems, attribute reduction will change dynamically as attribute set in decision systems varies over time. How to carry out updating attribute reduction by utilizing previous information is an important task that can help to improve the efficiency of knowledge discovery. In view of that attribute reduction algorithms in incomplete decision systems with the variation of attribute set have not yet been discussed so far. This paper focuses on positive region-based attribute reduction algorithm to solve the attribute reduction problem efficiently in the incomplete decision systems with dynamically varying attribute set. We first introduce an incremental manner to calculate the new positive region and tolerance classes. Consequently, based on the calculated positive region and tolerance classes, the corresponding attribute reduction algorithms on how to compute new attribute reduct are put forward respectively when an attribute set is added into and deleted from the incomplete decision systems. Finally, numerical experiments conducted on different data sets from UCI validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms in incomplete decision systems with the variation of attribute set. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

The integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), in which ducks feed on insects and weeds in paddies and fertilise rice plants, has been a flagship of Asian sustainable-agriculture movements. Nevertheless, IRDF is not spreading rapidly enough to the extent to which it becomes a successful alternative agriculture. This paper undertakes a systematic review of a collection of experimental IRDF studies in order to derive an insight from the divergent experimental settings and findings. The paper also identifies the strengths and weaknesses of, opportunities for and threats to IRDF from the perspective of IRDF farmers, using the expert elicitation method. Five IRDF expert farmers from each of South Korea, Malaysia and Vietnam were interviewed for this purpose. The experimental studies and the expert farmers concurred that the most recognisable empirical strength of IRDF is the synergy of rice and ducks. It was found that the establishment of organic food certification systems provides an opportunity for IRDF to grow. On the other hand, labour-intensiveness was found the most challengeable weakness of IRDF. In parallel, labour shortage in rural areas was found as a serious threat to IRDF. It appears that the weaknesses and threats are more influential than the strengths and opportunities to shaping the adoption of IRDF. In order to make IRDF economically more feasible, the non-market ecological benefits of IRDF in mitigating land degradation and global warming can and should be internalised through appropriate policy instruments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Pitson S.M.,Center for Cancer Biology | Pitson S.M.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2011

Bioactive sphingolipids, including ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate are important regulators of many cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration and immune responses. Although the levels of these bioactive sphingolipids are regulated by complex pathways subject to spatial and temporal control, the sphingosine kinases have emerged as critical central regulators of this system and, as a consequence, they have received substantial recent attention as potential therapeutic targets for cancer and a range of other conditions. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate both the activity and subcellular localization of these enzymes is vital for understanding the control of bioactive sphingolipid generation and action, and has clear implications for therapeutic strategies targeting these enzymes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Reynolds P.N.,University of Adelaide
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: Recent evidence shows that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a fatal disease despite the introduction of new pharmacological treatments. New options are therefore needed and gene therapy approaches are a rational consideration based on emerging understanding of the genetic basis of PAH. Areas covered: This review briefly discusses the recent developments in clinical management of PAH and the investigation of gene delivery techniques for pulmonary vascular disease from 1997 to 2010, relating this to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis during this period. There is a focus on bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2, as mutations in this gene are clearly linked to disease pathogenesis and outcomes. The reader will gain insight into the gene vector strategies being used, the target cells and the specific genes being delivered as candidate therapeutic approaches for PAH. Expert opinion: Various genes and strategies for delivery have achieved improvements in PAH in animal models, which is encouraging for the development of this technology for human application. The main limiting factor for clinical progress relates to gene delivery vector technology. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide
Current Biology | Year: 2013

One of the major remaining gaps in the vertebrate fossil record concerns the origin of turtles. The enigmatic little reptile Eunotosaurus could represent an important transitional form, as it has a rudimentary shell that resembles the turtle carapace. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Byard R.W.,Forensic Science SA | Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

Traditional herbal substances may contain highly toxic chemicals and heavy metals, in addition to naturally occurring organic toxins. These substances may cause illness, exacerbate pre-existing ill health or result in death, particularly if taken in excess or in an unusual manner (e.g., injected rather than ingested). Lack of regulation of the content and quality of herbal medicines may result in contamination and adulteration with prescription medications. As there may be no history of the specific use of these products their contribution to death may not be fully appreciated during a standard autopsy. Even when their existence is known or suspected, it may be difficult to identify these substances on standard toxicologic screening. Herbal medicines may also be responsible for a range of symptoms and signs that may confuse the clinical presentation of cases. Given these issues the role of herbal medicines in forensic practice needs to be more clearly defined as deaths may be occurring where herbal medicines have made a significant, but as-yet unrecognized, contribution. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Bruwer J.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Tourism Research | Year: 2014

The study was conducted on 358 attendees at a major wine festival in Australia. A positive relationship between quality perception and overall satisfaction constructs exists. New insight to festivalscape knowledge is provided through the first-time and repeat visitor dynamic as predictor of actual buying behaviour. Higher percentage of repeat visitors correlates with higher likelihood of (wine) buying. Overall satisfaction is a stronger predictor of buying behaviour than any individual service quality dimension and of these quality dimensions overall. Repeat visitors, 35 years and older, are the highest yielding visitor group from a financial viewpoint. First-time visitors are more short-term oriented in their planning when making the final decision to attend the event. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Doolan C.J.,University of Adelaide
Applied Acoustics | Year: 2010

A new method for calculating the aerodynamic noise generated by bluff bodies is presented in this paper. The methodology uses two-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes turbulent flow simulations to calculate the acoustic source terms. To account for turbulent flow effects that are not resolved by the flow simulation, a statistical approach has been developed and applied to introduce narrow band random noise. Spanwise de-correlation of flow information is accounted for using a correction method based on a de-correlation length scale. Curle's compact acoustic analogy is used to calculate the far-field noise. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method, the turbulent flow and noise about two test cases are calculated and compared with experimental results from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Shen H.,University of Adelaide
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2010

Geographic routing is an attractive localized routing scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to its desirable scalability and efficiency. Maintaining neighborhood information for packet forwarding can achieve a high efficiency in geographic routing, but may not be appropriate for WSNs in highly dynamic scenarios where network topology changes frequently due to nodes mobility and availability. We propose a novel online routing scheme, called Energy-efficient Beaconless Geographic Routing (EBGR), which can provide loop-free, fully stateless, energy-efficient sensor-to-sink routing at a low communication overhead without the help of prior neighborhood knowledge. In EBGR, each node first calculates its ideal next-hop relay position on the straight line toward the sink based on the energy-optimal forwarding distance, and each forwarder selects the neighbor closest to its ideal next-hop relay position as the next-hop relay using the Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send (RTS/CTS) handshaking mechanism. We establish the lower and upper bounds on hop count and the upper bound on energy consumption under EBGR for sensor-to-sink routing, assuming no packet loss and no failures in greedy forwarding. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expected total energy consumption along a route toward the sink under EBGR approaches to the lower bound with the increase of node deployment density. We also extend EBGR to lossy sensor networks to provide energy-efficient routing in the presence of unreliable communication links. Simulation results show that our scheme significantly outperforms existing protocols in wireless sensor networks with highly dynamic network topologies. © 2006 IEEE.

This paper uses the 'input-output analysis' technique to investigate why the Joint Forest Management program in India has expanded while the uptake of the Community-based Forest Management program in the Philippines has been relatively slow. The forward linkage of the forestry sector with downstream industries in the Philippines was found to be weak when compared with India. In contrast, the wood and wood-products industry in the Philippines has strong forward linkage in contrast to that of India. These findings indicate that further research into the supply chain of forest products in the Philippines is needed. Such research may then inform policy to bridge the gap between industrial demand for timber and national forestry production. The paper suggests that while rights-based institutional reforms are essential for promoting community forestry, the long-term success of community forestry may depend on the performance of the forestry sector within the context of the whole economy. An additional finding is that input-output analysis may provide important insights concerning the economic context for the uptake and long-term sustainability of community forestry programs. © 2014 Copyright © NISC (Pty) Ltd.

Cozzolino D.,University of Adelaide
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Although both near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis (MVA) have been extensively used to measure chemical composition (e.g. protein, moisture, oil) in a wide number of grains few reports can be found on the use of this methods for varietal discrimination and traceability of cereals. In this overview applications of NIR spectroscopy and MIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to aid on the authentication and traceability of cereals are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Reynolds P.N.,University of Adelaide
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

The management and understanding of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has undergone something of a revolution in the last 10 years, with new pharmacological agents entering routine clinical practice and significantly improving outcomes. Nevertheless many patients ultimately progress, and additional new treatment approaches are needed. There is now greater understanding of the molecular and genetic basis for the development of PAH, specifically in regard to the role of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) signaling and related pathways. The challenge is to determine whether these new discoveries can be exploited for new therapies. In this article the role of viruses as tools for gene delivery for pulmonary vascular disease is discussed. Gene delivery of BMPR2 has now been shown to ameliorate the development and progression of PAH in animal models, thereby identifying this approach as a therapeutic target. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Binosi D.,Fondazione Bruno Kessler | Chang L.,University of Adelaide | Papavassiliou J.,University of Valencia | Roberts C.D.,Argonne National Laboratory
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Within contemporary hadron physics there are two common methods for determining the momentum-dependence of the interaction between quarks: the top-down approach, which works toward an ab initio computation of the interaction via direct analysis of the gauge-sector gap equations; and the bottom-up scheme, which aims to infer the interaction by fitting data within a well-defined truncation of those equations in the matter sector that are relevant to bound-state properties. We unite these two approaches by demonstrating that the renormalisation-group-invariant running-interaction predicted by contemporary analyses of QCD's gauge sector coincides with that required in order to describe ground-state hadron observables using a nonperturbative truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations in the matter sector. This bridges a gap that had lain between nonperturbative continuum-QCD and the ab initio prediction of bound-state properties. © 2015.

Thomas J.,University of Adelaide
Expert review of neurotherapeutics | Year: 2012

Opioids are an extremely important part of medical practice, and for thousands of years, continued to provide relief from severe acute and chronic pain. Intriguingly, use of opioids activates endogenous counter-regulatory mechanisms resulting in increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli and the requirement for higher doses of opioids to reach an effective level of analgesia. Until recently, research into the counter regulators of opioid-induced analgesia had been focused on the role of neuronal receptors where the beneficial and detrimental actions of opioids were thought to be inseparable. It is now apparent from molecular and rodent data that opioids have non-neuronal, nonclassic, nonstereoselective sites of action. At these newly recognized sites, opioid activity significantly modifies the pharmacodynamics of opioids by eliciting proinflammatory reactivity from immunocompetent cells of the CNS. This review will examine the nonclassic actions of opioids specifically appreciating the actions of the released immune products.

Williamson T.J.,University of Adelaide
Building Research and Information | Year: 2010

A responsible architect or engineer taking sustainable design seriously will aim to create a built environment that exhibits cohesion in the contexts of environmental, social/cultural, and technological realms. In addition, the very notion of sustainability extends an actual (or implied) duty of care to peoples and environments now and into the future. Advanced computer simulation of environmental and technological performance offers one way of tackling this obligation. However, claims about simulation can lead to a spurious impression of accuracy and therefore legitimacy. Likewise, inappropriate applications of simulation may result in wrong decisions and an erroneous allocation of resources. Almost all discussions of the validity of computer simulation for decision-making focus on its quantitative accuracy; however, the problems addressed are often far from well defined. Two concepts from the social sciences, 'trustworthiness' and a taxonomy of 'ignorance', are introduced as ways of assessing the appropriate use of simulation. Simulation applications should not be seen as surrogates of reality and interpreted as logical answers to substantive problems. Although simulations have potency as perspectives to support wise human judgements, a more mature approach is needed when applying these tools and outputs to decision-making. © 2010 Taylor and Francis.

Wigley T.M.L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Wigley T.M.L.,University of Adelaide | Santer B.D.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

This paper examines in detail the statement in the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report that "Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations". We use a quantitative probabilistic analysis to evaluate this IPCC statement, and discuss the value of the statement in the policy context. For forcing by greenhouse gases (GHGs) only, we show that there is a greater than 90 % probability that the expected warming over 1950-2005 is larger than the total amount (not just "most") of the observed warming. This is because, following current best estimates, negative aerosol forcing has substantially offset the GHG-induced warming. We also consider the expected warming from all anthropogenic forcings using the same probabilistic framework. This requires a re-assessment of the range of possible values for aerosol forcing. We provide evidence that the IPCC estimate for the upper bound of indirect aerosol forcing is almost certainly too high. Our results show that the expected warming due to all human influences since 1950 (including aerosol effects) is very similar to the observed warming. Including the effects of natural external forcing factors has a relatively small impact on our 1950-2005 results, but improves the correspondence between model and observations over 1900-2005. Over the longer period, however, externally forced changes are insufficient to explain the early twentieth century warming. We suggest that changes in the formation rate of North Atlantic Deep Water may have been a significant contributing factor. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Finnie J.W.,University of Adelaide
Inflammopharmacology | Year: 2013

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the major cause of death and severe disability in young adults and infants worldwide and many survivors also have mild to moderate neurological deficits which impair their lives. This review highlights the primary and secondary lesions constituting craniocerebral trauma and the main elements of neuroinflammation, one of the most important secondary events evolving after the initial traumatic insult. Neuroinflammation has dual and opposing roles in outcome after TBI, being both beneficial and harmful, its effects often differing between the acute and more delayed phases after injury. Since each patient with TBI has a unique and complex pattern of cerebral damage, developing pharmacological intervention strategies targeted at the multiple cellular and molecular events in the neuroinflammatory cascade is difficult. While there have been very few successful outcomes to date in human clinical trials of drugs developed to treat TBI in general, those that have been devised to modulate neuroinflammation are discussed. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Bush R.T.,Northwestern University | McInerney F.A.,Northwestern University | McInerney F.A.,University of Adelaide
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2013

Long chain (C21 to C37) n-alkanes are among the most long-lived and widely utilized terrestrial plant biomarkers. Dozens of studies have examined the range and variation of n-alkane chain-length abundances in modern plants from around the world, and n-alkane distributions have been used for a variety of purposes in paleoclimatology and paleoecology as well as chemotaxonomy. However, most of the paleoecological applications of n-alkane distributions have been based on a narrow set of modern data that cannot address intra- and inter-plant variability. Here, we present the results of a study using trees from near Chicago, IL, USA, as well as a meta-analysis of published data on modern plant n-alkane distributions. First, we test the conformity of n-alkane distributions in mature leaves across the canopy of 38 individual plants from 24 species as well as across a single growing season and find no significant differences for either canopy position or time of leaf collection. Second, we compile 2093 observations from 86 sources, including the new data here, to examine the generalities of n-alkane parameters such as carbon preference index (CPI), average chain length (ACL), and chain-length ratios for different plant groups. We show that angiosperms generally produce more n-alkanes than do gymnosperms, supporting previous observations, and furthermore that CPI values show such variation in modern plants that it is prudent to discard the use of CPI as a quantitative indicator of n-alkane degradation in sediments. We also test the hypotheses that certain n-alkane chain lengths predominate in and therefore can be representative of particular plant groups, namely, C23 and C25 in Sphagnum mosses, C27 and C29 in woody plants, and C31 in graminoids (grasses). We find that chain-length distributions are highly variable within plant groups, such that chemotaxonomic distinctions between grasses and woody plants are difficult to make based on n-alkane abundances. In contrast, Sphagnum mosses are marked by their predominance of C23 and C25, chain lengths which are largely absent in terrestrial vascular plants. The results here support the use of C23 as a robust proxy for Sphagnum mosses in paleoecological studies, but not the use of C27, C29, and C31 to separate graminoids and woody plants from one another, as both groups produce highly variable but significant amounts of all three chain lengths. In Africa, C33 and C35 chain lengths appear to distinguish graminoids from some woody plants, but this may be a reflection of the differences in rainforest and savanna environments. Indeed, variation in the abundances of long n-alkane chain lengths may be responding in part to local environmental conditions, and this calls for a more directed examination of the effects of temperature and aridity on plant n-alkane distributions in natural environments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Semmler J.G.,University of Adelaide
Acta Physiologica | Year: 2014

It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG-force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hugo G.,University of Adelaide
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011

This paper examines global demographic change as a driver of migration within the context of anticipated climate change. It begins by briefly considering some theoretical formulations which relate demographic change and migration. It then considers evolving global demographic trends and discusses some of their potential impacts upon migration. It is shown that there is a close spatial coincidence between demographic and climate change "hotspots" that will influence migration in complex ways. It then turns to the complex interaction between demographic change, environmental change and migration, both in the past and potential developments in the future. It concludes with a discussion of the potential impacts of future trends and their policy implications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Cloet I.C.,Argonne National Laboratory | Bentz W.,Tokai University | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon in the spacelike region are investigated within the framework of a covariant and confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The bound-state amplitude of the nucleon is obtained as the solution of a relativistic Faddeev equation, where diquark correlations appear naturally as a consequence of the strong coupling in the color 3¯ qq channel. Pion degrees of freedom are included as a perturbation to the "quark-core" contribution obtained using the Poincaré covariant Faddeev amplitude. While no model parameters are fit to form-factor data, excellent agreement is obtained with the empirical nucleon form factors (including the magnetic moments and radii) where pion loop corrections play a critical role for Q2-1GeV2. Using charge symmetry, the nucleon form factors can be expressed as proton quark sector form factors. The latter are studied in detail, leading, for example, to the conclusion that the d-quark sector of the Dirac form factor is much softer than the u-quark sector, a consequence of the dominance of scalar diquark correlations in the proton wave function. On the other hand, for the proton quark sector Pauli form factors we find that the effect of the pion cloud and axial-vector diquark correlations overcomes the effect of scalar diquark dominance, leading to a larger d-quark anomalous magnetic moment and a form factor in the u-quark sector that is slightly softer than in the d-quark sector. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic. © 2013 Seymour et al.

Brodribb T.J.,University of Tasmania | Jordan G.J.,University of Tasmania | Carpenter R.J.,University of Adelaide
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

The processes by which the functions of interdependent tissues are coordinated as lineages diversify are poorly understood. Here, we examine evolutionary coordination of vascular, epidermal and cortical leaf tissues in the anatomically, ecologically and morphologically diverse woody plant family Proteaceae. We found that, across the phylogenetic range of Proteaceae, the sizes of guard, epidermal, palisade and xylem cells were positively correlated with each other but negatively associated with vein and stomatal densities. The link between venation and stomata resulted in a highly efficient match between potential maximum water loss (determined by stomatal conductance) and the leaf vascular system's capacity to replace that water. This important linkage is likely to be driven by stomatal size, because spatial limits in the packing of stomata onto the leaf surface apparently constrain the maximum size and density of stomata. We conclude that unified evolutionary changes in cell sizes of independent tissues, possibly mediated by changes in genome size, provide a means of substantially modifying leaf function while maintaining important functional links between leaf tissues. Our data also imply the presence of alternative evolutionary strategies involving cellular miniaturization during radiation into closed forest, and cell size increase in open habitats. © 2013 The Authors New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

Rosenfeld J.V.,Monash University | Rosenfeld J.V.,National Trauma Research Institute | McFarlane A.C.,University of Adelaide | Bragge P.,National Trauma Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2013

A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gehling J.G.,University of Adelaide | Droser M.L.,University of California at Riverside
Geology | Year: 2013

Patterns of origination, evolution, and extinction of early animal life on this planet are largely interpreted from the fossils of the Precambrian soft-bodied Ediacara Biota, spanning nearly 40 m.y. of the terminal Ediacaran period. Localities containing these fossils are loosely considered as part of either the Avalon, White Sea, or Nama Associations. These associations have been interpreted to have temporal, paleobiogeographic, preservational, and/or paleoenvironmental signifi -cance. Surprisingly, elements of all three associations occur within the Ediacara Member of the Rawnsley Quartzite of South Australia. An analysis of over 5000 specimens demonstrates that fossil distribution is strongly controlled by facies and taphonomy rather than time or biogeography and that individual taxa vary considerably in their environmental tolerance and taphonomic integrity. The recognition that these taxa represent organisms living in various distinct environments, both juxtaposed and shared, holds strong implications for our interpretation of the record of early animal life on this planet and questions the biostratigraphic utility of the three associations. Furthermore, although in situ soft-bodied preservation provides a unique perspective on composition of benthic fossil assemblages, the record should not be interpreted as a simple "snapshot". Fossil beds represent a range of preservational modifi cations varying from current winnowed census samples of benthic communities at different depths and ecological maturity, to entirely transported assemblages. Unless the appropriate environments and taphonomic conditions are present for certain taxa, the absence of a particular taxon may or may not indicate its extinction in space or time. © 2013 Geological Society of America.

Berketa J.W.,University of Adelaide
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology | Year: 2014

Purpose: This paper reviews the literature for methods of maximizing the postmortem oral-facial information available for a comparison to be made for identification following an incident resulting in incineration. Method: A search was initially instigated utilizing PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, with further library searches and correspondences among peers around the world leading to a comprehensive review of the literature. Conclusion: Maximizing postmortem dental evidence in a severe incineration event requires correct recognition and recording of dental data. Odontologists should attend the scene to facilitate this recognition. The information should be documented, photographed, and stabilized before retrieval. Wrapping, padding, and further support of the remains during transportation to the examination mortuary will aid this process. Examination at the mortuary requires further photography, complete charting, and radiographic examination of any dental material available, as well as awareness of other possible medical evidence, to enable identification of the human remains. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Reichel M.P.,University of Adelaide | Reichel M.P.,University of Technology, Sydney | Alejandra Ayanegui-Alcerreca M.,Medtronic | Gondim L.F.P.,Federal University of Bahia | Ellis J.T.,University of Technology, Sydney
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2013

Neospora caninum is regarded as one of the most important infectious causes of abortions in cattle worldwide, yet the global economic impact of the infection has not been established. A systematic review of the economic impact of N. caninum infections/abortions was conducted, searching PubMed with the terms 'cattle' and '. Neospora'. This yielded 769 publications and the abstracts were screened for economically relevant information (e.g. abortion prevalence and risk, serological prevalence). Further analysis was restricted to countries with at least five relevant publications. In total, 99 studies (12.9%) from 10 countries contained data from the beef industry (25 papers (25.3%)) and 72 papers (72.8%) from the dairy industry (with the remaining two papers (2.0%) describing general abortion statistics). The total annual cost of N. caninum infections/abortions was estimated to range from a median US -1.1 million in the New Zealand beef industry to an estimated median total of US -546.3 million impact per annum in the US dairy population. The estimate for the total median N. caninum-related losses exceeded US -1.298 billion per annum, ranging as high as US -2.380 billion. Nearly two-thirds of the losses were incurred by the dairy industry (US -842.9 million). Annual losses on individual dairy farms were estimated to reach a median of US -1,600.00, while on beef farms these costs amounted to just US -150.00. Pregnant cows and heifers were estimated to incur, on average, a loss due to N. caninum of less than US -20.00 for dairy and less than US -5.00 for beef. These loss estimates, however, rose to ∼US -110.00 and US -40.00, respectively, for N. caninum-infected pregnant dairy and beef cows. This estimate of global losses due to N. caninum, with the identification of clear target markets (countries, as well as cattle industries), should provide an incentive to develop treatment options and/or vaccines. © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.

This article reports on the processes of staff members in referring patients to a study that explored the experience of palliative patients, family members, and health professionals with the implementation of a family meeting model as an instrument of spiritual care. The reported qualitative study was undertaken in two large metropolitan Australian hospitals. Criteria other than those set by the study protocol were employed by staff members referring patients. These included subjective opinions of who was suitable to refer and perceptions of patients' attitudes to religion or spirituality. Such practices raise ethical issues and may compromise studies that have received ethics approval. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ballmer S.W.,Syracuse University | Ottaway D.J.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

A folded resonant Fabry-Perot cavity has the potential to significantly reduce the impact of coating thermal noise on the performance of kilometer scale gravitational wave detectors. When constructed using only spherical mirror surfaces it is possible to utilize the extremely robust TEM00 mode optical mode. In this paper we investigate the potential thermal noise improvements that can be achieved for third generation gravitational wave detectors using realistic constraints. Comparing the previously proposed beam configurations such as e.g. higher order Laguerre-Gauss modes, we find that similar or better thermal noise improvement factors can be achieved, while avoiding degeneracy issues associated with those beams. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Tieu J.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. Although GDM usually resolves following birth, it is associated with significant morbidities for mother and baby both perinatally and in the long term. There is strong evidence to support treatment for GDM. However, there is little consensus on whether or not screening for GDM will improve maternal and infant health and if so, the most appropriate protocol to follow. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different methods of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal and infant outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (April 2010). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of different methods of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently conducted data extraction and quality assessment. We resolved disagreements through discussion or through a third author. MAIN RESULTS: We included four trials involving 3972 women were included in the review. One quasi-randomised trial compared risk factor screening with universal or routine screening by 50 g oral glucose challenge testing. Women in the universal screening group were more likely to be diagnosed with GDM (one trial, 3152 women, risk ratio (RR) 0.44 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26 to 0.75). Infants of mothers in the risk factor screening group were born marginally earlier than infants of mothers in the routine screening group (one trial, 3152 women, mean difference -0.15 weeks, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.53).The remaining three trials evaluated different methods of administering a 50 g glucose load. Two small trials compared glucose monomer with glucose polymer testing, with one of these trials including a candy bar group. One trial compared a glucose solution with food. No differences in diagnosis of GDM were found between each comparison. Overall, women drinking the glucose monomer experienced fewer side effects from testing than women drinking the glucose polymer (two trials, 151 women, RR 2.80, 95% CI 1.10 to 7.13). However, we observed high heterogeneity between the trials for this result (I(2) = 61%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to determine if screening for gestational diabetes, or what types of screening, can improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

Shi Q.,University of Adelaide | Cheng L.,Bioinformatics Institute | Wang L.,Nanjing Forestry University | Smola A.,Yahoo!
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2011

A challenging problem in human action understanding is to jointly segment and recognize human actions from an unseen video sequence, where one person performs a sequence of continuous actions. In this paper, we propose a discriminative semi-Markov model approach, and define a set of features over boundary frames, segments, as well as neighboring segments. This enable us to conveniently capture a combination of local and global features that best represent each specific action type. To efficiently solve the inference problem of simultaneous segmentation and recognition, a Viterbi-like dynamic programming algorithm is utilized, which in practice is able to process 20 frames per second. Moreover, the model is discriminatively learned from large margin principle, and is formulated as an optimization problem with exponentially many constraints. To solve it efficiently, we present two different optimization algorithms, namely cutting plane method and bundle method, and demonstrate that each can be alternatively deployed in a "plug and play" fashion. From its theoretical aspect, we also analyze the generalization error of the proposed approach and provide a PAC-Bayes bound. The proposed approach is evaluated on a variety of datasets, and is shown to perform competitively to the state-of-the-art methods. For example, on KTH dataset, it achieves 95.0% recognition accuracy, where the best known result on this dataset is 93.4% (Reddy and Shah in ICCV, 2009). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Rodrigues D.N.,Institute of Cancer Research Surrey | Butler L.M.,University of Adelaide | Estelles D.L.,Institute of Cancer Research Surrey | De Bono J.S.,Institute of Cancer Research Surrey
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and has an extremely heterogeneous clinical behaviour. The vast majority of PCas are hormonally driven diseases in which androgen signalling plays a central role. The realization that castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to rely on androgen signalling prompted the development of new, effective androgen blocking agents. As the understanding of the molecular biology of PCas evolves, it is hoped that stratification of prostate tumours into distinct molecular entities, each with its own set of vulnerabilities, will be a feasible goal. Around half of PCas harbour rearrangements involving a member of the ETS transcription factor family. Tumours without this rearrangement include SPOP mutant as well as SPINK1-over-expressing subtypes. As the number of targeted therapy agents increases, it is crucial to determine which patients will benefit from these interventions and molecular pathology will be key in this respect. In addition to directly targeting cells, therapies that modify the tumour microenvironment have also been successful in prolonging the lives of PCa patients. Understanding the molecular aspects of PCa therapeutics will allow pathologists to provide core recommendations for patient management. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dreiner H.K.,Physikalisches Institute | Kim J.S.,University of Adelaide | Lebedev O.,German Electron Synchrotron
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

The ATLAS and CMS Collaborations have recently reported tantalizing hints of the existence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle, whose couplings appear to match well the Standard Model (SM) expectations. In this work, we study implications of this observation for the neutralino sector of supersymmetric models, assuming that the Higgs signal gets confirmed. In general, the Higgs decay into neutralinos can be one of its dominant decay channels. Since a large invisible Higgs decay branching ratio would be in conflict with the data, this possibility is now constrained. In particular, we find that most of the region μ<170 GeV, M 1<70 GeV at tanβ~10 and μ<120 GeV, M 1<70 GeV at tanβ~40 is disfavored. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Becher A.,Oxford PharmaGenesis Ltd | Dent J.,University of Adelaide
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to become more prevalent with age. Aim To assess systematically how age affects the prevalence of GERD and its oesophageal complications. Methods Systematic PubMed searches were used to identify population-based studies on the age-related prevalence and incidence of GERD, and clinical studies on age-related changes in oesophageal complications in GERD. Results Nine population-based studies and seven clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. Four of seven prevalence studies observed no significant effect of age on GERD symptom prevalence, two did not report on statistical significance and one observed a significant age-related increase in symptom prevalence. The two population-based endoscopic surveys showed no significant effect of age on reflux oesophagitis prevalence. Clinical studies in patients with GERD showed an increase in reflux oesophagitis severity and a decrease in heartburn severity with age, and age-related increases in oesophageal acid exposure and anatomical disruption of the gastro-oesophageal junction. Conclusions Epidemiological studies do not show an increase in GERD symptom prevalence with age. However, in individuals with GERD, ageing is associated with more severe patterns of acid reflux and reflux oesophagitis; despite this, symptoms associated with GERD become less severe and more nonspecific with ageing. Thus, the real prevalence of GERD may well increase with age. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Karnon J.,University of Adelaide | Vanni T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
PharmacoEconomics | Year: 2011

Background: The importance of assessing the accuracy of health economic decision models is widely recognized. Many applied decision models (implicitly) assume that the process of identifying relevant values for a model's input parameters is sufficient to prove the model's accuracy. The selection of infeasible combinations of input parameter values is most likely in the context of probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA), where parameter values are drawn from independently specified probability distributions for each model parameter. Model calibration involves the identification of input parameter values that produce model output parameters that best predict observed data. Methods: An empirical comparison of three key calibration issues is presented: the applied measure of goodness of fit (GOF); the search strategy for selecting sets of input parameter values; and the convergence criteria for determining acceptable GOF. The comparisons are presented in the context of probabilistic calibration, a widely applicable approach to calibration that can be easily integrated with PSA. The appendix provides a user's guide to probabilistic calibration, with the reader invited to download the Microsoft-Excel-based model reported in this article. Results: The calibrated models consistently provided higher mean estimates of the models' output parameter, illustrating the potential gain in accuracy derived from calibrating decision models. Model uncertainty was also reduced. The chi-squared GOF measure differentiated between the accuracy of different parameter sets to a far greater degree than the likelihood GOF measure. The guided search strategy produced higher mean estimates of the models' output parameter, as well as a narrower range of predicted output values, which may reflect greater precision in the identification of candidate parameter sets or more limited coverage of the parameter space. The broader convergence threshold resulted in lower mean estimates of the models' output, and slightly wider ranges, which were closer to the outputs associated with the non-calibrated approach. Conclusions: Probabilistic calibration provides a broadly applicable method that will improve the relevance of health economic decision models, and simultaneously reduce model uncertainty. The analyses reported in this paper inform the more efficient and accurate application of calibration methods for health economic decision models. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Chaumont F.,Catholic University of Louvain | Tyerman S.D.,University of Adelaide
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

Plant growth and development are dependent on tight regulation of water movement. Water diffusion across cell membranes is facilitated by aquaporins that provide plants with the means to rapidly and reversibly modify water permeability. This is done by changing aquaporin density and activity in the membrane, including posttranslational modifications and protein interaction that act on their trafficking and gating. At the whole organ level aquaporins modify water conductance and gradients at key "gatekeeper" cell layers that impact on whole plant water flow and plant water potential. In this way they may act in concert with stomatal regulation to determine the degree of isohydry/anisohydry. Molecular, physiological, and biophysical approaches have demonstrated that variations in root and leaf hydraulic conductivity can be accounted for by aquaporins but this must be integrated with anatomical considerations. This Update integrates these data and emphasizes the central role played by aquaporins in regulating plant water relations. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Cozzolino D.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Public awareness related with environmental issues (e.g. soil and water contamination) is on the increase, determining the advent of more astringent safety standards where new analytical methods are required to complain with these guidelines. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is originated from the absorption measurements of different IR frequencies and has become a very attractive technique to measure heavy metals and other contaminants in soils, sediments and water. The aim of this review is to provide with an overview of different applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy addressing issues related with contamination in soil, sediments and water. A discussion on the main factors or variables that affect the results of this type of applications is provided. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Munguia P.,University of Adelaide
Oecologia | Year: 2014

In nature, very few species are common and broadly distributed. Most species are rare and occupy few sites; this pattern is ubiquitous across habitats and taxa. In spatially structured communities (metacommunities), regional distribution and local abundance may change as the relative effects of within-habitat processes (e.g., species interactions) and among-habitat processes (e.g., dispersal) may vary through succession. A field experiment with the marine benthic inhabitants of pen shells (Atrina rigida) tested how common and rare species respond to succession and metacommunity size. I followed community development through time and partitioned species into sessile and motile based on their natural history. Rare species drive diversity patterns and are influenced by metacommunity size: there are strong abundance-distribution differences between common and rare species in large metacommunities, but motile species show lower rates of change than sessile species. In small metacommunities both common and rare species have similar changes through time; the dichotomous distinction of common and rare species is not present. Edge effects in metacommunities affect species' changes in distribution and abundance. In large metacommunities diversity is higher in edge habitats relative to small metacommunities during early succession. However, edge effects benefit motile species over time in small metacommunities showing a rapid increase in diversity. Individual mobility is sensitive to regional community size and allows individuals to sort among different communities. In contrast, sessile species do not show this edge effect. Metacommunity theory is a useful framework for understanding spatially structured communities, but the natural history of coexisting species cannot be ignored. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wilkinson D.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure. To compare the safety and efficacy of HFNC with other forms of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants. The strategy included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010), MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and abstracts from conference proceedings. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing HFNC with other non-invasive forms of respiratory support in preterm infants immediately after birth or following extubation. Data were extracted and analysed by the authors. Relative risk, risk difference and number needed to treat were calculated. Four studies were identified for inclusion in the review. The studies differed in the interventions compared (nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), humidified HFNC, non-humidified HFNC), the flow rates provided and the indications for respiratory support. Meta-analysis and subgroup analysis were not possible. When used as primary respiratory support after birth, one trial found similar rates of treatment failure in infants treated with HFNC and nasal CPAP. Following extubation, one trial found that infants treated with HFNC had a significantly higher rate of reintubation than those treated with nasal CPAP. Another trial found similar rates of reintubation for humidified and non-humidified HFNC, and the fourth trial found no difference between two different models of equipment used to deliver humidified HFNC. There is insufficient evidence to establish the safety or effectiveness of HFNC as a form of respiratory support in preterm infants. When used following extubation, HFNC may be associated with a higher rate of reintubation than nasal CPAP. Further adequately powered randomised controlled trials should be undertaken in preterm infants comparing HFNC with nasal CPAP and with other means of respiratory support; or of support following extubation. These trials should measure clinically important outcomes.

Johnson D.W.,SA Pathology | Johnson D.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

The further development of derivatizing reagents for plasma amino acid quantification by tandem mass spectrometry is described. The succinimide ester of 4-methylpiperazineacetic acid (MPAS), the iTRAQ reagent, was systematically modified to improve tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) product ion intensity. 4-Methylpiperazinebutyryl succinimide (MPBS) and dimethylaminobutyryl succinimide (DMABS) afforded one to two orders of magnitude greater MS/MS product ion signal intensity than the MPAS derivative for simple amino acids. CD3 analogues of the modified derivatizing reagents were evaluated for preparation of amino acid isotope-labelled quantifying standards. Acceptable accuracy and precision was obtained with d3-DMABS as the amino acid standards derivatizing reagent. The product ion spectra of the DMABS amino acid derivatives are diagnostic for structural isomers including valine/norvaline, alanine/sarcosine and leucine/isoleucine. Improved analytical sensitivity and specificity afforded by these derivatives may help to establish liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with derivatization generated isotope-labelled standards a viable alternative to amino acids analysers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Withayachumnankul W.,University of Adelaide | Naftaly M.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves | Year: 2014

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has emerged as a main spectroscopic modality to fill the frequency range between a few hundred gigahertz to a few terahertz. This spectrum has been known as "terahertz gap" owing to limited accessibility by conventional electronic and optical techniques. Over the past two decades, THz-TDS has evolved substantially with enhanced compactness and stability. Since THz-TDS is becoming an industrial standard, the performance and precision of the system are of prime importance. This article provides an overview on terahertz metrology, including parameter estimation, signal processing, measurement characteristics, uncertainties, and calibrations. The overview serves as guidance for metrology and further developments of THz-TDS systems. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Turrisi G.F.,University of Catania | Jennings J.T.,University of Adelaide | Vilhelmsen L.,Universitetsparken 15
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2014

The results of the first phylogenetic investigation of members of the Aulacidae of the world are presented. The main objective was to test the monophyly of the currently recognised genera. In total, 79 morphological characters were scored for a substantial sample of the extant aulacid fauna, including 72 species, as well as 12 outgroup taxa belonging to Evaniidae, Gasteruptiidae, Megalyridae, Trigonalidae, Braconidae and Stephanidae. All zoogeographic regions were represented. The dataset was analysed under different conditions (ordered, unordered, equal and implied weighting). The results under different weighting conditions are not fully congruent andmanyrelationships remain unresolved. However, the analyses demonstrate that the current generic classification of the Aulacidae is not a natural one. There is support for a very large, monophyletic clade which includes all Pristaulacus Kieffer spp. + Panaulix Benoit spp. This suggests a wider generic concept for Pristaulacus, which is redefined and rediagnosed here. As a consequence, Panaulix becomes a junior synonym of Pristaulacus (syn. nov.), and the two described species of Panaulix are transferred to Pristaulacus: Pristaulacus rex (Benoit, 1984), comb. nov., and Pristaulacus irenae (Madl, 1990), comb. nov. The genus Aulacus Jurine was consistently paraphyletic and is not valid as currently defined. Furthermore, we failed to retrieve a consistent topology among the different clades of Aulacus. A satisfactory reclassification of Aulacus, however, requires a much more comprehensive taxon sample and/or additional character data. © CSIRO 2009.

Roberts-Thomson K.,University of Adelaide
Community dentistry and oral epidemiology | Year: 2012

There are two well described methods to improving health: an individual risk assessment approach and a whole population approach. This study explores the limitations of the individual approach to public health, and the success and limitations of the population approach. A theoretical approach with examples from general and oral health will be used. However although the population approach can reduce the mean prevalence of a condition within the population it can also increase health disparities. Some groups gain disproportionally more from a population intervention and vulnerable population groups disproportionally less leading to an unjust situation. These disparities are the result of social circumstances. Additional strategies targeted to vulnerable groups are therefore necessary to complement the population approach to reduce such disparities. Examples of strategies which could be used in targeting vulnerable groups will be outlined. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Chereda B.,Center for Cancer Biology | Melo J.V.,University of Adelaide
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2015

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder arising in the haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. This disease is characterised by a reciprocal t(9;22) chromosomal translocation, resulting in the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome containing the BCR-ABL1 gene. As such, diagnosis and monitoring of disease involves detection of BCR-ABL1. It is the BCR-ABL1 protein, in particular its constitutively active tyrosine kinase activity, that forges the pathogenesis of CML. This aberrant kinase signalling activates downstream targets that reprogram the cell to cause uncontrolled proliferation and results in myeloid hyperplasia and ‘indolent’ symptoms of chronic phase (CP) CML. Without successful intervention, the disease will progress into blast crisis (BC), resembling an acute leukaemia. This advanced disease stage takes on an aggressive phenotype and is almost always fatal. The cell biology of CML is also centred on BCR-ABL1. The presence of BCR-ABL1 can explain virtually all the cellular features of the leukaemia (enhanced cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis, altered cell adhesion, growth factor independence, impaired genomic surveillance and differentiation). This article provides an overview of the clinical and cell biology of CML, and highlights key findings and unanswered questions essential for understanding this disease. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Leech M.T.,Monash University | Bartold P.M.,University of Adelaide
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2015

The relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and poor oral health has been recognised for many decades. The association between periodontal infection and the risk of developing RA has been the subject of epidemiological, clinical and basic science research in recent times. Converging and reproducible evidence now makes a clear case for the role of specific periodontal infective pathogens in initiating, amplifying and perpetuating rheumatoid arthritis. The unique enzymatic properties of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and its contribution to the burden of citrullinated peptides is now well established. The impact of localized infection such as periodontitis in shaping specific anti-citrullinated peptide immune responses highlights a key area for treatment, prevention and risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

White L.B.,University of Adelaide | Carravetta F.,CNR Institute for System Analysis and Computer Science Antonio Ruberti
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

This technical note addresses modelling and estimation of a class of finite state random processes called hidden reciprocal chains (HRC). A hidden reciprocal chain consists of a finite state reciprocal process, together with an observation process conditioned on the reciprocal process much as in the case of a hidden Markov model (HMM). The key difference between Markov models and reciprocal models is that reciprocal models are non-causal. The technical note presents a characterization of a HRC by a finite set of hidden Markov bridges, which are HMMs with the final state fixed. The technical note then uses this characterization to derive the optimal fixed interval smoother for a HRC. Performance of linear and optimal smoothers derived for both HMM and HRC are compared (using simulations) for a class of HRC derived from underlying Markov transitions. These experiments suggest that, not surprisingly, the performance of the optimal HMM and HRC smoothers are signifcantly better than their linear counterparts, and that some performance improvement is obtained using the HRC smoothers compared to the HMM smoothers. The technical note concludes by mentioning some ongoing and future work which exploits this new Markov bridge characterization of a HRC. © 2011 IEEE.

Robertson S.A.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2010

Medawar's hypotheses for explaining maternal immune tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus are now proven incorrect or insufficient. The mother's immune response is not passive, suppressed, indolent or physically constrained in pregnancy. Instead, her immune system is centrally engaged with all steps of the reproductive process from conception to embryo implantation and placental development. Emerging studies show that immune cells are positioned and equipped to sense antigens and other signals originating in seminal fluid, the embryo and placental trophoblast. The immune response appears competent to utilise this information to discriminate the reproductive fitness and compatibility of the male partner and the integrity and developmental competence of the conceptus tissue. Since the immune response is modulated by the individual's infectious, inflammatory, stress, nutritional and metabolic status, immune influence on progression or disruption of pregnancy may be further influenced by environmental stressors and resource availability. This opinion paper advances the view that the immune system operates in pregnancy to integrate these signals and to exert executive quality control to either accommodate or reject the conceptus. It is argued that 'immune-mediated quality control' would facilitate optimal female reproductive investment and maximise offspring fitness, and thereby explain the evolutionary advantage of maternal immune awareness of the conceptus tissue. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Ramalho G.,University of Lisbon | Tsushima K.,University of Adelaide
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study the octet to decuplet baryon electromagnetic transitions using the covariant spectator quark model and predict the transition magnetic dipole form factors for those involving the strange baryons. Utilizing SU(3) symmetry, the valence quark contributions are supplemented by the pion cloud dressing based on the one estimated in the γ*N→Δ reaction. Although the valence quark contributions are dominant in general, the pion cloud effects turn out to be very important to describe the experimental data. We also show that other mesons besides the pion, in particular the kaon, may be relevant for some reactions such as γ*Σ +→Σ*+, based on our analysis for the radiative decay widths of the strange decuplet baryons. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Anand R.,University of Adelaide
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume | Year: 2011

New joint replacement prostheses are being continually introduced into the market. The underlying purpose of the introduction of new devices is to improve patient outcomes. This study was undertaken to determine how many new prostheses were associated with improved patient outcomes. Data were obtained from a comprehensive national database. Outcome analysis was performed on all new hip and knee prostheses introduced into the market between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, and used on at least 100 occasions. The findings were compared with the combined results of the three best performing established hip and knee prostheses with a minimum duration of follow-up of five years. The principal outcome measures were the rate of revision per observed component years and the time to first revision, with use of Kaplan-Meier estimates of implant survivorship. Most prostheses introduced into the market during the study period were used on fewer than 100 occasions. Analysis of those that had been used in a sufficient number of procedures showed that 27% (nine of thirty-three) of the hip replacements and 29% (eight of twenty-eight) of the knee replacements had a significantly higher rate of revision than the established prostheses. None of the newer prostheses had a lower rate of revision than the established prostheses. This study indicates that there was no benefit to the introduction of new prostheses into this national market during the five-year study period. Importantly, 30% of the new prostheses were associated with a significantly worse outcome compared with the prostheses with a minimal duration of follow-up of five years.

A number of studies have suggested that angiotensin II (AII) receptor type 1 (ATR1) blocking drugs (ARBs) have anti-inflammatory effects however the mechanisms responsible are poorly investigated. Objective: To determine the role of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in ARB induced anti-inflammatory effects within human carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: Atheroma samples obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were cultured with and without ATR1 (irbesartan), ERK1/2 (PD98059), AII ([Sar1, Ile8]-AII) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 (DX600) blockade. The invitro effects of ATR1 and ERK1/2 blockade and exogenous AII on serum stimulated healthy, primary vascular cells were also investigated. Outcome was assessed by measuring cytokine, (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, C-C motif chemokine (CCL)2, C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)5, osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), CXCL16), concentrations in supernatants and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the tissue lysates using ELISA. ERK1/2 expression in the tissue was assessed using Western blotting. Results: Irbesartan reduced concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CXCL5, OPG, OPN and CXCL16 in both atheroma and primary vascular cell culture supernatants. The reduction in cytokine levels in the atheroma supernatant was correlated to a reduction in ERK1/2 expression in the tissue. Inhibition of ERK1/2 downregulated IL-6, IL-8 and CXCL5 in both atheroma and cell culture supernatants. AII and ACE2 blockade had no impact on cytokine or active ERK1/2 levels in the atheroma culture. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ATR1 blockade downregulates atheroma tissue ERK1/2 expression leading to a reduction in cytokine production and that a non-AII agonist ATR1 signalling response may induce expression of these inflammation associated cytokines in the atheroma. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Kish L.B.,Texas A&M University | Abbott D.,University of Adelaide | Granqvist C.G.,Uppsala University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged. © 2013 Kish et al.

Lohe M.A.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

We consider a network of quantum oscillators in which quantum states are distributed among connected nodes by means of unitary transformations. The distributed states interact with each local state according to a timedependent interaction Hamiltonian, which is modeled by a Hermitian operator constructed in terms of the states themselves, thereby introducing nonlinear network interactions. For qubit nodes of differing natural frequencies, we show numerically that for a sufficiently large coupling constant, synchronization of quantum nodes occurs in which the spins of all qubits are mutually aligned with a common frequency of oscillation, following initial transient configurations. We discuss the significance of quantum synchronization as a means to create copies of unknown quantum states. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Dent J.,University of Adelaide
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

The report from the HUNT Study provides the most convincing evidence yet that weight loss has beneficial effects on occurrence and severity of heartburn and regurgitation and their response to acid suppressant therapy. These data should re-invigorate clinicians to encourage weight loss in their reflux disease patients.

Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide | Worthy T.H.,University of New South Wales
Biology Letters | Year: 2012

The widespread view that Archaeopteryx was a primitive (basal) bird has been recently challenged by a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis that placed Archaeopteryx with deinonychosaurian theropods. The new phylogeny suggested that typical bird flight (powered by the front limbs only) either evolved at least twice, or was lost/ modified in some deinonychosaurs. However, this parsimony-based result was acknowledged to be weakly supported. Maximum-likelihood and related Bayesian methods applied to the same dataset yield a different and more orthodox result: Archaeopteryx is restored as a basal bird with bootstrap frequency of 73 per cent and posterior probability of 1. These results are consistent with a single origin of typical (forelimbpowered) bird flight. The Archaeopteryx-deinonychosaur clade retrieved by parsimony is supported by more characters (which are on average more homoplasious), whereas the Archaeopteryx-bird clade retrieved by likelihood-based methods is supported by fewer characters (but on average less homoplasious). Both positions for Archaeopteryx remain plausible, highlighting the hazy boundary between birds and advanced theropods. These results also suggest that likelihood-based methods (in addition to parsimony) can be useful in morphological phylogenetics. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Hart R.,University of Western Australia | Norman R.J.,University of Adelaide
Human Reproduction Update | Year: 2013

Background: Several million children have been born from in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, but limited data exist regarding their health and development beyond the first year of life. It has been alleged that IVF may lead to long-term adverse consequences, in addition to the documented worse perinatal outcome and increased risk of congenital abnormalities in children born resulting from IVF treatment. methods: A search strategy restricted to studies relating to the medical condition of children of at least 1 year of age born as a result of IVF treatment was performed to include case series, data linkage and prospective studies published 1 January 2000-1 April 2012. results: Limited long-term follow-up data suggest that there is potentially an increase in the incidence of raised blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, increase in total body fat composition, advancement of bone age and potentially subclinical thyroid disorder in the IVF offspring. Whether these potential associations are related to the IVF treatment per se, the adverse obstetric outcomes associated with IVF treatment or are related to the genetic origin of the children is yet to be determined. conclusions: This review provides evidence to suggest that the short-term health outcome for children born from IVF treatment is positive. However, it is expected that the cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors found in childhood and tracking into adulthood could be worse in later life, and may be responsible for chronic cardiometabolic disease. These observations need to be addressed by further studies. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.

Stewart J.E.,Deakin University | Feinle-Bisset C.,University of Adelaide | Keast R.S.J.,Deakin University
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2011

The inability of humans to adequately regulate fat consumption is a salient contributor to the development of obesity. The macronutrients, fat, protein and carbohydrate, within foods are detected at various stages of consumption, during which their digestive products, fatty acids, amino acids and sugars, interact with chemosensory cells within the oral epithelium (taste receptor cells) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (enteroendocrine cells). This chemoreception initiates functional responses, including taste perception, peptide secretion and alterations in GI motility, that play an important role in liking of food, appetite regulation and satiety. This review will summarize the available evidence relating to the oral and GI regulation of fat intake and how chemoreception at both locations is associated with digestive behavior, satiety and weight regulation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhao Z.-Y.,North China Electrical Power University | Tian Y.-X.,North China Electrical Power University | Zillante G.,University of Adelaide
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The wind power industry is a complex industry involving many different types of enterprises from diverse fields loosely working together to form both internal and external associations. As a complicated system it is necessary to detect the location of the various industry components, their operation characteristics and the various relationships between the many sectors of the wind power industry. Using the general industry chain theory, this paper develops a wind power industry chain model and examines the operation mechanisms of the industry. This leads to the establishment of three perspectives for the wind power industry, these are the supply chain model, the technology chain model and the value chain model that respectively reflect the supply-demand relationship, technology transfer and value creation of wind power related industries. The models can be used to analyze: the resources distribution, the supply and demand and production relationships amongst related enterprises, the relevant technology systems and the value increase process of the wind power industry. Using China's wind power industry as an example, this study uses: (1) the supply chain to analyze the construction, equipment supply and the on-grid connection of wind power; (2) the technology chain to evaluate the technical status of China's wind power industry from the perspective of the level of technology, the source of the technology and the technology standard; and (3) the value chain to analyze the value distribution of China's wind power industry. The results suggest that over capacity, lack of core technology and an incomplete follow up service system are the major obstacles to China's wind power industry development. The models form an effective tool to analyze and evaluate the development status of the wind power industry in different countries, and support the concept of formulating a sustainable development strategy. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Donkin J.J.,University of British Columbia | Vink R.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2010

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although a number of factors contribute to the high mortality and morbidity associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), the development of cerebral edema with brain swelling remains the most significant predictor of outcome. The present review summarizes the most recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms associated with development of posttraumatic cerebral edema, and highlights areas of therapeutic promise. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the predominance of cytotoxic (or cellular) edema in the first week after traumatic brain injury, brain swelling can only occur with addition of water to the cranial vault from the vasculature. As such, regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability has become a focus of recent research seeking to manage brain edema. Aquaporins, matrix metalloproteinases and vasoactive inflammatory agents have emerged as potential mediators of cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury. In particular, kinins (bradykinins) and tachykinins (substance P) seem to play an active physiological role in modulating blood-brain barrier permeability after trauma. Substance P neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists show particular promise as novel therapeutic agents. SUMMARY: Attenuating blood-brain barrier permeability has become a promising approach to managing brain edema and associated swelling given that increases in cranial water content can only be derived from the vasculature. Inflammation, both classical and neurogenic, offers a number of attractive targets. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Starkie D.,University of Adelaide | Starkie D.,Bremen University of Applied Sciences
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2012

This paper questions the need for a special regulatory framework for European airports in the light of recent developments in the relationship between airlines and airports. Three factors underlie the changed relationship. These are: the creation of a single European aviation market; the development of airline business models operating on a pan-European basis; and the increasing use of the internet which has reduced the costs of entry for airlines into local markets. In combination these factors have had a profound effect on the dynamics of the airline industry. These dynamics have increased the business risk faced by airports and highlighting the increased buyer power of the airlines. The result has been a shift to bespoke long term contacts between airports and airlines. We argues that the bespoke contracts are also incentive-compatible from the passenger's point of view and, in combination with the incentive that airports have to secure high-margin commercial sales to passengers, produce an outcome that is favourable to the passenger; direct airport competition merely guilds the lily. Any residual concerns regarding market dominance and possible abuse have then to be set against the significant disadvantages and costs of sector-specific economic regulation; increasingly the remaining competition issues are of a type better handled through the application of normal competition law. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

The potential impact of the ~73 ka Toba super-eruption upon global and regional climate, terrestrial ecosystems and prehistoric human populations remains unclear. Evidence from genetics, prehistoric archaeology, pollen analysis, stable isotope geochemistry, geomorphology, ice cores, and climate models has provided some useful working hypotheses. Further progress requires a substantial improvement in the accuracy, precision and resolution of the chronologies of each of the marine and terrestrial proxy records used to reconstruct the environmental impact of this extreme event. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Priest S.,University of Adelaide
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering | Year: 2012

The widespread adoption of the empirical two-dimensional Hoek-Brown failure criterion (2DHB) for rock engineering applications has prompted a number of researchers to develop three-dimensional versions, in which the predicted major effective principal stress at failure is dependent on the intermediate effective principal stress, in addition to the parameters in the existing 2DHB failure criterion. A three-dimensional version of the Hoek?Brown yield criterion was developed by Priest by combining the two-dimensional Hoek and Brown and the three-dimensional Drucker and Prager criteria. The criteria has the merit of providing an easily computed estimate for the three-dimensional effective failure stress. One promising strategy might be in situ pressuremeter tests in boreholes coupled with testing of recovered core and/or chips and detailed downhole surveys.

Rodgers R.J.,University of Adelaide
Society of Reproduction and Fertility supplement | Year: 2010

In the mammalian ovary there is considerable and continuous remodelling of tissue during both fetal and adult life, necessitating changes in extracellular matrix. Matrix is a diverse group of molecules varying in its composition and roles, which include regulation of growth factor activity and cell behaviour. Here we discuss four topical aspects of matrices in ovaries. (1) Our current state of knowledge of latent TGFFbeta binding proteins that can bind the extracellular matrix fibrillins. Fibrillins and latent TGFbeta binding proteins may be very important given the genetic linkage data implicating a role for fibrillin 3 in polycystic ovarian syndrome. They will almost certainly be important in the stromal compartments of the ovary by regulating TGFbeta bioactivity. (2) Follicles which have an unusual ultrastructural follicular basal lamina and poor quality oocytes. The results suggest that the use of oocytes from these follicles should be avoided in assisted reproductive technologies. (3) Evidence that expression of components of focimatrix correlates with expression of aromatase and cholesterol side-chain cleavage in granulosa cells. Focimatrix is a novel type of basal lamina associated with granulosa cells with expression beginning before deviation and continuing until ovulation. It may be involved in maturation of granulosa cells and selection of the dominant follicle. (4) Evidence is presented in support of a hypothesis that follicular fluid accumulates in follicles due to the osmotic potential of hyaluronan and versican, which are matrices produced by granulosa cells and too large to traverse the follicular antrum. These examples illustrate the diversity of matrix and foreshadow potential important discoveries involving extracellular matrix in ovaries.

Pettolino F.A.,CSIRO | Walsh C.,University of Melbourne | Fincher G.B.,University of Adelaide | Bacic A.,University of Melbourne
Nature Protocols | Year: 2012

The plant cell wall is a chemically complex structure composed mostly of polysaccharides. Detailed analyses of these cell wall polysaccharides are essential for our understanding of plant development and for our use of plant biomass (largely wall material) in the food, agriculture, fabric, timber, biofuel and biocomposite industries. We present analytical techniques not only to define the fine chemical structures of individual cell wall polysaccharides but also to estimate the overall polysaccharide composition of cell wall preparations. The procedure covers the preparation of cell walls, together with gas chromatographyg-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based methods, for both the analysis of monosaccharides as their volatile alditol acetate derivatives and for methylation analysis to determine linkage positions between monosaccharide residues as their volatile partially methylated alditol acetate derivatives. Analysis time will vary depending on both the method used and the tissue type, and ranges from 2 d for a simple neutral sugar composition to 2 weeks for a carboxyl reduction/methylation linkage analysis. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bardsley D.K.,University of Adelaide | Rogers G.P.,Government of South Australia
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2011

This article describes a regional approach to climate change adaption that focuses on engaging the natural resource management community. In a world tempered by increasing climatic uncertainty as a result of projected climate change, natural resource management practitioners are looking for approaches to respond through effective adaptation, yet the availability of practical tools to guide and inform their decision-making processes is limited. The social learning approach described was developed between the South Australian Government and the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board. The approach successfully engaged stakeholders and provided a foundation upon which informed adaptation planning and action could take place. Techniques ranged from direct relationship building and participatory action learning, through to a regional vulnerability analysis and the development and application of a comprehensive regional adaptation response framework to guide future decisions. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Evans J.P.,University of New South Wales | Westra S.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

This study investigates the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the diurnal cycle of precipitation over southeast Australia, to provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms that drive diurnal variability. When compared with 195 observation gauges, the RCM tends to simulate too many occurrences and too little intensity for precipitation events at the 3-hourly time scale. However, the overall precipitation amounts are well simulated and the diurnal variability in occurrences and intensities are generally well reproduced, particularly in spring and summer. In terms of precipitation amounts, the RCM overestimated the diurnal cycle during the warmer months but was reasonably accurate during winter. The timing of the maxima and minima was found to match the observed timings well. The spatial pattern of diurnal variability in the Weather Research and Forecasting model outputs was remarkably similar to the observed record, capturing many features of regional variability. TheRCMdiurnal cycle was dominated by the convective (subgrid scale) precipitation. In the RCM the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over land corresponds well to atmospheric instability and thermally triggered convection over large areas, and also to the large-scale moisture convergence at 700 hPa along the east coast, with the strongest diurnal cycles present where these three mechanisms are in phase. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

Asiabanha A.,Imam Khomeini International University | Foden J.,University of Adelaide
Lithos | Year: 2012

The Alborz Magmatic Assemblage (AMA) is an Eocene volcanic complex in northern Iran, and is situated at the site of the closure of the Tethyan basin. The magmatic rocks of the Alborz assemblage exhibit a distinct progression in style, from shallow submarine explosive eruptions to more effusive sub-aerial eruptions. Their chemical compositions indicate that they belong to the high-K calc-alkaline (shoshonitic) suite, and are related to either a subduction regime or continental collision. This conclusion is verified by major and trace element abundances, such as enrichments in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREEs) and Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILEs) (e.g., K, U, and Sr) and depletion in High Field Strength Elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and Zr). However, HFSE plots suggest that the source region of the AMA magmas was affected by multiple processes, including deeply subducted lithosphere and the partial melts of extensional lithosphere in a back-arc environment. The isotopic composition of this suite and their trace element ratios suggest that the primary magmas were derived from a depleted mantle source and were subsequently affected by both fractional crystallization (ol + cpx in basic magmas and plg + bio ± hbl in intermediate magmas) and assimilation during magmatic evolution. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling, based on isotopic and trace element ratios, indicates that the ascending magmas were contaminated by approximately 40% continental crust. The petrography and geochemical composition of the Eocene Alborz magmatic assemblage indicate that it developed in a back-arc basin, in which explosive eruptions produced various pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits. A subsequent stage of volcanism then produced more effusive sub-aerial eruptions, as well as sporadic explosions that generated ignimbritic sheets. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Bass S.D.,University of Innsbruck | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

The value of the nucleon's flavour-singlet axial-charge extracted from polarised deep inelastic scattering is sensitive to the value of the octet axial-charge gA (8) which is usually taken from an analysis of hyperon β-decays within the framework of SU(3) symmetry, namely 0.58 ± 0.03. Using the Cloudy Bag model we find that the value of gA (8) is reduced by as much as 20% below the usual phenomenological value. This increases the value of the flavour-singlet axial-charge (gA (0) |inv) derived from deep inelastic data and significantly reduces the difference between it and gA (8). © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chousalkar K.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Among the various poultry product-related foodborne pathogens, gastrointestinal infections caused by egg-borne nontyphoidal Salmonella is a major concern in developed and developing countries. This review is focused on the latest findings and implications for food safety. RECENT FINDINGS: Salmonella enteritidis is a predominant serovar for egg-associated human salmonellosis except for Oceania. In Australia, Salmonella typhimurium is the predominant serovar. The cross-section and longitudinal epidemiological investigations yielded mixed results but mainly reported that faecal sampling is the best indicator of egg contamination. Salmonella serovars are able to survive on eggshell for several weeks and form biofilm. The invasion potential of some Salmonella serovars is influenced by the enrichment factors in the environment. Whole-genome sequencing is being adopted for investigation of Salmonella outbreaks, although the culture method remains a prerequisite. SUMMARY: Industry stakeholders and public health authorities have different perceptions regarding ecology and control of Salmonella from farm to fork. Given the challenges such as variation in Salmonella serovars, emergence of virulent types, ability of bacteria to sustain harsh environment and host defence mechanisms, expensive diagnostics and lack of a single robust intervention, joint efforts from regulators and public health officials are required. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neumann F.,University of Adelaide
GECCO'12 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2012

The computational complexity analysis of genetic programming (GP) has been started recently in [7] by analyzing simple (1+1) GP algorithms for the problems ORDER and MAJORITY. In this paper, we study how taking the complexity as an additional criteria influences the runtime behavior. We consider generalizations of ORDER and MAJORITY and present a computational complexity analysis of (1+1) GP using multi-criteria fitness functions that take into account the original objective and the complexity of a syntax tree as a secondary measure. Furthermore, we study the expected time until simple multi-objective genetic programming algorithms have computed the Pareto front when taking the complexity of a syntax tree as an equally important objective. © 2012 ACM.

This paper traces the origins of the concept of permaculture and discusses the sustainability of permaculture itself as a form of alternative agriculture. The principles of permaculture are shown to have many views and perspectives in common with Taoism and with Buddhist ecology and economics. The amalgamation of these Oriental traditions can be translated into the Kaya equation and beyond. It is argued that future permaculture movements should focus on revitalising the communitarian spirit of traditional farming villages instead of building intentional communal communities. The paper also calls for more aggressive environmental-policy measures that support permaculture and internalise the non-market value of reduced fossil-fuel energy consumption and waste recycling. © 2014 The White Horse Press.

Haerter J.O.,Copenhagen University | Lovkvist C.,Copenhagen University | Dodd I.B.,University of Adelaide | Sneppen K.,Copenhagen University
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

Inheritance of 5-methyl cytosine modification of CpG (CG/CG) DNA sequences is needed to maintain early developmental decisions in vertebrates. The standard inheritance model treats CpGs as independent, with methylated CpGs maintained by efficient methylation of hemimethylated CpGs produced after DNA replication, and unmethylated CpGs maintained by an absence of de novo methylation. By stochastic simulations of CpG islands over multiple cell cycles and systematic sampling of reaction parameters, we show that the standard model is inconsistent with many experimental observations. In contrast, dynamic collaboration between CpGs can provide strong error-tolerant somatic inheritance of both hypermethylated and hypomethylated states of a cluster of CpGs, reproducing observed stable bimodal methylation patterns. Known recruitment of methylating enzymes by methylated CpGs could provide the necessary collaboration, but we predict that recruitment of demethylating enzymes by unmethylated CpGs strengthens inheritance and allows CpG islands to remain hypomethylated within a sea of hypermethylation. © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.

Effective vaccines are available for many protozoal diseases of animals, including vaccines for zoonotic pathogens and for several species of vector-transmitted apicomplexan haemoparasites. In comparison with human diseases, vaccine development for animals has practical advantages such as the ability to perform experiments in the natural host, the option to manufacture some vaccines in vivo, and lower safety requirements. Although it is proper for human vaccines to be held to higher standards, the enduring lack of vaccines for human protozoal diseases is difficult to reconcile with the comparatively immense amount of research funding. Common tactical problems of human protozoal vaccine research include reliance upon adapted rather than natural animal disease models, and an overwhelming emphasis on novel approaches that are usually attempted in replacement of rather than for improvement upon the types of designs used in effective veterinary vaccines. Currently, all effective protozoal vaccines for animals are predicated upon the ability to grow protozoal organisms. Because human protozoal vaccines need to be as effective as animal vaccines, researchers should benefit from a comparison of existing veterinary products and leading experimental vaccine designs. With this in mind, protozoal vaccines are here reviewed. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

Beer A.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2014

Globally researchers are paying increasing attention to questions of local leadership and the governance of rural communities. However, the two bodies of scholarship have largely developed in isolation from each other and there has been a subsequent dearth of research into the relationship between leadership and governance in rural communities. Drawing upon the local leadership and governmentality literatures, this paper seeks to shed light on the leadership of places through an examination of the experience of a small town in South Australia. The paper argues there is a strong interaction between governance and leadership, with leaders sometimes taking an oppositional role to government and in other instances serving to mediate relations across spatial scales. The paper brings into question the nature of leadership in rural communities in advanced economies, the ways in which leaders interpret their roles and their relationship with the processes of governmentality. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Young R.D.,Argonne National Laboratory | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2010

It has proven a significant challenge to experiment and phenomenology to extract a precise values of the nucleon sigma terms. This difficulty opens the window for lattice QCD simulations to lead the field in resolving this aspect of nucleon structure. Here we report on recent advances in the extraction of nucleon sigma terms in lattice QCD. In particular, the strangeness component is now being resolved to a precision that far surpasses best phenomenological estimates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Binder B.J.,University of Adelaide
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2010

In batch mixers the stirring of a fluid is known to be particularly effective when the motion of the stirring rods form nontrivial braids. This motion is desirable as it generates (predictable) exponential stretching of material lines. Additionally, it has also been recognized that flow structures themselves (such as periodic islands) may adopt the role of proxy or "ghost" stirring rods. For a number of designs (which form nontrivial braids), we investigate the prevalence of ghost rods that effectively replace stationary stirring rods (baffles) as the latter are removed from the batch mixer. We show (for the case of Stokes flow) that designs with fewer baffles have comparable material stretch factors to corresponding designs with all baffles present. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Londergan J.T.,Indiana University Bloomington | Peng J.C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Thomas A.W.,Jefferson Lab | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. Various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge-symmetry violation in parton distribution functions are reviewed. After summarizing the current experimental upper limits on charge-symmetry violation in parton distributions, a series of new experiments are proposed, which might reveal partonic charge-symmetry violation or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge-symmetry violation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Rousseau-Gueutin M.,University of Adelaide
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

Nuclear genomes of eukaryotes are bombarded by a continuous deluge of organellar DNA which contributes significantly to eukaryote evolution. Here, we present a new PCR-based method that allows the specific amplification of nuclear integrants of organellar DNA (norgs) by exploiting recent deletions present in organellar genome sequences. We have used this method to amplify nuclear integrants of plastid DNA (nupts) from the nuclear genomes of several Nicotiana species and to study the evolutionary forces acting upon these sequences. The role of nupts in endosymbiotic evolution and the different genetic factors influencing the time available for a chloroplastic gene to be functionally relocated in the nucleus are discussed.

Selway K.,University of Adelaide | Selway K.,Yale University
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2014

Magnetotelluric (MT) data can image the electrical resistivity of the entire lithospheric column and are therefore one of the most important data sources for understanding the structure, composition and evolution of the lithosphere. However, interpretations of MT data from stable lithosphere are often ambiguous. Recent results from mineral physics studies show that, from the mid-crust to the base of the lithosphere, temperature and the hydrogen content of nominally anhydrous minerals are the two most important controls on electrical conductivity. Graphite films on mineral grain boundaries also enhance conductivity but are stable only to the uppermost mantle. The thermal profile of most stable lithosphere can be well constrained, so the two important unknowns that can affect the conductivity of a lithospheric section are hydrogen content and graphite films. The presence of both of these factors is controlled by the geological history of the lithosphere. Hydrogen in nominally anhydrous minerals behaves as an incompatible element and is preferentially removed during melting or high-temperature tectonothermal events. Grain-boundary graphite films are only stable to ~900 °C so they are also destroyed by high-temperature events. Conversely, tectonic events that enrich the lithosphere in incompatible elements, such as interaction with fluids from a subducting slab or a plume, can introduce both hydrogen and carbon into the lithosphere and therefore increase its electrical conductivity. Case studies of MT results from central Australia and the Slave Craton in Canada suggest that electrical conductivity can act as a proxy for the level of enrichment in incompatible elements of the lithosphere. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Evrard A.,University of Adelaide
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2012

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) provides a rapid means of isolating large numbers of fluorescently tagged cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. Collections of transgenic plants with cell type-specific expression of fluorescent marker genes such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) are ideally suited for FACS-assisted studies of individual cell types. Here we describe the use of Arabidopsis and rice enhancer trap lines with tissue-specific GFP expression patterns in the root to isolate specific cell types of root tissues using FACS. Additionally, protocols are provided to impose a ramped salinity stress for 48 h prior to cell sorting.

Ross J.V.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2011

We consider the initial invasion of an infectious disease in a finite, homogeneous population. Methodology for evaluating the basic reproduction number, R 0, and the probability mass function of secondary infections is presented. The impact of finite population size, and infectious period distribution (between exponential, two-phase gamma, and constant), is assessed. Implications for infectious disease invasion and estimation of infectious disease model and parameters from data of secondary infections by initially infected individuals in naive, finite, homogeneous populations are reported. As any individual interacts with a finite number of contacts during their infectious period, these results are important to the study of infectious disease dynamics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Nguyen G.D.,University of Adelaide | Korsunsky A.M.,University of Oxford | Belnoue J.P.-H.,University of Bristol
International Journal of Plasticity | Year: 2015

This paper presents a nonlocal coupled damage-plasticity model for the analysis of ductile fracture. The proposed model makes use of both damage mechanics and plasticity theories and hence is able to capture the pre-peak hardening and post-peak softening responses as well as the stiffness reduction of the material during the deformation and fracture processes. Nonlocal regularisation technique is used as an enhancement to the proposed damage-plasticity model to deal with softening related problems in the constitutive modelling and the failure analysis. Emphasis is put on the determination of model parameters with a novel calibration procedure, based on the experimental technique (Korsunsky and Kim, 2005) on the measurement of essential and non-essential works of fracture, proposed and effectively used for the model calibration. It is shown that all model parameters can be properly calibrated based on the proposed method, and experimental results, making the model attractive for practical applications. The proposed nonlocal model enables the stress update to be carried out pointwise, and hence facilitates the implementation of the model in existing finite element codes. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sgro C.M.,Monash University | Lowe A.J.,University of Adelaide | Hoffmann A.A.,University of Melbourne
Evolutionary Applications | Year: 2011

Evolution occurs rapidly and is an ongoing process in our environments. Evolutionary principles need to be built into conservation efforts, particularly given the stressful conditions organisms are increasingly likely to experience because of climate change and ongoing habitat fragmentation. The concept of evolutionary resilience is a way of emphasizing evolutionary processes in conservation and landscape planning. From an evolutionary perspective, landscapes need to allow in situ selection and capture high levels of genetic variation essential for responding to the direct and indirect effects of climate change. We summarize ideas that need to be considered in planning for evolutionary resilience and suggest how they might be incorporated into policy and management to ensure that resilience is maintained in the face of environmental degradation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kalynych S.,McGill University | Morona R.,University of Adelaide | Cygler M.,McGill University | Cygler M.,University of Saskatchewan
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2014

The discovery that the surfaces of Gram-negative bacteria often carry unique polysaccharide signatures pre-dates most seminal discoveries of molecular biology and biochemistry of the 20th century. The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide has been one of the most intensely studied bacterial polysaccharide surface structures for over 80 years. Yet, many questions about the mechanism of biosynthesis of the O-antigen and its transport to the cell surface remain unanswered. In this review we provide an overview of how the molecular basis of the O-antigen assembly and trafficking were unraveled in a historical context. We pay particular attention to the emergence of novel technological approaches and how they fueled the elucidation of the O-antigen maturation process. Moreover, we provide a brief perspective on the biosynthesis of enterobacterial common antigen and underline the similarities and differences between the pathways used to assemble these two surface polysaccharides. Finally, we highlight key discoveries that led to the understanding of the mechanistic basis of bacteriophage-induced O-antigen modifications. We place special emphasis on the regulation of the length of O-antigen polymers and provide a detailed overview of the models explaining the O-antigen length determination. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions that need to be addressed both structurally and functionally to advance our understanding of the O-antigen assembly, trafficking and export within cellular and molecular contexts. This review provides a historical perspective of how the molecular basis of the O-antigen assembly was elucidated, and to underscore some of the most intriguing questions that remain to be addressed. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

Betterman K.L.,University of South Australia | Harvey N.L.,University of South Australia | Harvey N.L.,University of Adelaide
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2016

The lymphatic vasculature is an integral component of the immune system. Lymphatic vessels are a key highway via which immune cells are trafficked, serving not simply as a passive route of transport, but to actively shape and coordinate immune responses. Reciprocally, immune cells provide signals that impact the growth, development, and activity of the lymphatic vasculature. In addition to immune cell trafficking, lymphatic vessels are crucial for fluid homeostasis and lipid absorption. The field of lymphatic vascular research is rapidly expanding, fuelled by rapidly advancing technology that has enabled the manipulation and imaging of lymphatic vessels, together with an increasing recognition of the involvement of lymphatic vessels in a myriad of human pathologies. In this review we provide an overview of the genetic pathways and cellular processes important for development and maturation of the lymphatic vasculature, discuss recent work revealing important roles for the lymphatic vasculature in directing immune cell traffic and coordinating immune responses and highlight the involvement of lymphatic vessels in a range of pathological settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Wycherley T.P.,University of South Australia | Moran L.J.,University of Adelaide | Clifton P.M.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Noakes M.,CSIRO | Brinkworth G.D.,CSIRO
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: It is currently unclear whether altering the carbohydrate-to-protein ratio of low-fat, energy-restricted diets augments weight loss and cardiometabolic risk markers. Objective: The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared energy-restricted, isocaloric, high-protein, low-fat (HP) diets with standard-protein, low-fat (SP) diets on weight loss, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), satiety and appetite, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: Systematic searches were conducted by using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify weight-loss trials that compared isocalorically prescribed diets matched for fat intake but that differed in protein and carbohydrate intakes in participants aged ≥18 y. Twenty-four trials that included 1063 individuals satisfied the inclusion criteria. Results: Mean (±SD) diet duration was 12.1 ± 9.3 wk. Compared with an SP diet, an HP diet produced more favorable changes in weighted mean differences for reductions in body weight (-0.79 kg; 95% CI: -1.50, -0.08 kg), fat mass (FM; -0.87 kg; 95% CI: -1.26, -0.48 kg), and triglycerides (-0.23 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.33, 20.12 mmol/L) and mitigation of reductions in fat-free mass (FFM; 0.43 kg; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.78 kg) and REE (595.5 kJ/d; 95% CI: 67.0, 1124.1 kJ/d). Changes in fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, blood pressure, and total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol were similar across dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.20). Greater satiety with HP was reported in 3 of 5 studies. Conclusion: Compared with an energy-restricted SP diet, an isocalorically prescribed HP diet provides modest benefits for reductions in body weight, FM, and triglycerides and for mitigating reductions in FFM and REE. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Tucker M.R.,University of Adelaide | Koltunow A.M.G.,CSIRO
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2014

The formation of female gametes in plants occurs within the ovule, a floral organ that is also the precursor of the seed. Unlike animals, plants lack a typical germline separated from the soma early in development and rely on positional signals, including phytohormones, mobile mRNAs and sRNAs, to direct diploid somatic precursor cells onto a reproductive program. In addition, signals moving between plant cells must overcome the architectural limitations of a cell wall which surrounds the plasma membrane. Recent studies have addressed the molecular and histological signatures of young ovule cells and indicate that dynamic cell wall changes occur over a short developmental window. These changes in cell wall properties impact signal flow and ovule cell identity, thereby aiding the establishment of boundaries between reproductive and somatic ovule domains. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Connell S.D.,University of Adelaide | Foster M.S.,Moss Landing Marine Laboratories | Airoldi L.,University of Bologna | Airoldi L.,Stanford University
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2014

The use of standardised classifications, or operational definitions, is essential if different researchers are to measure and compare similar entities. In the marine realm, algal 'turfs' are increasingly reported to be globally expanding at the expense of kelps and canopy-forming algae. However, ecological research about the underlying drivers of this shift is limited by a vague and inconsistent definition of what exactly a turf is. In order to stimulate more effective descriptions of 'turfs' and facilitate communication of research outcomes and comparisons across studies, we reviewed the use of the term turf in ecological studies of temperate coasts and coral reefs and (1) identified the main types and distribution of algal assemblages known as 'turfs', (2) examined the descriptions of turfs so that we may recognise some general characteristics, including those contingent on environmental conditions; and (3) offered character descriptions that could improve communication and comparisons. These descriptors centre on reporting information on the morphology, height, density of thalli, the amount of sediment trapped in turfs and a description of the area covered by turfs, including their patchiness and persistence. Our review recognised these as common attributes that could be usefully described across a wide range of circumstances and provide insights into the ecology of turfs and their interactions with other assemblages in a community. The use of common descriptors would provide the term 'turf' with greater scientific value. © Inter-Research 2014.

Doeltgen S.H.,University of Adelaide | Huckabee M.-L.,University of Canterbury
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

The recent application of neurostimulation techniques to enhance the understanding of swallowing neural plasticity has expanded the focus of rehabilitation research from manipulation of swallowing biomechanics to manipulation of underlying neural systems. Neuromodulatory strategies that promote the brain's ability to reorganize its neural connections have been shown to hold promising potential to aid the recovery of impaired swallowing function. These techniques include those applied to the brain through the intact skull, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation, or those applied to the sensorimotor system in the periphery, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Recent research has demonstrated that each of these techniques, either by themselves or in combination with these and other treatments, can, under certain circumstances, modify the excitability of motor representations of muscles involved in swallowing. In some studies, experimentally induced plastic changes have been shown to have functional relevance for swallowing biomechanics. However, the transition of novel, neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques from the research laboratory to routine clinical practice is accompanied by a number of ethical, organizational, and clinical implications that impact professions concerned with the treatment of swallowing rehabilitation. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the neuromodulatory strategies that may hold potential to aid the recovery of swallowing function, and raise a number of issues that we believe the clinical professions involved in the rehabilitation of swallowing disorders must confront as these novel brain stimulation techniques emerge into clinical practice. © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Grossmann M.,University of Melbourne | Wittert G.,University of Adelaide
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2012

Metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have been shown to modulate prostate cancer (PCa) risk and aggressiveness in population-based and experimental studies. While associations between these conditions are modest and complex, two consistent findings have emerged. First, there is observational evidence that obesity and associated insulin excess are linked to increased PCa aggressiveness and worse outcomes. Secondly and somewhat paradoxically, long-standing diabetes may be protective against PCa development. This apparent paradox may be due to the fact that long-standing diabetes is associated with insulin depletion and decreased IGF1 signalling. Men with obesity or diabetes have moderate reductions in their androgen levels. The interconnectedness of metabolic and androgen status complicates the dissection of the individual roles of these factors in PCa development and progression. Metabolic factors and androgens may promote prostate carcinogenesis via multiple mechanisms including inflammation, adipokine action, fatty acid metabolism and IGF signalling. Moreover, androgen deprivation, given to men with PCa, has adverse metabolic consequences that need to be taken into account when estimating the risk benefit ratio of this therapy. In this review, we will discuss the current epidemiological and mechanistic evidence regarding the interactions between metabolic conditions, sex steroids and PCa risk and management. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology.

Laurence C.O.,University of Adelaide
The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing is increasingly being used in general practice to assist GPs in their management of patients with chronic disease. However, patient satisfaction and acceptability of point-of-care testing in general practice has not been widely studied. AIM: To determine if patients are more satisfied with point-of-care testing than with pathology laboratory testing for three chronic conditions. DESIGN OF STUDY: As part of a large multicentre, randomised, controlled trial assessing the use of point-of-care testing in Australian general practice, satisfaction was measured for patients having pathology testing performed by point-of-care testing devices or pathology laboratories. Patients in the trial were managed by GPs for diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, and/or anticoagulant therapy. METHOD: Patient satisfaction was measured using level of agreement with a variety of statements at the end of the study with a patient satisfaction questionnaire for both the intervention and control groups. Analysis was performed using a mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) with allowance for clustering at the practice level following Box-Cox transformations of the data to achieve normality. RESULTS: Overall, intervention patients reported that they were satisfied with point-of-care testing. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group had a higher level of agreement than control patients with statements relating to their satisfaction with the collection process (P<0.001) and confidence in the process (P<0.001). They also viewed point-of-care testing as strengthening their relationship with their GP (P = 0.010) and motivational in terms of better managing their condition (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The results from this trial support patient satisfaction and acceptability of point-of-care testing in a general practice setting.

Hatem S.N.,Institute of cardiometabolism and nutrition | Hatem S.N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sanders P.,University of Adelaide
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2014

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is often associated with profound functional and structural alterations of the atrial myocardium that compose its substrate. Recently, a relationship between the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the incidence and severity of AF has been reported. Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ regulating the metabolism of neighbouring organs. It is also a major source of cytokines. In the heart, EAT is contiguous with the myocardium without fascia boundaries resulting in paracrine effects through the release of adipokines. Indeed, Activin A, which is produced in abundance by EAT during heart failure or diabetes, shows a marked fibrotic effect on the atrial myocardium. The infiltration of adipocytes into the atrial myocardium could also disorganize the depolarization wave front favouring micro re-entry circuits and local conduction block. Finally, EAT contains progenitor cells in abundance and therefore could be a source of myofibroblasts producing extracellular matrix. The study on the role played by adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of AF is just starting and is highly likely to uncover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AF. © The Author 2014.

Anikeeva O.,University of Adelaide
Asia-Pacific journal of public health / Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health | Year: 2010

This review summarizes the findings of studies conducted in Australia between 1980 and 2008 that focused on the health status of migrants in one or more of Australia's National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs), identifies gaps in knowledge, and suggests further research directions. Systematic literature searches were performed on CINAHL, MediText, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. It was found that the majority of migrants enjoy better health than the Australian-born population in the conditions that are part of the NHPAs, with the exception of diabetes. Mediterranean migrants have particularly favorable health outcomes. The migrant health advantage appears to deteriorate with increasing duration of residence. Many of the analyzed studies were conducted more than 10 years ago or had a narrow focus. Little is known about the health status of migrants with respect to a number of NHPAs, including musculoskeletal conditions and asthma.The health status of recently arrived migrant groups from the Middle East and Africa has not been explored in detail.

Zivanovic R.,University of Adelaide
Reliability Engineering and System Safety | Year: 2012

Computation of distance to fault on an electrical transmission line is affected by many sources of uncertainty, including parameter setting errors, measurement errors, as well as absence of information and incomplete modelling of a system under fault condition. In this paper we propose an application of the variance-based global sensitivity measures for evaluation of fault location algorithms. The main goal of the evaluation is to identify factors and their interactions that contribute to the fault locator output variability. This analysis is based on the results of Sparse Grid Regression. The method compiles the Functional ANOVA model to represent fault locator output as a function of uncertain factors. The ANOVA model provides a tool for interpretation and sensitivity analysis. In practice, such analysis can help in functional performance tests, especially in: selection of the optimal fault location algorithm (device) for a specific application, calibration process and building confidence in a fault location function result. The paper concludes with an application example which demonstrates use of the proposed methodology in testing and comparing some commonly used fault location algorithms. This example is also used to demonstrate numerical efficiency for this type of application of the proposed Sparse Grid Regression method in comparison to the Quasi-Monte Carlo approach. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Dent J.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2011

Interpretation of exploding knowledge about Barrett's esophagus is impaired by use of several conflicting definitions. Because any histological type of esophageal columnar metaplasia carries risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus should no longer require demonstration of intestinal-type metaplasia. Endoscopic recognition and grading of Barrett's esophagus remains a significant source of ambiguity.Reflux disease is a key factor for development of Barrett's esophagus, but other factors must underlie its development, since it occurs in only a minority of reflux disease patients. Neither antireflux surgery nor proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has major impacts on cancer risk. Within a year, a major trial should indicate whether low-dose aspirin usefully reduces cancer risk.The best referral centers have transformed the accuracy of screening and surveillance for early curable esophageal adenocarcinoma by use of enhanced and novel endoscopic imaging, visually-guided, rather than blind biopsies and by partnership with expert pathologists. General endoscopists now need to upgrade their skills and equipment so that they can rely mainly on visual targeting of biopsies on mucosal areas of concern in their surveillance practice. General pathologists need to greatly improve their interpretation of biopsies.Endoscopic therapy now achieves very high rates of cure of high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma with minimal morbidity and risk. Such results will only be achieved by skilled interventional endoscopists. Esophagectomy should now be mainly restricted to patients whose cancer has extended into and beyond the submucosa. Weighing risks and benefits in the management of Barrett's esophagus is difficult, as is the process of adequately informing patients about their specific cancer risk. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Aw M.S.,University of South Australia | Addai-Mensah J.,University of South Australia | Losic D.,University of South Australia | Losic D.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Stimulus-responsive drug delivery system using titania nanotube arrays loaded with polymer micelles as drug-carriers is presented. A magnetic stimulated release of drug-carriers was achieved by activating magnetic nanoparticles loaded at the bottom of the nanotubes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Brotcke Zumsteg A.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Goosmann C.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Brinkmann V.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Morona R.,University of Adelaide | Zychlinsky A.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2014

Following contact with the epithelium, the enteric intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri invades epithelial cells and escapes intracellular phagosomal destruction using its type III secretion system (T3SS). The bacterium replicates within the host cell cytosol and spreads between cells using actin-based motility, which is mediated by the virulence factor IcsA (VirG). Whereas S. flexneri invasion is well characterized, adhesion mechanisms of the bacterium remain elusive. We found that IcsA also functions as an adhesin that is both necessary and sufficient to promote contact with host cells. As adhesion can be beneficial or deleterious depending on the host cell type, S. flexneri regulates IcsA-dependent adhesion. Activation of the T3SS in response to the bile salt deoxycholate triggers IcsA-dependent adhesion and enhances pathogen invasion. IcsA-dependent adhesion contributes to virulence in a mouse model of shigellosis, underscoring the importance of this adhesin to S. flexneri pathogenesis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Aw M.S.,University of South Australia | Addai-Mensah J.,University of South Australia | Losic D.,University of South Australia | Losic D.,University of Adelaide
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

A multi-drug delivery system with sequential release based on titania nanotube arrays and polymer micelles as drug carriers is presented. Delivery of multiple water insoluble and soluble drugs required for combined local therapy is demonstrated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Wittert G.,University of Adelaide
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2014

Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture. © 2014 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved.

Chousalkar K.K.,University of Adelaide | Roberts J.R.,University of New England of Australia
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. on the eggshell surface, eggshell membranes or pores, and in egg internal contents from unwashed eggs collected from commercial caged layer farms in Australia. Eggshell rinsate, shell crush, and egg internal contents (yolk and albumen) of eggs were processed for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella subspecies 1, serotype 4,12:d were isolated from the eggshell surface. Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any eggshell crush or egg internal contents. It would appear that the occurrence of Salmonella in the Australian egg industry is low. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Wittert G.,University of Adelaide
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2014

Purpose of review: This review describes evolving concepts and recent data on the relationship between serum testosterone levels and normal and disordered sleep. Recent findings: Sex-related differences in circadian rhythms and sleep physiology are in part due to organizational and activational effects of sex steroids. Testosterone affects the organization of circadian rhythms and the timing, but not the duration, of sleep. Increasing testosterone during puberty leads to later bedtimes. The diurnal variation in testosterone depends on sleep rather than circadian rhythm or season. Pubertal onset is heralded, well before virilization, by a luteinizing hormone level at least 3.7 U/l during sleep. Total sleep deprivation lowers testosterone, but sleep restriction only does so if it occurs in the first half of the night. The recovery of testosterone from sleep disruption is impaired in old as compared with young rodents. In men with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), low testosterone is related to obesity rather than the OSA itself, and improves with weight loss but inconsistently with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Testosterone treatment only transiently worsens severity of OSA, which need not be considered a contraindication to its use. Summary: Testosterone treatment is unlikely to benefit sleep in men with secondary hypogonadism, for example due to obesity or depression, in contrast to the management of the underlying abnormality. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Merlin T.,University of Adelaide
Personalized Medicine | Year: 2014

It is uncommon to find published clinical trials that measure the health benefits of medical testing. As a consequence, policy makers often have to decide whether access to, or public funding of, medical tests is warranted without knowing the clinical impact of testing on the patient. In the situation where a policy maker is considering a companion genetic test and tailored drug therapy, deficiencies in the evidence base are exacerbated because two technologies need to be assessed and the proposed genetic biomarker needs to be validated. The Linked Evidence Approach (LEA) is a methodology that was developed in 2005 to cope with inadequacies in the evidence supporting medical test evaluations. In 2010 the approach was adapted to the evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions. This article describes how LEA and similar analytic frameworks are used internationally, highlights particular challenges with the approach, and proposes ways that LEA might be applied to pharmacogenomic interventions. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

Goldwater P.N.,University of Adelaide
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2015

The gut microbiome influences the development of the immune system of young mammals; the establishment of a normal gut microbiome is thought to be important for the health of the infant during its early development. As the role of bacteria in the causation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is backed by strong evidence, the balance between host immunity and potential bacterial pathogens is likely to be pivotal. Bacterial colonization of the infant colon is influenced by age, mode of delivery, diet, environment, and antibiotic exposure. The gut microbiome influences several systems including gut integrity and development of the immune system; therefore, gut microflora could be important in protection against bacteria and/or their toxins identified in SIDS infants. The aims of the review are to explore (1) the role of the gut microbiome in relation to the developmentally critical period in which most SIDS cases occur; (2) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiome might induce inflammation resulting in transit of bacteria from the lumen into the bloodstream; and (3) assessment of the clinical, physiological, pathological, and microbiological evidence for bacteremia leading to the final events in SIDS pathogenesis. © 2015 Goldwater.

Kumar R.,University of Adelaide
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Intellectual disability (ID) is a clinically complex and heterogeneous disorder, which has variable severity and may be associated with additional dysmorphic, metabolic, neuromuscular or psychiatric features. Although many coding variants have been implicated in ID, identification of pathogenic non-coding regulatory variants has only been achieved in a few cases to date. We identified a duplication of a guanine on chromosome X, NC_000023.10:g.69665044dupG 7 nucleotides upstream of the translational start site in the 5ʹ untranslated region (UTR) of the known ID gene DLG3 that encodes synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102). The dupG variant segregated with affected status in a large multigenerational family with non-syndromic X-linked ID and was predicted to disrupt folding of the mRNA. When tested on blood cells from the affected individuals, DLG3 mRNA levels were not altered, however, DLG3/SAP102 protein levels were. We also showed by dual luciferase reporter assay that the dupG variant interfered with translation. All currently known pathogenic DLG3 variants are predicted to be null, however the dupG variant likely leads to only a modest reduction of SAP102 levels accounting for the milder phenotype seen in this family.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 May 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.46. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

Krein G.,Sao Paulo State University | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide | Tsushima K.,Jefferson Lab
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The J/Ψ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating D and D* meson loop contributions to the J/Ψ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the D and D* masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The J/Ψ mass shift arising from the modification of the D and D* loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from -16 MeV to -24 MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of J/Ψ to a nucleus are investigated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Schmid B.C.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | Oehler M.K.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | Oehler M.K.,University of Adelaide
Maturitas | Year: 2014

Ovarian cancer (OC) is increasingly understood as a heterogeneous disease comprising distinct subtypes of different origin that vary significantly with regard to molecular biology and clinical behaviour. Despite some limited progress in its treatment over the last decade, currently there are few therapeutic options and overall survival remains poor. Increasing knowledge about the molecular biology of ovarian cancer has led to the development of targeted therapies which promise to be more effective and to provide the basis for personalized treatment. The most successful strategies so far are employing anti-angiogenics (VEGF antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and angiopoietin antagonists) and polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Other approaches target aberrant OC signalling such as the PI3K/Akt/mTOR network, the epidermal growth factor receptor, the WEE1 tyrosine kinase and the folate receptor alpha. Immunotherapy is another promising new approach against ovarian cancer. In this area, immunotherapeutic modulation by administering autologous immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), to stimulate antitumour host responses is of special interest. Finally, there is now growing evidence from clinical studies showing a survival advantage for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy when compared to conventional intravenous treatment in the adjuvant setting. New strategies such as pressurized IP aerosol chemotherapy might further improve the efficacy of this approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Houben A.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Banaei-Moghaddam A.M.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Klemme S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Timmis J.N.,University of Adelaide
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable components of the genome exhibiting non-Mendelian inheritance and have been widely reported on over several thousand eukaryotes, but still remain an evolutionary mystery ever since their first discovery over a century ago [1]. Recent advances in genome analysis have significantly improved our knowledge on the origin and composition of Bs in the last few years. In contrast to the prevalent view that Bs do not harbor genes, recent analysis revealed that Bs of sequenced species are rich in gene-derived sequences. We summarize the latest findings on supernumerary chromosomes with a special focus on the origin, DNA composition, and the non-Mendelian accumulation mechanism of Bs. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Cousins A.,University of South Australia | Thompson S.K.,University of Adelaide | Wedding A.B.,University of South Australia | Thierry B.,University of South Australia
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

The sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept has become a standard of care for patients with breast cancer and melanoma, yet its clinical application to other cancer types has been somewhat limited. This is mainly due to the reduced accuracy of conventional SLN mapping techniques (using blue dye and/or radiocolloids as lymphatic tracers) in cancer types where lymphatic drainage is more complex, and SLNs are within close proximity to other nodes or the tumour site. In recent years, many novel techniques for SLN mapping have been developed including fluorescence, x-ray, and magnetic resonant detection. Whilst each technique has its own advantages/disadvantages, the role of targeted contrast agents (for enhanced retention in the SLN, or for immunostaging) is increasing, and may represent the new standard for mapping the SLN in many solid organ tumours. This review article discusses current limitations of conventional techniques, limiting factors of nanoparticulate based contrast agents, and efforts to circumvent these limitations with modern tracer architecture. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Warin M.,University of Adelaide
Social Theory and Health | Year: 2011

Jamie Oliver is an English celebrity chef who has publicly politicised the relationships between class and food in Britain. No longer a simple chef, Oliver is presented as an evangelical saint, salvation of British school dinners, advocate for young disadvantaged kids, and now with his latest series Ministry of Food, a saviour of the British obesity epidemic. In this series, the population of Rotherham is surveilled and targeted as representative of poor eating habits and lifestyles in Britain. In need of urgent intervention, the townsfolk are urged to make themselves anew and fight their way out of the obesity epidemic. Moving beyond a mechanistic application of Foucault, this article examines the intersections of different technologies that give rise to specific lifestyle interventions, and the forms of resistance they generate. Through a convergence of the cultural technology of reality TV and technologies of self-governance, this article argues that a novel form of obesity intervention is being re-invented in a health promoting, neoliberal environment. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Martin W.,The World Bank | Anderson K.,University of Adelaide
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2012

Insulation generates a classic collective-action problem akin to when a crowd stands up in a stadium to get a better view. The variance of the international price will be four times as large as it would be in the absence of price insulation. If all countries used the price transmission elasticity of 0.15 implied by the 85 percent compensating duty under the proposed Special Safeguard Mechanism. The two food commodities that have received the most attention because of price surges are the key staples of wheat and rice. At least high-income countries altered their NACs less in the most recent price spike period than in the two previous ones. That is not inconsistent with the fact that the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, which came into force with the creation of the WTO in 1995, involved commitments to bind tariffs and subsidies.

Finn M.D.,University of Adelaide | Thiffeault J.-L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Thiffeault J.-L.,University of Minnesota
SIAM Review | Year: 2011

There are many industrial situations where rods are used to stir a fluid, or where rods repeatedly knead a material such as bread dough or taffy. The goal in these applications is to stretch either material lines (in a fluid) or the material itself (for dough or taffy) as rapidly as possible. The growth rate of material lines is conveniently given by the topological entropy of the rod motion. We discuss the problem of optimizing such rod devices from a topological viewpoint. We express rod motions in terms of generators of the braid group and assign a cost based on the minimum number of generators needed to write the braid. We show that for one cost function-the topological entropy per generator-the optimal growth rate is the logarithm of the golden ratio. For a more realistic cost function, involving the topological entropy per operation where rods are allowed to move together, the optimal growth rate is the logarithm of the silver ratio, 1 + √2. We show how to construct devices that realize this optimal growth, which we call silver mixers. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Lee M.S.Y.,South Australian Museum | Lee M.S.Y.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2013

Adding new taxa to morphological phylogenetic analyses without substantially revising the set of included characters is a common practice, with drawbacks (undersampling of relevant characters) and potential benefits (character selection is not biased by preconceptions over the affinities of the 'retrofitted' taxon). Retrofitting turtles (Testudines) and other taxa to recent reptile phylogenies consistently places turtles with anapsid-grade parareptiles (especially Eunotosaurus and/or pareiasauromorphs), under both Bayesian and parsimony analyses. This morphological evidence for turtle-parareptile affinities appears to contradict the robust genomic evidence that extant (living) turtles are nested within diapsids as sister to extant archosaurs (birds and crocodilians). However, the morphological data are almost equally consistent with a turtle-archosaur clade: enforcing this molecular scaffold onto the morphological data does not greatly increase tree length (parsimony) or reduce likelihood (Bayesian inference). Moreover, under certain analytic conditions, Eunotosaurus groups with turtles and thus also falls within the turtle-archosaur clade. This result raises the possibility that turtles could simultaneously be most closely related to a taxon traditionally considered a parareptile (Eunotosaurus) and still have archosaurs as their closest extant sister group. © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Do R.Q.,University of Colorado at Denver | Nicholls S.J.,University of Adelaide | Schwartz G.G.,University of Colorado at Denver
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

The pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis are integrally connected to the concentration and function of lipoproteins in various classes. This review examines existing and emerging approaches to modify low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins, emphasizing approaches that have progressed to clinical evaluation. Targeting of nuclear receptors and phospholipases is also discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

Gerrans P.,University of Adelaide
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2013

A radical interpretation of the predictive coding approach suggests that the mind is seamless-that is, that cancellation of error signals can propagate smoothly from highest to lowest levels of the control hierarchy, dissolving a distinction between belief and perception. Delusions of alien control provide a test case. Close examination suggests that while they are evidence of predictive coding within the cortex, they are not evidence for the seamless interpretation. © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

The biomass of living organisms hosts only a small portion of the elemental abundance at the surface of the Earth, yet biology plays a defining role in the composition and stability of the biosphere by acting on sensitive geochemical feedbacks controlling global element cycles. This type of influence is evident in a class of evolutionary innovations that have a profoundly disproportionate effect on the biosphere, referred to here as evolutionary innovation biospheric feedbacks (EIBFs). A particular biological innovation need not be complex, rather its influence is amplified by its effect on geochemical feedbacks controlling elemental cycling. The lead-up to the metazoan radiation (~585 million years ago) provides an example of such an EIBF. While commonly attributed to an increase in free oxygen concentration, the reason for this step increase in O2 almost 2 billion years after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis is traced to a seemingly unrelated evolutionary innovation resulting in a critical by-product of the first soils: secondary clay minerals. Detrital clay minerals deposited in continental margin sediments sequester organic carbon compounds and thus prevent consumption of atmospheric oxygen produced during photosynthesis. The transition from the abiotic to biotic land surface at the end of the Precambrian shifted biogeochemical cycling to this terrestrial-dominated modern mode that enabled sufficient oxygenation of the biosphere to trigger the metazoan radiation. © 2013 by The University of Chicago. 0003-0147/2013/181S1-53795$15.00. All rights reserved.

Munksgaard K.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Medlin C.J.,University of Adelaide
Industrial Marketing Management | Year: 2014

Many inter-firm network initiatives supported by government funds are based upon the idea that benefits rise incrementally as more actors connect with each other. This paper takes the stand that self-interest and collective-interest are evident in how firms participate in network activities, and how these activities are related to the development of the network. A time-flow model is presented of firms' participation and activities in a network according to specific blends and understandings of self- and/or collective-interest. The way the network is formed also shapes managerial understanding of why firms participate in activities and how self- and collective-interests coincide. A qualitative study in the Danish food industry establishes that every firm views business network activities as important, but each engages differently in these activities. The results of this study reveal interesting patterns between self- and collective-interests for those participating in network activities and the resulting network development. A key finding of this study is the importance of a firm's ability to convert the collective-interest of joint network activities into self-interest gains for the firm. This ability is proposed as an additional network competence to those already present in the literature. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Tieu J.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse health outcomes for both mother and infant both perinatally and long-term. Women with a history of GDM are at risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies and may benefit from intervention in the interconception period to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. To investigate the effects of interconception care for women with a history of GDM on maternal and infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2013). Randomised controlled trials, including quasi-randomised controlled trials and cluster-randomised trials evaluating any protocol of interconception care with standard care or other forms of interconception care for women with a history of GDM in a previous pregnancy on maternal and infant health outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility. In future updates of this review, at least two review authors will extract data and assess the risk of bias of included studies. One ongoing trial was identified. No eligible completed trials were identified. The role of interconception care for women with a history of gestational diabetes remains unclear. Randomised controlled trials are required evaluating different forms and protocols of interconception care for these women on perinatal and long-term maternal and infant health outcomes, acceptability of such interventions and cost-effectiveness.

Unkovich M.,University of Adelaide
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2012

Quantitative measurement of N2 fixation has rarely been conducted in Australian dairy pastures. The available data indicate that annual N2 fixation rates in Australian dairy pastures are generally low, due to low pasture legume content. With typical legume contents of grazed pastures less than 30% of total pasture biomass production, annual N2 fixation in herbage is usually much less than 50kgha-1 year-1. Other factors which are likely to be able to contribute to increased N 2 fixation input (rhizobia, mineral N management, soil acidity, soil water contents) will have little impact until such time as legume contents are increased. In contrast, for some hay systems, such as those using lucerne, N2 fixation input is shown to be high (200-300kgha-1 year-1). While pasture clover contents remain low there is little value in study or measurement of N2 fixation, nor in complex modelling, as N2 fixation will be of little quantitative importance. However, where legume contents, and thus potential N2 fixation are increased, there is scope for investigation into potential increases in N input from this source, which is invariably linked to fertiliser application, the management of grazing and the N returns in urine and dung. These are the major influences on sward N dynamics and legume N2 fixation. The inoculant rhizobia used for white clover in Australia (TA1) is likely to be suboptimal. Isolated in Tasmania in 1953 it has been shown to be inferior in N2 fixation compared with other strains on several occasions. Root pests and diseases are likely to be prevalent and impact directly on clover root growth and perhaps nodulation. Modelling is often used to describe the probable influence of management and/or climate on the operation of agricultural systems. Reliable modelling of N2 fixation requires capacity to integrate the effects of grazing and pasture composition on soil mineral N dynamics, the influence of this mineral N on nodulation and on suppression of N2 fixation, and environmental and management influences on soil rhizobial populations. Currently no models have demonstrated this capacity. At present, a suitably calibrated regression model is probably a good option for modelling N2 fixation in Australian dairy pastures. Environmental benefits ensuing from increasing N2 fixation and substituting this for fertiliser N are likely to be greater off-farm (reduced GHG emissions at site of fertiliser manufacture) than on, if current fertiliser management is optimal. Nevertheless substituting fixed N for fertiliser N would have modest environmental and feed efficiency benefits. Journal compilation © CSIRO 2012 Open Access.

Westra S.,University of Adelaide | Alexander L.V.,Climate Change Research Center | Alexander L.V.,University of New South Wales | Zwiers F.W.,University of Victoria
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. Two complementary statistical techniques were adopted to evaluate the possible nonstationary behavior of these precipitation data. The first was a Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test, and it was used to evaluate the existence of monotonic trends. The second was a nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis, and it was used to determine the strength of association between the precipitation extremes and globally averaged near-surface temperature. The outcomes are that statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases. Furthermore, there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature, with the median intensity of extreme precipitation changing in proportion with changes in global mean temperature at a rate of between 5.9% and 7.7%K-1, depending on the method of analysis. This ratio was robust irrespective of record length or time period considered and was not strongly biased by the uneven global coverage of precipitation data. Finally, there is a distinct meridional variation, with the greatest sensitivity occurring in the tropics and higher latitudes and the minima around 13°S and 11°N. The greatest uncertainty was near the equator because of the limited number of sufficiently long precipitation records, and there remains an urgent need to improve data collection in this region to better constrain future changes in tropical precipitation. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Popat A.,University of Queensland | Liu J.,University of Queensland | Lu G.Q.,University of Queensland | Qiao S.Z.,University of Queensland | Qiao S.Z.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Herein, we report a core-shell pH-responsive drug-carrier based on chitosan-coated mesoporous silica nanospheres. The efficient positively charged polymer (chitosan) coating is realized by the phosphoramidate covalent bonding between phosphonate groups on the surface of the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and amino groups on chitosan. A pH-responsive release of ibuprofen has been achieved by varying the shell structure of positively charged chitosan in the designed pH 4.0-7.4 solution. Under basic conditions, chitosan forms a gel like structure which is insoluble and hence prevents ibuprofen release at pH 7.4. When the pH is below its PI (6.3), the drug has been released due to protonation of the amino group on chitosan. These results imply that the chitosan coated-MSNs are promising platforms to construct pH-responsive controlled drug delivery systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Pomfret R.,University of Adelaide
Asian Economic Policy Review | Year: 2013

Since Vietnam, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Myanmar, and Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the 1990s, concerns have been raised over a Development Divide. The real division is between ASEAN members participating in the integrated East Asian economy and those that do not. The older ASEAN members have become more efficient traders, and Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam must reform faster if they are to catch up. Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar are not meeting the challenge, but Vietnam may be leaving the laggards, and the Philippines is lagging the leaders. The challenge is how to avoid a two-tier ASEAN with fast-growing modern economies coexisting besides inward-looking poor countries. © 2013 The Author. Asian Economic Policy Review © 2013 Japan Center for Economic Research.

Du H.,Harbin University of Science and Technology | Shi P.,University of Adelaide | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Lu N.,Harbin University of Science and Technology
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the problem of function projective synchronization for general complex dynamical networks with time delay. A hybrid feedback control method is designed to achieve function projective synchronization for complex dynamical networks, one with constant time delay and one with time-varying coupling delay. Numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Priest S.D.,University of Adelaide
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering | Year: 2010

This article focuses on two broad categories of yield criteria: those based on the Hoek-Brown yield criterion and a range of other widely used criteria. The first group of criteria source their input data from uniaxial compressive strength, coupled with mineralogical and structural properties of the rock. The second group of selected criteria, here referred to as 'frictional criteria', source their input data from one or more of the parameters uniaxial compressive strength, cohesion and friction. Although some authors have attempted to compare the predictions of the wide range of published criteria, the results have not been entirely satisfactory due to disparities in the input data and the difficulties in extrapolating a twodimensional criterion into three-dimensions. This article presents a strategy for achieving a consistent basis for comparing three-dimensional yield criteria for rock. This strategy is based on using the two-dimensional Hoek-Brown criterion as a single 'front end' for calculating the input parameters for the selected frictional criteria. In essence, four amended yield criteria have been defined: the Hoek-Brown-Drucker-Prager (which is a close approximation to the comprehensive Priest criterion); the Hoek-Brown-Coulomb; the Hoek-Brown-modified Wiebols and Cook; and the Hoek-Brown-modified Lade. The predictions of these criteria, and also the comprehensive ZhangZhu criterion, can be approximated over a limited range of intermediate principal stress by selecting a value for the weighting factor w between 0.2 and 0.5 in the simplified Priest criterion to achieve the appropriate sensitivity to the intermediate effective principal stress. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Schubert K.O.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | Schubert K.O.,University of Adelaide | Focking M.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | Cotter D.R.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2015

Neuropathological changes of the hippocampus have been associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent work has particularly implicated hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the pathophysiology of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying structural and cellular hippocampal pathology remain poorly understood. We used data from comprehensive difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) investigations of postmortem human hippocampus of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, covering the acidic (isoelectric point (pI) between pH. 4 and 7) and, separately, the basic (pI between pH. 6 and 11) sub-proteome, for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of implicated protein networks and pathways. Comparing disease and control cases, we identified 58 unique differentially expressed proteins in schizophrenia, and 70 differentially expressed proteins in bipolar disorder, using mass spectrometry. IPA implicated, most prominently, 14-3-3 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in schizophrenia, and gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in bipolar disorder. Both disorders were characterized by alterations of proteins involved in the oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and protein-endocytosis, -trafficking, -degradation, and -ubiquitination. These findings are interpreted with a focus on GABAergic interneuron pathology in the hippocampus. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Han S.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Magnesium maintenance therapy is one of the types of tocolytic therapy used after an episode of threatened preterm labour (usually treated with an initial dose of tocolytic therapy) in an attempt to prevent the onset of further preterm contractions. To assess whether magnesium maintenance therapy is effective in preventing preterm birth after the initial threatened preterm labour is arrested. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2013). Randomised controlled trials of magnesium therapy given to women after threatened preterm labour. The review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We checked data entry. We included four trials involving 422 women. Three trials had high risk of bias and none included any long-term follow-up of infants. No differences in the incidence of preterm birth or perinatal mortality were seen when magnesium maintenance therapy was compared with placebo or no treatment; or alternative therapies (ritodrine or terbutaline). The risk ratio (RR) for preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) for magnesium compared with placebo or no treatment was 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.40 (two trials, 99 women); and 0.99, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.72 (two trials, 100 women) for magnesium compared with alternative therapies. The RR for perinatal mortality for magnesium compared with placebo or no treatment was 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16 (one trial, 50 infants); and 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16 (one trial, 50 infants) for magnesium compared with alternative treatments.Women taking magnesium preparations were less likely to report side effects (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96, three trials, 237 women), including palpitations or tachycardia (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.52, three trials, 237 women) than women receiving alternative therapies. Women receiving magnesium were however, more likely to experience diarrhoea (RR 6.79, 95% CI 1.26 to 36.72, three trials, 237 women). There is not enough evidence to show any difference between magnesium maintenance therapy compared with either placebo or no treatment, or alternative therapies (ritodrine or terbutaline) in preventing preterm birth after an episode of threatened preterm labour.

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

When a woman has had a previous caesarean birth, there are two options for her care in a subsequent pregnancy: planned elective repeat caesarean or planned vaginal birth. While there are risks and benefits for both planned elective repeat caesarean birth and planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC), current sources of information are limited to non-randomised cohort studies. Studies designed in this way have significant potential for bias and consequently conclusions based on these results are limited in their reliability and should be interpreted with caution. To assess, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of a policy of planned elective repeat caesarean section with a policy of planned VBAC for women with a previous caesarean birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies who planned a repeat elective caesarean section with outcomes in women who planned a vaginal birth, where a previous birth had been by caesarean. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Two randomised trials involving 320 women and their infants were included. However, data for maternal and infant clinical outcomes were available from one trial with very low event rates, involving 22 women only.For the primary outcomes maternal death or serious morbidity (one study; 22 women; risk ratio (RR) not estimable), and infant death or serious morbidity (one study; 22 women; RR not estimable), there were no statistically significant differences between planned caesarean birth and planned vaginal birth identified. Planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned VBAC for women with a prior caesarean birth are both associated with benefits and harms. Evidence for these care practices is largely drawn from non-randomised studies, associated with potential bias. Any results and conclusions must therefore be interpreted with caution. Randomised controlled trials are required to provide the most reliable evidence regarding the benefits and harms of both planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned vaginal birth for women with a previous caesarean birth.

Earl R.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Women with hyperthyroidism in pregnancy have increased risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction; and they can develop severe pre-eclampsia or placental abruption. To identify interventions used in the management of hyperthyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). We planned to include randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cluster-randomised trials comparing antithyroid interventions for hyperthyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy with another intervention or no intervention (placebo or no treatment). Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and planned to assess trial quality and extract the data independently. No trials were included in the review. As we did not identify any eligible trials, we are unable to comment on implications for practice, although early identification of hyperthyroidism before pregnancy may allow a woman to choose radioactive iodine therapy or surgery before planning to have a child. Designing and conducting a trial of antithyroid interventions for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism presents formidable challenges. Not only is hyperthyroidism a relatively rare condition, both of the two main drugs used have potential for harm, one for the mother and the other for the child. More observational research is required about the potential harms of methimazole in early pregnancy and about the potential liver damage from propylthiouracil.

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and placental abruption are thought to have a common origin related to abnormalities in the development and function of the placenta. To compare, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of antenatal antithrombotic therapy to improve maternal or infant health outcomes in women considered at risk of placental dysfunction, when compared with other treatments, placebo or no treatment. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 July 2012). Randomised controlled trials comparing antenatal antithrombotic therapy (either alone or in combination with other agents) with placebo or no treatment, or any other treatment in the antenatal period to improve maternal or infant health outcomes in women considered at risk of placental dysfunction. Two review authors evaluated trials under consideration for appropriateness for inclusion and methodological quality without consideration of their results according to the prestated eligibility criteria. We used a fixed-effect meta-analysis for combining study data if the trials were judged to be sufficiently similar. We investigated heterogeneity by calculating I2 statistic, and if this indicated a high level of heterogeneity among the trials included, we used a random-effects model. Our search strategy identified 18 reports of 14 studies for consideration. The original review included five studies (484 women) which met the inclusion criteria, with a further five studies included in the updated review, involving an additional 655 women. The overall quality of the included trials was considered fair to good.Nine studies compared heparin (alone or in combination with dipyridamole or low-dose aspirin) with no treatment; and one compared trapidil (triazolopyrimidine).While this review identified the use of heparin to be associated with a statistically significant reduction in risk of perinatal mortality (six studies; 653 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.40; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.20 to 0.78), preterm birth before 34 (three studies; 494 women; RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.73) and 37 (five studies; 621 women; RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.90) weeks' gestation, and infant birthweight below the 10th centile for gestational age (seven studies; 710 infants; RR 0.41; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.61), there is a lack of reliable information available related to clinically relevant, serious adverse infant health outcomes, which have not been reported to date. While treatment with heparin for women considered to be at particularly high risk of adverse pregnancy complications secondary to placental insufficiency was associated with a statistically significant reduction in risk of perinatal mortality, preterm birth before 34 and 37 weeks' gestation, and infant birthweight below the 10th centile for gestational age when compared with no treatment for women considered at increased risk of placental dysfunction, to date, important information about serious adverse infant and long-term childhood outcomes is unavailable.

Reid S.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Over the last decade there has been enhanced awareness of the appreciable morbidity of thyroid dysfunction, particularly thyroid deficiency. Since treating clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism may reduce adverse obstetric outcomes, it is crucial to identify which interventions are safe and effective. To identify interventions used in the management of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared a pharmacological intervention for hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy with another intervention or placebo. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted the data. We included four RCTs of moderate risk of bias involving 362 women. In one trial of 115 women, levothyroxine therapy to treat pregnant euthyroid (normal thyroid function) women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies was not shown to reduce pre-eclampsia significantly (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 3.48) but did significantly reduce preterm birth by 72% (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.80). Two trials of 30 and 48 hypothyroid women respectively compared levothyroxine doses, but both trials reported only biochemical outcomes. A trial of 169 women compared the trace element selenomethionine (selenium) with placebo and no significant differences were seen for either pre-eclampsia (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 8.38) or preterm birth (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.61). None of the four trials reported on childhood neurodevelopmental delay.There was a non-significant trend towards fewer miscarriages with levothyroxine, and selenium showed some favourable impact on postpartum thyroid function and a decreased incidence of moderate to advanced postpartum thyroiditis. This review found no difference between levothyroxine therapy and a control for treating pregnant euthyroid women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies for the outcome of pre-eclampsia, however a reduction in preterm birth and a trend towards reduced miscarriage with levothyroxine was shown. This review also showed no difference for pre-eclampsia or preterm birth when selenium was compared with placebo, however a promising reduction in postpartum thyroiditis was shown. Childhood neurodevelopmental delay was not assessed by any trial included in the review.Given that this review is based on four trials of moderate risk of bias, with only two trials contributing data (n = 284), there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of one intervention for clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy over another, for improving maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes.

Bain E.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Early animal and clinical studies have provided some evidence to support an inhibitory effect of relaxin on preterm birth for women in preterm labour. To assess the effects of relaxin for women in preterm labour on preterm birth and associated maternal and neonatal/infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013), and the reference lists of relevant papers. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of relaxin compared with no treatment, a placebo, or an alternative tocolytic, for preventing preterm birth for women in preterm labour. Primary review outcomes included birth within 28 hours of treatment, birth within seven days of treatment, perinatal mortality, and a serious neonatal adverse outcome composite. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We included three quasi-randomised controlled trials, with a total of 149 women and their babies. All three trials were at a high risk of bias. When comparing women receiving relaxin with those who did not receive relaxin, there was a significant reduction in birth within seven days of treatment in one trial of 30 women (risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.87), yet no significant difference was seen for perinatal mortality in this trial (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.15). The second and third included trials did not report on any of the primary outcomes pre-specified in the review, including birth within 48 hours of treatment, birth within seven days of treatment, perinatal mortality, and serious neonatal adverse outcomes.One trial found a significant increase in pregnancy prolongation for women receiving relaxin (RR 8.00, 95% CI 1.14 to 56.33; 30 women). None of the three included trials found significant differences in the outcomes of fetal death, neonatal death, birthweight or preterm birth, and no trial reported on longer-term outcomes for the babies. There is limited randomised controlled trial evidence available on the effect of relaxin during pregnancy for preventing preterm birth for women in preterm labour. Evidence from one quasi-randomised trial suggested a reduction in birth within seven days of treatment for women receiving relaxin, compared with women in a control group, however this trial was at a high risk of bias and included only 30 women. There is thus insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of relaxin in women in preterm labour for preventing preterm birth.

Byard R.W.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine | Year: 2013

Diphtheria, an acute infectious condition caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, was once a major killer of children. Although the mortality rates dropped dramatically in the mid-twentieth century, due to a combination of improved standards of living and immunization programs, outbreaks are still occurring. Two children, aged four and five years respectively, are reported to demonstrate characteristic features of lethal cases. Death in case 1 was due to an extensive upper airway pseudomembrane causing acute respiratory failure. The diagnosis of diphtheria was only made at postmortem. Death in case 2 was due to acute cardiac failure with heart block complicating diphtheria. Other mechanisms in fatal cases involve disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal and endocrine failure. Declining levels of immunity among adults has resulted in a change in the epidemiological pattern of the disease with an older age of victims in recent outbreaks. As a result of population shifts and failure to immunize children it is likely that forensic pathologists may see more cases of diphtheria in the future. Due to the rarity of cases in Western communities and atypical presentations, the diagnosis may only be established at autopsy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

Han S.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects a significant number of women each year and is associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes for women and their babies. Dietary counselling is the main strategy in managing GDM, but it remains unclear which dietary therapy is best. To assess the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM on pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 May 2012) and the WOMBAT Perinatal Trials Registry (17 April 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs assessing the effects of different types of for accuracy. We included nine trials; 429 women (436 babies) provided outcome data. All nine included trials had small sample sizes with moderate-GI diet comparison, no significant differences were seen for macrosomia or LGA (one trial, 92 babies) (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.96), (RR 2.87, 95% CI 0.61 to 13.50), respectively; or caesarean section (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 4.94, one trial, 88 women).In the energy-restricted versus unrestricted diet comparison, no significant differences were seen for macrosomia (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.61 to 3.94, one trial, 122 babies); LGA (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.12, one trial, 123 babies); or caesarean section (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.89, one trial, 121 women).In the low- versus high-carbohydrate diet comparison, none of the 30 babies in a single trial were macrosomic; and no significant differences in caesarean section rates were seen (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.57 to 3.43, one trial, 30 women).In the high-monounsaturated fat versus high-carbohydrate diet comparison, neither macrosomia or LGA (one trial 27 babies) (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.18), (RR 0.54 95% CI 0.21 to 1.37), respectively showed significant differences. Women having a high-monounsaturated fat diet had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) at birth (mean difference (MD) 3.90 kg/m2, 95% CI 2.41 to 5.39, one trial, 27 women) and at six to nine months postpartum (MD 4.10 kg/m2, 95% CI 2.34 to 5.86, one trial, 27 women) when unrestricted diet group.A single trial comparing ADA diet (20 grams gram fibre/day) with fibre-enriched fibre enriched diet (80 grams gram fibre/day) did not report any of our prespecified primary outcomes.Very limited data were reported on the prespecified outcomes for each of the cost should be included.

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Preterm birth is a major complication of pregnancy associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm labour has been advocated. To assess the benefits and harms of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth for women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth and their infants. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 January 2013) and reviewed the reference list of all articles. Randomised controlled trials, in which progesterone was given for preventing preterm birth. Two review authors independently evaluated trials for methodological quality and extracted data. Thirty-six randomised controlled trials (8523 women and 12,515 infants) were included. Progesterone versus placebo for women with a past history of spontaneous preterm birth Progesterone was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of perinatal mortality (six studies; 1453 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.75), preterm birth less than 34 weeks (five studies; 602 women; average RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.69), infant birthweight less than 2500 g (four studies; 692 infants; RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.79), use of assisted ventilation (three studies; 633 women; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.90), necrotising enterocolitis (three studies; 1170 women; RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.89), neonatal death (six studies; 1453 women; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.76), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (three studies; 389 women; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.40), preterm birth less than 37 weeks (10 studies; 1750 women; average RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.74) and a statistically significant increase in pregnancy prolongation in weeks (one study; 148 women; mean difference (MD) 4.47, 95% CI 2.15 to 6.79). No differential effects in terms of route of administration, time of commencing therapy and dose of progesterone were observed for the majority of outcomes examined. Progesterone versus placebo for women with a short cervix identified on ultrasound Progesterone was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of preterm birth less than 34 weeks (two studies; 438 women; RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.90), preterm birth at less than 28 weeks' gestation (two studies; 1115 women; RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93) and increased risk of urticaria in women when compared with placebo (one study; 654 women; RR 5.03, 95% CI 1.11 to 22.78). It was not possible to assess the effect of route of progesterone administration, gestational age at commencing therapy, or total cumulative dose of medication. Progesterone versus placebo for women with a multiple pregnancy Progesterone was associated with no statistically significant differences for the reported outcomes. Progesterone versus no treatment/placebo for women following presentation with threatened preterm labour Progesterone, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of infant birthweight less than 2500 g (one study; 70 infants; RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.98). Progesterone versus placebo for women with 'other' risk factors for preterm birth Progesterone, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of infant birthweight less than 2500 g (three studies; 482 infants; RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.91). The use of progesterone is associated with benefits in infant health following administration in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth due either to a prior preterm birth or where a short cervix has been identified on ultrasound examination. However, there is limited information available relating to longer-term infant and childhood outcomes, the assessment of which remains a priority.Further trials are required to assess the optimal timing, mode of administration and dose of administration of progesterone therapy when given to women considered to be at increased risk of early birth.

The role of pharmacists has expanded beyond dispensing and packaging over the past two decades, and now includes ensuring rational use of drugs, improving clinical outcomes and promoting health status by working with the public and other healthcare professionals. To examine the effect of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services on patient outcomes, health service utilisation and costs in low- and middle-income countries. Studies were identified by electronically searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (February 2010), MEDLINE (1949 to February 2010), Scopus (1960 to March 2010) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2010) databases. An update of this review is currently ongoing. The search was re-run September 2012 and the potentially relevant studies are awaiting classification. Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series analyses comparing 1. pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services targeted at patients versus (a) the same services provided by other healthcare professionals, (b) the same services provided by untrained health workers, and (c) usual care; and 2. pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services targeted at healthcare professionals versus (a) the same services provided by other healthcare professionals, (b) the same services provided by untrained health workers, and (c) usual care in low- and middle-income countries. The research sites must have been located in low or middle income countries according to World Bank Group 2009 at the time of the study, regardless of the location or the origin of the researchers. Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently extracted data for each study. Risk of bias of the included studies was also assessed independently by two authors. Twelve studies comparing pharmacist-provided services versus usual care were included in this review. Of the 12 studies, seven were from lower middle income countries and five were from upper middle income countries. Eleven studies examined pharmacist-provided services targeted at patients and one study evaluated pharmacist interventions targeted at healthcare professionals. Pharmacist-provided services targeting patients resulted in a small improvement of clinical outcomes such as blood pressure (-25 mm Hg/-6 mm Hg and -4.56 mm Hg/-2.45 mm Hg), blood glucose (-39.84 mg/dl and -16.16 mg/dl), blood cholesterol (-25.7 mg/dl)/ triglyceride levels (-80.1 mg/dl) and asthma outcomes (peak expiratory flow rate 1.76 l/min). Moreover, there was a small improvement in the quality of life, although four studies did not report the effect size explicitly. Health service utilisation, such as rate of hospitalisation and general practice and emergency room visits, was also found to be reduced by the patient targeted pharmacist-provided services. A single study examined the effect of patient targeted pharmacist interventions on medical expenses and the cost was found to be reduced. A single study that examined pharmacist services that targeted healthcare professionals demonstrated a very small impact on asthma symptom scores. No studies assessing the impact of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services that targeted healthcare professionals reported health service utilisation and cost outcomes. Overall, five studies did not adequately report the numerical data for outcomes but instead reported qualitative statements about results, which prevented an estimation of the effect size.Studies for the comparison of patient targeted services provided by pharmacists versus the same services provided by other healthcare professionals or untrained healthcare workers were not found. Similarly, studies for the comparison of healthcare professional targeted services provided by pharmacists versus the same services provided by other healthcare professionals or untrained healthcare workers were not found. Pharmacist-provided services that target patients may improve clinical outcomes such as management of high glucose levels among diabetic patients, management of blood pressure and cholesterol levels and may improve the quality of life of patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and asthma. Pharmacist services may reduce health service utilisation such as visits to general practitioners and hospitalisation rates. We are uncertain about the effect of educational sessions by pharmacists for healthcare professionals due to the imprecision of a single study included in this review. Similarly, conclusions could not be drawn for health service utilisation and costs due to lack of evidence on interventions delivered by pharmacists to healthcare professionals. These results were heterogenous in the types of outcomes measured, clinical conditions and approaches to measurement of outcomes, and require cautious interpretation. All eligible studies were from middle income countries and the results may not be applicable to low income countries.

Crowther C.A.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

During pregnancy, a Rhesus negative (Rh-negative) woman may develop antibodies when her fetus is Rhesus positive (Rh-positive). These antibodies may harm Rh-positive babies. To assess the effects of antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin on the incidence of Rhesus D alloimmunisation when given to Rh-negative women without anti-D antibodies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012). Randomised trials in Rh-negative women without anti-D antibodies given anti-D after 28 weeks of pregnancy, compared with no treatment, placebo or a different regimen of anti-D. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and extracted the data. Two trials with moderate to high risk of bias, involving over 4500 women, compared anti-D prophylaxis with no anti-D during pregnancy. When women received anti-D at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation, risks of immunisation were not significantly different than for women not given antenatal anti-D: risk ratio (RR) of immunisation during pregnancy was 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 1.17); after the birth of a Rh-positive infant the RR was 0.42 (95% CI 0.15 to 1.17); and within 12 months after birth of a Rh-positive infant the RR was 0.39 (95% CI 0.10 to 1.62).However, women receiving anti-D during pregnancy were significantly less likely to register a positive Kleihauer test (which detects fetal cells in maternal blood) in pregnancy (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.88) and at the birth of a Rh-positive infant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.79). No data were available for the risk of Rhesus D alloimmunisation in a subsequent pregnancy. No significant differences were seen for neonatal jaundice, and no adverse effects were reported in either trial. The risk of Rhesus D alloimmunisation during or immediately after a first pregnancy is about 1%. Administration of 100 μg (500 IU) anti-D to women in their first pregnancy can reduce this risk to about 0.2% without, to date, any adverse effects. Although unlikely to confer benefit in the current pregnancy, fewer women may have Rhesus D antibodies in any subsequent pregnancy, but the effects of this needs to be tested in studies of robust design.

Nguyen T.M.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

Magnesium sulphate is extensively used in obstetrics for the treatment and prevention of eclampsia. A recent meta-analysis has shown that magnesium sulphate is an effective fetal neuroprotective agent when given antenatally to women at risk of very preterm birth. Term infants account for more than half of all cases of cerebral palsy, and the incidence has remained fairly constant. It is important to assess if antenatal administration of magnesium sulphate to women at term protects the fetus from brain injury, and associated neurosensory disabilities including cerebral palsy. To assess the effectiveness of magnesium sulphate given to women at term as a neuroprotective agent for the fetus. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trial Register (31 July 2012) and the reference lists of other Cochrane reviews assessing magnesium sulphate in pregnancy. Randomised controlled trials comparing antenatally administered magnesium sulphate to women at term with placebo, no treatment or a different fetal neuroprotective agent. We also planned to include cluster-randomised trials, and exclude cross-over trials and quasi-randomised trials. We planned to exclude studies reported as abstracts only. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and for risk of bias. Two authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included one trial (involving 135 women with mild pre-eclampsia at term). An additional six studies are awaiting further assessment.The included trial compared magnesium sulphate with a placebo and was at a low risk of bias. The trial did not report any of this review's prespecified primary outcomes. There was no significant difference between magnesium sulphate and placebo in Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (risk ratio (RR) 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 5.46; 135 infants), nor gestational age at birth (mean difference (MD) -0.20 weeks; 95% CI -0.62 to 0.22; 135 infants).There were significantly more maternal side effects (feeling warm and flushed) in the magnesium sulphate group than in the placebo group (RR 3.81; 95% CI 2.22 to 6.53; 135 women). However, no significant difference in adverse effects severe enough to cease treatment was observed (RR 3.04; 95% CI 0.13 to 73.42; 135 women). There were no significant differences seen between groups in the rates of postpartum haemorrhage (RR 4.06; 95% CI 0.47 to 35.38; 135 women) and caesarean section (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.39 to 1.63; 135 women). There is currently insufficient evidence to assess the efficacy and safety of magnesium sulphate when administered to women for neuroprotection of the term fetus. As there has been recent evidence for the use of magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection of the preterm fetus, high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to determine the safety profile and neurological outcomes for the term fetus. Strategies to reduce maternal side effects during treatment also require evaluation.

Ozbakkaloglu T.,University of Adelaide | Akin E.,Selcuk University
Journal of Composites for Construction | Year: 2012

An important application of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is as a confining material for concrete, both in the seismic retrofit of existing reinforced concrete columns and in the construction of concrete-filled FRP tubes as earthquake-resistant columns in new construction. The reliable design of these structural members against earthquake-induced forces necessitates a clear understanding of the stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined concrete under load cycles. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the behavior of FRP-confined normal- and high-strength concrete under axial compression. A total of 24 aramid and carbon FRP-confined concrete cylinders with different concrete strengths and FRP jacket thicknesses were tested under monotonic and cyclic loading. Examination of the test results has led to a number of significant conclusions in regards to both the trend and ultimate condition of the axial stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined concrete. These results are presented, and a discussion is provided on the influence of the main test parameters in the observed behaviors. The results are also compared with two existing cyclic axial stress-strain models for FRP-confined concrete. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

The pressure-temperature (P-T) path for the Palaeoproterozoic Willyama Supergroup rocks in the Olary Domain, South Australia has been reconstructed through detailed petrographic observations, in conjunction with calculation of compositionally specific P-T pseudosections of metapelitic rock units and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology. The P-T path for the Willyama Complex has historically been interpreted to follow a single anticlockwise path, however the results of this study demonstrate that this path can be better described by two metamorphic events (M 1 and M 2) separated by 1100 Ma. The M 1 event occurred at c. 1600 Ma and was associated with high temperature-low pressure metamorphism. Sm-Nd garnet geochronology constrains the timing of garnet growth at c. 1585 Ma. The growth of large andalusite porphroblasts during M 1 exerted a first order control on the bulk composition during the subsequent M 2 event. Mineral chemistries coupled with quantitative phase diagrams constrain peak conditions to be in the order of c. 550°C and 5.5 kbar during M 2. The identification of two metamorphic events calls into question interpretations of metamorphic core complex formation and the single anticlockwise P-T paths being associated with the early stages of the tectonic evolution of the terrain. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Churchman G.J.,University of Adelaide
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2010

Data in the literature for soils that are dominated by each of the main types of clay minerals were examined and compared with those for reference clay minerals of the same types to determine the extent to which the nature and properties of clay-size minerals in soils could be explained by those of clay minerals with the same name from non-soil, 'geological' environments. Published information on soils from Australia, New Zealand and Iran was sourced for this study. The clay fractions of each of the soils are dominated by either one of the common phyllosilicates: kaolinite, halloysite, illite/mica, vermiculite, smectite, and palygorskite, or by the nanocrystalline mineral, allophane. Data for samples of kaolinite that had been extracted from soils from several countries (Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and Brazil) and purified before characterization have also been examined. In soils, each dominant clay mineral is generally associated with other materials, including iron oxides, other phyllosilicates and/or nanocrystalline minerals and organic matter. As the most studied example of an extracted phyllosilicate, kaolinite shows a wide range of properties in different soils, but a narrower range of properties within a particular locality. However, almost all of the soil kaolinites studied have larger specific surface areas and higher cation exchange capacities than reference kaolinites. The literature also reveals that, among phyllosilicates in soils, illites have a wide range of potassium contents, expandable minerals (vermiculites and smectites) may be interlayered by hydroxy-Al species particularly, and smectitic layers often occur interstratified with other layers, including those of illite, kaolinite and halloysite. The variability of soil phyllosilicates and their common association with other, often poorly crystallized but highly reactive minerals and compounds can be explained by their formation in the highly heterogeneous and dynamic soil environment. Phyllosilicates from non-soil or geological sources are poor models for the representation of secondary clay-size minerals in soils. In philosophical terms, the reduction of soil mineralogy to mineralogy as it is practiced within geology is misleading because of the differences between the minerals formed in soil and geological environments. In other words, clay minerals as they are defined as mineralogical entities for geology are of a different 'kind' to clay minerals in soils and cannot serve as 'types' or 'stereotypes' to enable explanation of the contribution of secondary clay-size minerals to soil properties or behavior. It is more useful to view clay minerals in soils as secondary inorganic compounds of clay-size than to follow their definition for non-soil purposes as plastic phyllosilicate minerals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Schmidt P.W.,CSIRO | Williams G.E.,University of Adelaide
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010

We report new palaeomagnetic data for red beds from the Ediacaran Brachina and Wonoka formations in the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia, and discuss their place with previously determined poles in the Ediacaran apparent polar wander path for Australia. Both formations behave similarly on thermal demagnetization, displaying high-temperature components that decay to the origin at 680 °C, consistent with haematite being the only magnetic mineral present. Restoring the strata to the palaeohorizontal yielded positive fold tests for both units at 99 per cent confidence, indicating that acquisition of magnetization occurred before the early Palaeozoic Delamerian Orogeny. For the Brachina Formation (N = 91 specimens) the mean direction after unfolding is declination D = 178.2°, inclination I = -22.6° (α95 = 4.4°), indicating a palaeolatitude λ = 11.8 ± 2.5° and a pole position at latitude λp = 46.0°S, longitude φp = 315.4°E, with confidence semi-axes dp = 2.4° and dm = 4.6° The mean direction for the Wonoka Formation after unfolding (N = 70) is D = 255.9°, I = -23.7° (α95 = 6.4°), indicating λ = 12.3 +3.8/-3.4° and a pole position at latitude λp = 5.2°S, longitude φp = 30.5°E (dp = 3.6° and dm = 6.8°). The mean directions for these units and other Ediacaran units in the Adelaide Geosyncline are significantly different from each other, which excludes blanket remagnetization of the units before Delamerian folding and therefore gives strong preference to their magnetization dating from close to the time of deposition. The late Cryogenian-Ediacaran-Cambrian apparent polar wander path for South Australia spans 150 Myr from ∼635 to 490 Ma and places Australia in low palaeolatitudes throughout the interval studied. The poles differ significantly from each other, suggesting Australia underwent continual drift during that time. Whereas the directional difference between the late Cryogenian Elatina Formation and early Ediacaran Nuccaleena Formation is mainly in inclination, for most other contiguous stratigraphic units the differences are mainly in declination with minor inclination differences, indicating Australia was rotating about a nearby Euler pole in low palaeolatitudes. The large and perhaps rapid polar shifts at 615-590 and 575-565 Ma in the Laurentian apparent polar wander path are not evident in the Ediacaran apparent polar wander path for Australia. Because true polar wander should be recorded globally, in the absence of evidence for any major stratigraphic break in the South Australian succession we conclude that large true polar wander did not occur during the Ediacaran. © 2010 CSIRO Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

Fazzalari N.L.,SA Pathology and Hanson Institute | Fazzalari N.L.,University of Adelaide
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

Fracture healing is a multistage repair process that involves complex, well-orchestrated steps initiated in response to tissue injury. The early upregulation of IL-6, osteoprotegerin (OPG), VEGF, and BMPs indicates a central role for these factors in the initiation of cartilage and periosteal woven bone formation. In both callus fracture repair and stress fracture repair, the RANKL/OPG ratio is initially reduced, but peaks earlier in stress fracture healing than callus fracture healing. Though the understanding of the biological processes and molecular signals that coordinate fracture repair has advanced, the cause of variability observed in fracture repair is poorly understood. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011.

Kennedy M.J.,University of Adelaide | Christie-Blick N.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
Geology | Year: 2011

Neoproterozoic deglacial stratigraphy is commonly characterized by a sharp contact separating glacial sediments from laminated capping carbonates. This stratigraphic relation is generally assumed to have time significance and to reflect an abrupt shift from icehouse to greenhouse conditions. In contrast to this, sequence stratigraphic field studies of an Ediacaran (ca. 635 Ma) glacial to postglacial transition in the Amadeus Basin of central Australia reveal a complex deglacial stratigraphy, in which more than 175 m of conglomerate, sandstone, marl, and carbonate at the basin margin, and portions of four unconformity-bounded sequences, pass basinward into no more than 3 m of laminated dolomicrite of typical cap carbonate facies. The unconformities, which are characterized by as much as several tens of meters of erosional relief (oblique sections of incised valleys), separate intervals of contrasting sediment provenance, and are confidently mapped on the basis of both criteria. Comparable unconformities are absent in the overlying Neoproterozoic succession, which is >2 km thick and encompasses many tens of millions of years. The Amadeus Basin cap carbonate was thus deposited during a protracted interval of multiphase (cyclical) transgression more similar to Phanerozoic cyclical sea-level rise than to the single catastrophic deglaciation and instantaneous precipitation invoked by popular current models to explain the classic cap carbonate. The superposition of carbonate on glacial facies in distal sections evidently records condensation in the absence of siliciclastic sediment rather than abrupt shifts between glacial and tropical conditions. Facies lithologically similar to cap carbonates may be less obvious in Phanerozoic successions because of a secular change in carbonate composition to reefal and deep-sea pelagic deposits. © 2011 Geological Society of America.

Rolan P.E.,Pain Management Unit | Rolan P.E.,University of Adelaide
CNS Drugs | Year: 2012

The triptans are a group of compounds with high efficacy for the acute treatment of migraine and cluster headache. They have a relatively wide therapeutic index, and although a number of minor pharmacokinetic interactions have been observed, few are likely to be clinically significant. Given the differences in principal elimination pathways, potentially interacting drugs on a pharmacokinetic basis are not common across all compounds. Of more concern than pharmacokinetic interactions are pharmacodynamic interactions. Of most concern, additive vasoconstrictor effects are likely to occur with other vasoconstrictors, especially the ergots used for migraine. Serotonin syndrome has been observed due to coadministration of triptans with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but the absolute rate of such a clinical response to coadministration is probably low. Most patients can take triptans with other medications without dose alteration, although vigilance is required for pharmacodynamic interactions. © 2012 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Fordham D.A.,University of Adelaide
PLoS Biology | Year: 2015

Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species’ extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change. © 2015 Damien A. Fordham.

Cavagnaro T.R.,University of Adelaide
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Although most land-plants form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as a means of optimising nutrient capture, legacy effects of altered soil moisture regimes on plant responses to arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) have not been studied. As rainfall patters change with climate change, soil moisture legacy effects, and their impact on plants, soil and microbes may become increasingly important. Results of an experiment are presented in which soil was subjected to a range of different soil moisture regimes prior to planting a mycorrhiza-defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wild-type progenitor. There were clear legacy effects of the soil moisture regime prior to planting on soil physicochemical properties, plant growth and nutrition, the formation of AM and mycorrhizal responsiveness. For example, in the Dry treatment the plants were well colonized by AM, there was a clear benefit to the plants in terms of mycorrhizal growth responses and mycorrhizal P responses. In contrast, in the Intermediate treatment AM colonisation was lower, there was little benefit in terms of mycorrhizal responses. Finally, in the Wet and Wet/Dry treatments AM colonization levels were similar (albeit lower) to those in the Dry treatment, but mycorrhizal growth responses were lower and more variable. Together, these results clearly indicate that soil nutrients, plant growth and nutrition and mycorrhizal responsiveness are affected by soil moisture legacy effect. Consequently, as we move into a period where more variable and intense rainfall amounts and patterns have been projected, we need to consider soil moisture legacy effects. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Muhlhausler B.S.,University of Adelaide | Ailhaud G.P.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of obesity and its related metabolic disorders has increased significantly over the past 3 decades, culminating in the current global epidemic of metabolic disease and leading to the search for contributing factors. Exposure of the developing foetus/neonate to a typical Western diet increases their risk of obesity and metabolic disorders throughout the life-course, creating an intergenerational cycle of metabolic disease. In Western countries, this epidemic of metabolic disease has coincided with a marked increase in the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 PUFA), leading to suggestions that the two may be causally related. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have emphasized the proadipogenic properties of the omega-6 PUFA, and provided evidence that rodents fed on diets with omega-6 PUFA contents similar to the typical US diet (6-8% energy) have an increased fat mass. Importantly, recent studies have shown that perinatal exposure to a high omega-6 PUFA diet results in a progressive accumulation of body fat across generations. SUMMARY: This review highlights the recent evidence supporting the role of the omega-6 PUFA in the early life origins of obesity and metabolic disease, the need for more clinical studies and the potential need for health agencies to re-evaluate current recommendations to further increase omega-6 PUFA intakes. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

The evolution of subterranean animals following multiple colonisation events from the surface has been well documented, but few studies have investigated the potential for species diversification within cavernicolous habitats. Isolated calcrete (carbonate) aquifers in central Western Australia have been shown to contain diverse assemblages of aquatic subterranean invertebrate species (stygofauna) and to offer a unique model system for exploring the mechanisms of speciation in subterranean ecosystems. In this paper, we investigated the hypothesis that microallopatric speciation processes (fragmentation and isolation by distance (IBD)) occur within calcretes using a comparative phylogeographic study of three stygobiontic diving beetle species, one amphipod species and a lineage of isopods. Specimens were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene from three main sites: Quandong Well, Shady Well (SW) and Mt. Windarra (MW), spanning a 15 km region of the Laverton Downs Calcrete. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses revealed that each species possessed a single divergent clade of haplotypes that were present only at the southern MW site, despite the existence of other haplotypes at MW that were shared with SW. IBD between MW and SW was evident, but the common phylogeographic pattern most likely resulted from fragmentation, possibly by a salt lake adjacent to MW. These findings suggest that microallopatric speciation within calcretes may be a significant diversifying force, although the proportion of stygofauna species that may have resulted from in situ speciation in this system remains to be determined.

Tieu J.,University of Adelaide
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

Infants born to mothers with pre-existing type I or type II diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of congenital anomalies, perinatal mortality and significant morbidity in the short and long term. Pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes are at greater risk of perinatal morbidity and diabetic complications. The relationship between glycaemic control and health outcomes for both mothers and infants indicates the potential for preconception care for these women to be of benefit. To assess the effects of preconception care in women with pre-existing diabetes on health outcomes for mother and baby. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register was searched (30 April 2010) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised, quasi-randomised and cluster-randomised trials evaluating preconception care of diabetic women. Two review authors independently conducted data extraction and quality assessment. We resolved disagreements through discussion or through a third author. We included one trial (involving 53 women) in this review. The trial did not report on the prespecified outcomes of this review. Little evidence is available to recommend for or against preconception care for women with pre-existing diabetes. Further large, high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of different protocols of preconception care for women with pre-existing diabetes.

Louise Hull M.,University of Adelaide | Nisenblat V.,Womens and Childrens Hospital
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2013

microRNA (miRNA) have emerged as important epigenetic modulators of gene expression in diverse pathological and physiological processes. In the endometrium, miRNA appear to have a role in the dynamic changes associated with the menstrual cycle, in implantation and in the pathophysiology associated with reproductive disorders such as recurrent miscarriage and endometriosis. This review explores the role of miRNA in endometrial physiology and endometrial disorders of reproduction and also raises the prospect that circulating miRNA may modulate endometrial function or reflect disordered endometrial activity. The clinical potential to use miRNA in diagnostic tests of endometrial function or in the treatment of endometrial disorders will also be discussed. © 2013, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kordjazi A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Pooya Nejad F.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Jaksa M.B.,University of Adelaide
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2014

The support vector machine (SVM) is a relatively new artificial intelligence technique which is increasingly being applied to geotechnical problems and is yielding encouraging results. In this paper SVM models are developed for predicting the ultimate axial load-carrying capacity of piles based on cone penetration test (CPT) data. A data set of 108 samples is used to develop the SVM models. These data were obtained from the literature containing pile load tests and each sample contains information regarding pile geometry, full-scale static pile load tests and CPT results. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to examine the relative significance of each input variable with respect to ultimate strength prediction. Finally, a statistical analysis is conducted to make comparisons between predictions obtained from the SVM models and three traditional CPT-based methods for determining pile capacity. The comparison confirms that the SVM models developed in this paper outperform the traditional methods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Reddi B.A.J.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2013

Commercial 0.9% saline solution for infusion has a pH around 5.5. There are many reasons for this acidity, some of them still obscure. It is also true that infusion of normal saline can lead to metabolic acidaemia, yet the link between the acidity of saline solution and the acidaemia it can engender is not straightforward. This commentary draws together the known and putative sources of acidity in saline solutions: it turns out that the acidity of saline solution is essentially unrelated to the acidaemia complicating saline infusion. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Pukala T.L.,University of Adelaide
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Knowledge of protein structure and proteinprotein interactions is vital for appreciating the elaborate biochemical pathways that underlie cellular function. While many techniques exist to probe the structure and complex interplay between functional proteins, none currently offer a complete picture. Mass spectrometry and associated methods provide complementary information to established structural biology tools, and with rapidly evolving technological advances, can in some cases even exceed other techniques by its diversity in application and information content. This is primarily because of the ability of mass spectrometry to precisely identify protein complex stoichiometry, detect individual species present in a mixture, and concomitantly offer conformational information. This review describes the attributes of mass spectrometry for the structural investigation of multiprotein assemblies in the context of recent developments and highlights in the field. © 2011 CSIRO.

Ostendorf B.,University of Adelaide
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2011

Natural resource management (NRM) is becoming increasingly important at all scales, local, regional, national and global, because of an increasing human population and increasing per capita use of resources and space. Conflicts are intensifying between different interest groups. Production and conservation aspects are particularly debated because conservation of ten conflicts with economic and social sustainability. There is public demand for objective decision based NRM but limitations are all pervasive due to the spatial and temporal complexity and interdisciplinary nature. This special issue explores the use of spatial data and models to overcome some limitations of NRM decision making. The papers in this issue show modern approaches of natural resources management with a particular focus on spatial data collection, analysis and the development of spatial indicators. This issue presentsab a lanced mix of review and research papers that give examples of how to find or improve the spatial information base for evidence-based decision making. This overview makes the argument that understanding complex spatial pattern and processes, and the development of spatial indicators, is an essential aspect of evidence-based NRM. If spatial and temporal patterns are complex, ecological evidence from field data or experiments may have limited value for NRM and observational study designs become more appropriate for understanding complex spatial pattern and processes. Data quality should be documented as a combination of accuracy and spatio-temporal representativeness in order to be useful in the NRM decision process. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Elliott A.D.,University of Adelaide | La Gerche A.,University of Melbourne
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Aims: Prolonged endurance exercise is associated with elevated biomarkers associated with myocardial damage and modest evidence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recent studies have reported more profound effects on right ventricular (RV) function following endurance exercise. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting RV function pre-endurance and postendurance exercise. Methods: We performed a search of peer-reviewed studies with the criteria for inclusion in the analysis being (1) healthy adult participants; (2) studies examining RV function following an event of at least 90 min duration; (3) studies reporting RV fractional area change (RVFAC), RV strain (S), RV ejection fraction (RVEF) or tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and (4) studies evaluating RV function immediately (<1 h) following exercise. Results: Fourteen studies were included with 329 participants. A random-effects meta-analysis revealed significant impairments of RV function when assessed by RVFAC (weighted mean difference (WMD) -5.78%, 95% CI -7.09% to -4.46%), S (WMD 3.71%, 95% CI 2.79% to 4.63%), RVEF (WMD -7.05%, 95% CI -12.3% to -1.8%) and TAPSE (WMD -4.77 mm, 95% CI -8.3 to -1.24 mm). Modest RV dilation was evident in studies reporting RV systolic area postexercise (WMD 1.79 cm2, 95% CI 0.5 to 3.08 cm2). In contrast, no postexercise changes in LV systolic function (expressed as LVFAC or LVEF) were observed in the included studies (standardised mean difference 0.03%, 95% CI -0.13% to 0.18%). Conclusions: Intense prolonged exercise is associated with a measurable reduction in RV function while LV function is relatively unaffected. Future studies should examine the potential clinical consequences of repeated prolonged endurance exercise on the right ventricle. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

NGO S.N.T.,University of Adelaide | Williams D.B.,University of South Australia | Head R.J.,CSIRO
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in Australia. Nutrition, particularly intake of vegetables and certain plant components, has been reported to have a major role in cancer risk reduction. Recently, there has been a growing research interest in rosemary, a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. This study aims to review scientific evidence from all studies, published from 1996 to March 2010 that examined the protective effects of rosemary on colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. Literature evidence from animal and cell culture studies demonstrates the anticancer potential of rosemary extract, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. No evidence for other rosemary constituents was found. The reported anticancer properties were found to arise through the molecular changes in the multiple-stage process of cancer development, which are dose related and not tissue or species specific. This is evidenced by the ability of rosemary to suppress the development of tumors in several organs including the colon, breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells. The results suggested that the different molecular targets modulated by rosemary and its active constituents are useful indicators of success in clinical cancer chemo-prevention trials. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Furbank R.T.,CSIRO | Tester M.,University of Adelaide
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011

Global agriculture is facing major challenges to ensure global food security, such as the need to breed high-yielding crops adapted to future climates and the identification of dedicated feedstock crops for biofuel production (biofuel feedstocks). Plant phenomics offers a suite of new technologies to accelerate progress in understanding gene function and environmental responses. This will enable breeders to develop new agricultural germplasm to support future agricultural production. In this review we present plant physiology in an 'omics' perspective, review some of the new high-throughput and high-resolution phenotyping tools and discuss their application to plant biology, functional genomics and crop breeding. © 2011.

Wigley T.M.L.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Wigley T.M.L.,University of Adelaide
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

Carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion may be reduced by using natural gas rather than coal to produce energy. Gas produces approximately half the amount of CO 2 per unit of primary energy compared with coal. Here we consider a scenario where a fraction of coal usage is replaced by natural gas (i. e., methane, CH 4) over a given time period, and where a percentage of the gas production is assumed to leak into the atmosphere. The additional CH 4 from leakage adds to the radiative forcing of the climate system, offsetting the reduction in CO 2 forcing that accompanies the transition from coal to gas. We also consider the effects of: methane leakage from coal mining; changes in radiative forcing due to changes in the emissions of sulfur dioxide and carbonaceous aerosols; and differences in the efficiency of electricity production between coal- and gas-fired power generation. On balance, these factors more than offset the reduction in warming due to reduced CO 2 emissions. When gas replaces coal there is additional warming out to 2,050 with an assumed leakage rate of 0%, and out to 2,140 if the leakage rate is as high as 10%. The overall effects on global-mean temperature over the 21st century, however, are small. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Pedersen D.S.,Copenhagen University | Abell A.,University of Adelaide
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

The ability to synthesise small peptidomimetics that mimic the secondary structure of proteins is an ever expanding area of research directed at sourcing new medicinal agents and biological probes. A significant current challenge is to mimic protein epitopes under physiological conditions using small peptidomimetics that are easy to prepare. The copper- and ruthenium-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition reactions provide such a general synthetic method, with the resulting 1,2,3-triazoles being good peptide bond mimics. The ability to prepare both 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles under these chemically benign conditions provides both "linear" and "bent" peptidomimetics. Examples of the use of 1,2,3-triazoles to define the geometry and properties of a peptidomimetic abound. This review highlights such successes but also describes a number of failures in order to guide and inspire future efforts of chemists in this area. The incorporation of 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles in peptidomimetics enables both shape and function to be controlled by covalent or non-covalent interactions. The approach has many applicationsin the synthesis of, for example, natural product analogues, turn structures and α-helical architectures that have been shown to retain their shape and function in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Bridging ligands incorporating 2,2'-bipyridine as a chelating component have been utilised for several decades and are widely employed in coordination chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and materials synthesis. Such ligands form stable 5-membered chelate rings upon coordination to a metal. Two related chelating units, di-2-pyridylamine and di-2-pyridylmethane, which form 6-membered chelate rings when coordinated to a metal, have been studied far less as components of bridging ligands but have recently garnered significant levels of attention. Of around 140 reports on the incorporation of these moieties into bridging ligands some 75% have been published in the last 15 years. This review covers the synthesis of bridging ligands containing di-2-pyridylamine and di-2-pyridylmethane chelating moieties, and a survey of their coordination and supramolecular chemistry. Applications of the resulting systems as structural and functional models of enzyme active sites, and spin-crossover materials, and for investigations into anion-π interactions are covered. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bruce M.I.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Reactions of electron-rich alkynyl- and poly-ynyl-Group 8 complexes with tetracyanoethene (TCNE), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and related compounds usually proceed via an initial radical anion salt of the oxidised complex with formation of an intermediate zwitterionic complex which undergoes a [2 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction to give a polycyano-cyclobutenyl complex. This more or less rapidly experiences a ring-opening (retro-electrocyclic reaction), affording an η1-polycyano-butadienyl-metal derivative. Further chemistry of these species may involve chelation of the dienyl to give an η3-polycyano-butadienyl by displacement of a 2-e ligand from the metal centre, or transformations of the CN group(s) to amides by hydrolysis or alcoholysis, cycloaddition of azide ("click" reaction) to give tetrazolato complexes, or addition of terminal alkyne to form a [3]-dendralene. Their potential in heterocyclic synthesis is also demonstrated by the formation of a variety of such systems by reactions of the CN groups, activated by electron-donor metal centres. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Marschner P.,University of Adelaide | Crowley D.,University of California at Riverside | Rengel Z.,University of Western Australia