Aarhus University is a public university located in Aarhus, Denmark. Founded in 1928, it is Denmark's second oldest university and the largest, with a total of 43,600 enrolled students as of 1 January 2012, after a merger with Aarhus School of Engineering. In most prestigious ranking lists of the world´s best universities, Aarhus University is placed in the top 100. The university belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities.Denmark's first professor of sociology was a member of the faculty of Aarhus University , and in 1997 Professor Jens Christian Skou received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the sodium-potassium pump. In 2010 Dale T. Mortensen, a Niels Bohr Visiting Professor at Aarhus University, received the Nobel Prize in Economic science together with his colleagues Peter Diamond and Christopher Pissarides. Wikipedia.
University of Aarhus | Date: 2016-12-02
The present invention provides mutant cereal plants and mature grain thereof, characterised by enhanced levels of the enzyme phytase in the grain, and methods for inducing, detecting and selecting the mutant cereal plants. The invention further relates to animal feed comprising said grain having enhanced amounts of phytase.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2017
Experimentation in mesocosms is arguably the single most powerful approach to obtain a mechanistic quantitative understanding of ecosystem-level impacts of stressors in complex systems, especially when embedded in long-term observations, theoretical models and experiments conducted at other scales. AQUACOSM builds on an established European network of mesocosm research infrastructures (RI), the FP7 Infra project MESOAQUA (2009-2012), where 167 users successfully conducted 74 projects. AQUACOSM greatly enhances that network on pelagic marine systems in at least 3 ways: first by expanding it to 10 freshwater (rivers and lakes), 2 brackish and 2 benthic marine facilities, and by involving 2 SMEs and reaching out to more, thereby granting effective transnational access to world-leading mesocosm facilities to >340 users on >11500 days; second, by integrating scattered know-how between freshwater and marine RI; and third, by uniting aquatic mesocosm science in an open network beyond the core consortium, with industry involved in an ambitious innovation process, to promote ground-breaking developments in mesocosm technology, instrumentation and data processing. A new dimension of experimental ecosystem science will be reached by coordinated mesocosm experiments along transects from the Mediterranean to the Arctic and beyond salinity boundaries. These efforts will culminate in a joint research activity (JRA) to assess aquatic ecosystem responses across multiple environmental gradients to a selected climate-related key stressor with repercussions for ecosystem services. Overall, AQUACOSM will fill a global void by forging an integrated freshwater and marine research infrastructure network. Long-term sustainability is sought through assessing governance models based on science priorities and economic innovation opportunities. Linkages to and synergies with ESFRI RI and other large initiatives are ensured by AQUACOSM partners and Advisory Board members in those programs.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: PILOTS-02-2016 | Award Amount: 8.80M | Year: 2017
NanoPack will demonstrate a solution for extending food shelf life by using novel smart antimicrobial surfaces, applied in active food packaging products. It will run pilot lines in operational industrial environments to manufacture commercially feasible antimicrobial polymer films, accepted by consumers. It will minimize the amount of preservatives required to maintain freshness, add value and assure safety to the entire supply chain. The project will employ natural Halloysite Nanotubes (HNTs) as reliable and safe carriers of bio-active compounds which are unable to migrate from the food packaging into food. Maximising safety, they slowly release minute amounts of potent, volatile and broad-spectrum natural agents into the packaging headspace. Using nanotechnology enables 1) introducing sensitive molecules into polymer films; 2) anti-microbial functionality without impaired film properties; 3) manufacturing potent antimicrobial surfaces with tunable properties, while creating a pH-triggered gate keeper effect to slow down release of the payload encapsulated. The resulting film will exhibit antimicrobial properties unmet by the current state-of-the-art. The processes across the supply chain will be validated through 5 pilot runs on existing production lines: 1) loading antimicrobials, 2) anti-microbial HNT polymer production, 3) anti-microbial packaging film production and 4-5) using the novel packaging on food products. Commercial feasibility will be assessed, including consumer acceptance and legal, regulatory, safety and environmental aspects. The success of NanoPack will result in validated consumer-accepted nanotechnology-based antimicrobial food packaging that will enhance food safety, prevent foodborne illness outbreaks and reduce food waste caused by early spoilage. Better performing, safer and smarter products will position Europe as the leader in food nanotechnology & smart antimicrobial packaging while increasing competitiveness and industry growth.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: IoT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 34.71M | Year: 2017
The IoF2020 project is dedicated to accelerate adoption of IoT for securing sufficient, safe and healthy food and to strengthen competitiveness of farming and food chains in Europe. It will consolidate Europes leading position in the global IoT industry by fostering a symbiotic ecosystem of farmers, food industry, technology providers and research institutes. The IoF2020 consortium of 73 partners, led by Wageningen UR and other core partners of previous key projects such as FIWARE and IoT-A, will leverage the ecosystem and architecture that was established in those projects. The heart of the project is formed by 19 use cases grouped in 5 trials with end users from the Arable, Dairy, Fruits, Vegetables and Meat verticals and IoT integrators that will demonstrate the business case of innovative IoT solutions for a large number of application areas. A lean multi-actor approach focusing on user acceptability, stakeholder engagement and sustainable business models will boost technology and market readiness levels and bring end user adoption to the next stage. This development will be enhanced by an open IoT architecture and infrastructure of reusable components based on existing standards and a security and privacy framework. Anticipating vast technological developments and emerging challenges for farming and food, the 4-year project stays agile through dynamic budgeting and adaptive decision-making by an implementation board of representatives from key user organizations. A 6 M mid-term open call will allow for testing intermediate results and extending the project with technical solutions and test sites. A coherent dissemination strategy for use case products and project learnings supported by leading user organizations will ensure a high market visibility and an increased learning curve. Thus IoF2020 will pave the way for data-driven farming, autonomous operations, virtual food chains and personalized nutrition for European citizens.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: IoT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 20.05M | Year: 2017
SynchroniCity represents the first attempt to deliver a Single Digital City Market for Europe by piloting its foundations at scale in 11 reference zones - 8 European cities & 3 more worldwide cities - connecting 34 partners from 11 countries over 4 continents. Building upon a mature European knowledge base derived from initiatives such as OASC, FIWARE, FIRE, EIP-SCC, and including partners with leading roles in standardization bodies, e.g. ITU, ETSI, IEEE, OMA, IETF, SynchroniCity will deliver a harmonized ecosystem for IoT-enabled smart city solutions where IoT device manufacturers, system integrators and solution providers can innovate and openly compete. With an already emerging foundation, SynchroniCity will establish a reference architecture for the envisioned IoT-enabled city market place with identified interoperability points and interfaces and data models for different verticals. This will include tools for co-creation & integration of legacy platforms & IoT devices for urban services and enablers for data discovery, access and licensing lowering the barriers for participation on the market. SynchroniCity will pilot these foundations in the reference zones together with a set of citizen-centred services in three high-impact areas, showing the value to cities, businesses and citizens involved, linked directly to the global market. With a running start, SynchroniCity will serve as lighthouse initiative to inspire others to join the established ecosystem and contribute to the emerging market place. SynchroniCity takes an inclusive approach to grow the ecosystem by inviting businesses and cities to join through an open call, allowing them to participate on the pioneering market place enabling a second wave of successful pilots. They will strengthen the ecosystem by creating a positive ripple effect throughout Europe, and globally, to establish a momentum and critical mass for a strong European presence in a global digital single market of IoT-enabled solutions.
Jensen K.L.,University of Aarhus
Accounts of chemical research | Year: 2012
The past few decades have witnessed some of the most important and revolutionizing advances in the field of asymmetric catalysis. Chemists no longer rely solely on natural sources as the starting point of their synthetic strategy, as in chiral pool or auxiliary-based synthesis. Instead, naturally occurring chiral motifs are selected and, either unchanged or after modification, used in substoichiometric amounts as chiral catalysts or ligands. In this way, they effectively transfer their chirality to prochiral substrates, thereby rapidly amplifying and diversifying the arsenal of useful chiral building blocks available to the synthetic community. A long-standing goal in the pursuit of new catalytic systems is the discovery of general catalysts. Ideally, such catalytic systems should be capable of promoting a large number of enantioselective reactions, via multiple modes of activation, with good substrate tolerance and high stereoselectivity. In this Account, we describe the synthetic usefulness, efficiency, selectivity, and robustness of the diarylprolinol silyl ether system as the catalyst in various reactions of aldehydes. Based on the diarylprolinol silyl ether system, several studies on enamine-mediated transformations of saturated aldehydes have resulted in the introduction of different functionalities into the α-position of aldehydes in a highly stereoselective manner. This HOMO-activation concept was later extended to include α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, which after condensation with the aminocatalyst generate a dienamine species capable of undergoing stereoselective Diels-Alder-type reactions. As a result, the effective functionalization of the γ-position of the aldehyde is achieved. Recently, the activation principle was further developed to include 2,4-dienals, which form trienamine intermediates upon condensation with the aminocatalyst. The trienamines effectively react with carbon-centered dienophiles, forming aldehyde products having up to four contiguous stereocenters. Because of the concerted nature of the reaction and the efficient catalyst shielding of the β-position, the stereoinduction is achieved at the remote ε-position of the original aldehyde. Complementary to the enamine-mediated activations, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes can also be efficiently functionalized by applying the diarylprolinol silyl ether system via conjugate addition through iminium-ion-mediated processes, that is, LUMO-activation. In such reactions, the aminocatalyst not only effectively shields one of the enantiotopic faces of the enal, it also ensures excellent chemoselectivity, affording 1,4-adducts as the only products. Several different carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles can be added in a highly stereoselective fashion. The ability of the catalysts to participate in various enamine- and iminium-ion-mediated processes also makes them ideal for the sequential addition of nucleophiles and electrophiles in a cascade manner. These cascade reactions thereby afford access to products having at least two stereocenters. In the years to come, the diarylprolinol silyl ether catalysts will probably maintain their prominent position as general catalysts in the field of aminocatalysis. Moreover, recent efforts devoted to mechanistic studies might soon engender further advances with this versatile catalytic system, particularly in the areas of activation modes, catalyst loadings, and industrial applications.
Paludan S.,University of Aarhus |
Bowie A.,Trinity College Dublin
Immunity | Year: 2013
Although it has been appreciated for some years that cytosolic DNA is immune stimulatory, it is only in the past five years that the molecular basis of DNA sensing by the innate immune system has begun to be revealed. In particular it has been described how DNA induces type I interferon, central in antiviral responses and a mediator of autoimmunity. To date more than ten cytosolic receptors of DNA have been proposed, but STING is a key adaptor protein for most DNA-sensing pathways, and we are now beginning to understand the signaling mechanisms for STING. In this review we describe the recent progress in understanding signaling mechanisms activated by DNA and the relevance of DNA sensing to pathogen responses and autoimmunity. We highlight new insights gained into how and why the immune system responds to both pathogen and self DNA and define important questions that now need to be addressed in the field of innate immune activation by DNA. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Madsen L.H.,University of Aarhus
Nature communications | Year: 2010
Bacterial infection of interior tissues of legume root nodules is controlled at the epidermal cell layer and is closely coordinated with progressing organ development. Using spontaneous nodulating Lotus japonicus plant mutants to uncouple nodule organogenesis from infection, we have determined the role of 16 genes in these two developmental processes. We show that host-encoded mechanisms control three alternative entry processes operating in the epidermis, the root cortex and at the single cell level. Single cell infection did not involve the formation of trans-cellular infection threads and was independent of host Nod-factor receptors and bacterial Nod-factor signals. In contrast, Nod-factor perception was required for epidermal root hair infection threads, whereas primary signal transduction genes preceding the secondary Ca2+ oscillations have an indirect role. We provide support for the origin of rhizobial infection through direct intercellular epidermal invasion and subsequent evolution of crack entry and root hair invasions observed in most extant legumes.
Malinauskaite L.,University of Aarhus
Nature structural & molecular biology | Year: 2014
Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) terminate synaptic signal transmission by Na+-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters. Key conformational states have been reported for the bacterial homolog LeuT and an inhibitor-bound Drosophila dopamine transporter. However, a coherent mechanism of Na+-driven transport has not been described. Here, we present two crystal structures of MhsT, an NSS member from Bacillus halodurans, in occluded inward-facing states with bound Na+ ions and L-tryptophan, providing insight into the cytoplasmic release of Na+. The switch from outward- to inward-oriented states is centered on the partial unwinding of transmembrane helix 5, facilitated by a conserved GlyX9Pro motif that opens an intracellular pathway for water to access the Na2 site. We propose a mechanism, based on our structural and functional findings, in which solvation through the TM5 pathway facilitates Na+ release from Na2 and the transition to an inward-open state.
Ogilby P.R.,University of Aarhus
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010
Singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg), the lowest excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, has been known to the scientific community for ∼80 years. It has a characteristic chemistry that sets it apart from the triplet ground state of molecular oxygen, O2(X 3Σ-g), and is important in fields that range from atmospheric chemistry and materials science to biology and medicine. For such a "mature citizen", singlet oxygen nevertheless remains at the cutting-edge of modern science. In this critical review, recent work on singlet oxygen is summarized, focusing primarily on systems that involve light. It is clear that there is indeed still something new under the sun (243 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.