Aarhus University is a public university located in Aarhus, Denmark. Founded in 1928, it is Denmark's second oldest university and the largest, with a total of 43,600 enrolled students as of 1 January 2012, after a merger with Aarhus School of Engineering. In most prestigious ranking lists of the world´s best universities, Aarhus University is placed in the top 100. The university belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities.Denmark's first professor of sociology was a member of the faculty of Aarhus University , and in 1997 Professor Jens Christian Skou received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the sodium-potassium pump. In 2010 Dale T. Mortensen, a Niels Bohr Visiting Professor at Aarhus University, received the Nobel Prize in Economic science together with his colleagues Peter Diamond and Christopher Pissarides. Wikipedia.
University of Aarhus | Date: 2016-12-02
The present invention provides mutant cereal plants and mature grain thereof, characterised by enhanced levels of the enzyme phytase in the grain, and methods for inducing, detecting and selecting the mutant cereal plants. The invention further relates to animal feed comprising said grain having enhanced amounts of phytase.
University of Southern Denmark and University of Aarhus | Date: 2017-04-12
The present invention relates to glycosylated YghJ polypeptides from or derived from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that are immunogenic. In particular, the present invention relates to compositions or vaccines comprising the polypeptides and their application in immunization, vaccination, treatment and diagnosis of ETEC.
University of Aarhus | Date: 2017-06-07
Methods for measurement of the optical properties of biological cells are disclosed, in particular wherein light is coupled into and confined within a cell layer. Particularly, in one aspect a device (10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 410, 500) to measure an optical characteristic of a plurality of cells (22) on a surface (34) is described. Additionally, an apparatus that comprises said device (10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 410, 500) to measure an optical characteristic of a plurality of cells (22) on a surface (34) is provided. In a second aspect a method of measuring an optical characteristic of a plurality of cells (22) is described. Additionally, an in vitro method of diagnosing and/or prognosis of a medical condition of a sample comprising a plurality of cells (22) obtained from a patient is provided.
University of Aarhus and Region Midtjylland | Date: 2017-04-05
A method is provided of treating, preventing or ameliorating type 2 diabetes and/or a clinical condition associated with type 2 diabetes, which method comprises administering an effective amount of cafestol or a derivative thereof including esters and salts thereof to a person in need thereof. Further provided are compositions comprising cafestol and at least one additional agent suitable for treating, preventing or ameliorating diabetes and/or a clinical condition associated with diabetes. A method is also provided of increasing insulin secretion and/or increasing insulin-dependent glucose uptake, said method comprising administering an effective amount of cafestol or a derivative thereof to a person in need thereof.
University of Aarhus | Date: 2017-07-05
The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes.
University of Aarhus and Region Midtjylland | Date: 2017-07-05
The present invention provides a positively charged co-polymer for use as an antimicrobial agent,wherein said positively charged co-polymer is composed of amino acids and/or derivatives thereof and wherein at least 75 molar percent of said amino acids are selected from the group consisting of alanine, lysine, glutamate, arginine and tyrosine and/or derivatives thereof. The present invention also provides methods for treating, preventing or ameliorating a microbial infection comprising administration of positively charged random co-polymers as well as a pharmaceutical composition comprising said co-polymer. The invention further provides a kit of parts comprising the positively charged random co-polymer.
Jensen K.L.,University of Aarhus
Accounts of chemical research | Year: 2012
The past few decades have witnessed some of the most important and revolutionizing advances in the field of asymmetric catalysis. Chemists no longer rely solely on natural sources as the starting point of their synthetic strategy, as in chiral pool or auxiliary-based synthesis. Instead, naturally occurring chiral motifs are selected and, either unchanged or after modification, used in substoichiometric amounts as chiral catalysts or ligands. In this way, they effectively transfer their chirality to prochiral substrates, thereby rapidly amplifying and diversifying the arsenal of useful chiral building blocks available to the synthetic community. A long-standing goal in the pursuit of new catalytic systems is the discovery of general catalysts. Ideally, such catalytic systems should be capable of promoting a large number of enantioselective reactions, via multiple modes of activation, with good substrate tolerance and high stereoselectivity. In this Account, we describe the synthetic usefulness, efficiency, selectivity, and robustness of the diarylprolinol silyl ether system as the catalyst in various reactions of aldehydes. Based on the diarylprolinol silyl ether system, several studies on enamine-mediated transformations of saturated aldehydes have resulted in the introduction of different functionalities into the α-position of aldehydes in a highly stereoselective manner. This HOMO-activation concept was later extended to include α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, which after condensation with the aminocatalyst generate a dienamine species capable of undergoing stereoselective Diels-Alder-type reactions. As a result, the effective functionalization of the γ-position of the aldehyde is achieved. Recently, the activation principle was further developed to include 2,4-dienals, which form trienamine intermediates upon condensation with the aminocatalyst. The trienamines effectively react with carbon-centered dienophiles, forming aldehyde products having up to four contiguous stereocenters. Because of the concerted nature of the reaction and the efficient catalyst shielding of the β-position, the stereoinduction is achieved at the remote ε-position of the original aldehyde. Complementary to the enamine-mediated activations, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes can also be efficiently functionalized by applying the diarylprolinol silyl ether system via conjugate addition through iminium-ion-mediated processes, that is, LUMO-activation. In such reactions, the aminocatalyst not only effectively shields one of the enantiotopic faces of the enal, it also ensures excellent chemoselectivity, affording 1,4-adducts as the only products. Several different carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles can be added in a highly stereoselective fashion. The ability of the catalysts to participate in various enamine- and iminium-ion-mediated processes also makes them ideal for the sequential addition of nucleophiles and electrophiles in a cascade manner. These cascade reactions thereby afford access to products having at least two stereocenters. In the years to come, the diarylprolinol silyl ether catalysts will probably maintain their prominent position as general catalysts in the field of aminocatalysis. Moreover, recent efforts devoted to mechanistic studies might soon engender further advances with this versatile catalytic system, particularly in the areas of activation modes, catalyst loadings, and industrial applications.
Madsen L.H.,University of Aarhus
Nature communications | Year: 2010
Bacterial infection of interior tissues of legume root nodules is controlled at the epidermal cell layer and is closely coordinated with progressing organ development. Using spontaneous nodulating Lotus japonicus plant mutants to uncouple nodule organogenesis from infection, we have determined the role of 16 genes in these two developmental processes. We show that host-encoded mechanisms control three alternative entry processes operating in the epidermis, the root cortex and at the single cell level. Single cell infection did not involve the formation of trans-cellular infection threads and was independent of host Nod-factor receptors and bacterial Nod-factor signals. In contrast, Nod-factor perception was required for epidermal root hair infection threads, whereas primary signal transduction genes preceding the secondary Ca2+ oscillations have an indirect role. We provide support for the origin of rhizobial infection through direct intercellular epidermal invasion and subsequent evolution of crack entry and root hair invasions observed in most extant legumes.
Malinauskaite L.,University of Aarhus
Nature structural & molecular biology | Year: 2014
Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) terminate synaptic signal transmission by Na+-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters. Key conformational states have been reported for the bacterial homolog LeuT and an inhibitor-bound Drosophila dopamine transporter. However, a coherent mechanism of Na+-driven transport has not been described. Here, we present two crystal structures of MhsT, an NSS member from Bacillus halodurans, in occluded inward-facing states with bound Na+ ions and L-tryptophan, providing insight into the cytoplasmic release of Na+. The switch from outward- to inward-oriented states is centered on the partial unwinding of transmembrane helix 5, facilitated by a conserved GlyX9Pro motif that opens an intracellular pathway for water to access the Na2 site. We propose a mechanism, based on our structural and functional findings, in which solvation through the TM5 pathway facilitates Na+ release from Na2 and the transition to an inward-open state.
Ogilby P.R.,University of Aarhus
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010
Singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg), the lowest excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, has been known to the scientific community for ∼80 years. It has a characteristic chemistry that sets it apart from the triplet ground state of molecular oxygen, O2(X 3Σ-g), and is important in fields that range from atmospheric chemistry and materials science to biology and medicine. For such a "mature citizen", singlet oxygen nevertheless remains at the cutting-edge of modern science. In this critical review, recent work on singlet oxygen is summarized, focusing primarily on systems that involve light. It is clear that there is indeed still something new under the sun (243 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.