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Rabat, Morocco

Dezileau L.,Montpellier University | Perez-Ruzafa A.,University of Murcia | Blanchemanche P.,Montpellier University | Degeai J.-P.,Montpellier University | And 5 more authors.
Climate of the Past | Year: 2016

Storms and tsunamis, which may seriously endanger human society, are amongst the most devastating marine catastrophes that can occur in coastal areas. Many such events are known and have been reported for the Mediterranean, a region where high-frequency occurrences of these extreme events coincides with some of the most densely populated coastal areas in the world. In a sediment core from the Mar Menor (SE Spain), we discovered eight coarse-grained layers which document marine incursions during periods of intense storm activity or tsunami events. Based on radiocarbon dating, these extreme events occurred around 5250, 4000, 3600, 3010, 2300, 1350, 650, and 80 years calBP. No comparable events have been observed during the 20th and 21st centuries. The results indicate little likelihood of a tsunami origin for these coarse-grained layers, although historical tsunami events are recorded in this region. These periods of surge events seem to coincide with the coldest periods in Europe during the late Holocene, suggesting a control by a climatic mechanism for periods of increased storm activity. Spectral analyses performed on the sand percentage revealed four major periodicities of 1228±327, 732±80, 562±58, and 319±16 years. Amongst the well-known proxies that have revealed a millennial-scale climate variability during the Holocene, the ice-rafted debris (IRD) indices in the North Atlantic developed by Bond et al. (1997, 2001) present a cyclicity of 1470±500 years, which matches the 1228±327-year periodicity evidenced in the Mar Menor, considering the respective uncertainties in the periodicities. Thus, an in-phase storm activity in the western Mediterranean is found with the coldest periods in Europe and with the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. However, further investigations, such as additional coring and high-resolution coastal imagery, are needed to better constrain the main cause of these multiple events. © 2016 Author(s). Source


Benharref A.,Cadi Ayyad University | Ourhriss N.,Cadi Ayyad University | El Ammari L.,University Mohammeddal | Saadi M.,University Mohammeddal | Berraho M.,Cadi Ayyad University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2013

The title compound, C17H26Cl2, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro- 1H-benzocycloheptene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules with similar conformations. Each molecule is built up from fused six- and seven-membered rings and two three-membered rings from the reaction of β-himachalene with dichlorocarbene. In both molecules, the six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. The absolute configuration was established from anomalous dispersion effects. © Benharref et al. 2013. Source


Chafchaouni-Moussaoui I.,Universiapolis | Charrouf Z.,University Mohammeddal | Guillaume D.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2013

During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals. Source


Guillaume D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Charrouf Z.,University Mohammeddal
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Argan oil is of food or cosmetic (INCI name: Argania spinosa kernel oil) grade. During the past 15 years cosmetic argan oil, as beauty oil or cosmetic ingredient, has become one of the major actors in the dermocosmetic field. Beauty argan oil is produced by cold-pressing argan-fruit kernels. As a cosmetic ingredient, argan oil is produced by solvent-assisted extraction of the finely crushed kernels. Enriched-argan oil which is produced by distillation of cosmetic argan oil can be supplemented with antioxidants. Hence, it presents an even better cosmetic potential. Argan fruit pulp and argan leaves also contain proteins, peptides, saponins and other chemicals presenting highly interesting dermocosmetics. Therefore, the argan tree (A. spinosa) is sometimes nicknamed A. cosmetosa. We comprehensively review the current knowledge (literature and patent) related to argan oil and argan tree products in the dermocosmetic domain. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Charrouf Z.,University Mohammeddal | Guillaume D.,French National Center for Scientific Research
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Argan oil is nowadays a major and internationally well-established actor on the edible-oil as well as cosmetic-oil markets. Nevertheless, argan oil fame is quite recent. Indeed, due to important quality matters, argan oil had remained ignored for years. During all this time, argan oil's numerous pharmacological properties have provided benefit only to the population of the Essaouira and Sous Massa Draa regions, the part of the world where argan oil is exclusively produced. Argan oil's world-wide success is principally the result of a vast multidisciplinary program initiated by the government of Morocco almost 35 years ago. This program, which began by the chemical characterization of argan oil and argan metabolites, has subsequently allowed the establishment of an official, and internationally recognized, argan oil quality norm, together with good preparation pratice guidelines. Because of this norm and these stringent guidelines argan oil has got the trust of customers. This has led to the triggering of its international recognition. Concomittantly, private, governmental and non-governmental organizations have taken great care to ensure that a large part of argan-oil derived wealth was redistributed to the Sous Massa Draa population, principally through the building of woman-managed argan oil preparation cooperatives. This paper relates the major steps of the argan oil saga. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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