Rabat, Morocco
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Benharref A.,Cadi Ayyad University | Ourhriss N.,Cadi Ayyad University | El Ammari L.,University Mohammeddal | Saadi M.,University Mohammeddal | Berraho M.,Cadi Ayyad University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2013

The title compound, C17H26Cl2, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro- 1H-benzocycloheptene), which was isolated from the essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica). The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules with similar conformations. Each molecule is built up from fused six- and seven-membered rings and two three-membered rings from the reaction of β-himachalene with dichlorocarbene. In both molecules, the six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. The absolute configuration was established from anomalous dispersion effects. © Benharref et al. 2013.


Gharby S.,University Mohammeddal | Gharby S.,Laboratoire Controle Qualite | Harhar H.,University Mohammeddal | Guillaume D.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | And 3 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The present study investigated the oxidative stability of the threemarketed types of edible argan oil. Edible argan oil is prepared by pressing the slightly roasted kernels of peeled argan fruit. High quality edible argan oil is exclusively prepared using mechanical presses. However, hand-extracted argan oil is still artisanally produced and can be found in local markets. In this latter case, goat-peeled fruit is still sometimes introduced in the oil production chain even though the resulting oil is notoriously of unsatisfactory quality. The oxidative stability of press-extracted, hand-extracted, and goat-peeled fruit derived argan oil was analyzed using as physicochemical metrics: fatty acid composition, β-carotene level, phosphorus level, tocopherol level, iodine index, saponification, peroxide and acid values, specific extinction, and Rancimat induction time. The variations of these parameters were evaluated over a period of 2 years at 5 °C, 25 °C (protected or exposed to sunlight), or 40 °C. After this period of time, mechanically extracted argan oil still presents an excellent physicochemical profile. Domestic and traditionally prepared argan oil presents much less satisfactory properties after the same period. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Harhar H.,University Mohammeddal | Gharby S.,University Mohammeddal | Gharby S.,Laboratoire Controle Qualite | Kartah B.,University Mohammeddal | And 4 more authors.
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition | Year: 2011

Virgin argan oil, which is harvested from argan fruit kernels, constitutes an alimentary source of substances of nutraceutical value. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of argan oil prepared from argan kernels roasted for different times were evaluated and compared with those of beauty argan oil that is prepared from unroasted kernels. Prolonged roasting time induced colour development and increased phosphorous content whereas fatty acid composition and tocopherol levels did not change. Oxidative stability data indicate that kernel roasting for 15 to 30min at 110°C is optimum to preserve virgin argan oil nutritive properties. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Gharby S.,University Mohammeddal | Gharby S.,Laboratoire Of Contole Qualite | Harhar H.,University Mohammeddal | Guillaume D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

To prepare either virgin edible or beauty argan oil, roasted or unroasted argan kernels are cold-pressed, respectively. Comparing the physicochemical parameters of edible and beauty argan oil immediately after preparation and after a two-year delay has led to the suggestion that phospholipids are a new and essential type of oil component participating in the excellent oxidative stability of edible argan oil, in addition to the already suggested Maillard-reaction products, phenols, and tocopherols.


Gharby S.,University Mohammeddal | Gharby S.,Laboratoire Of Contole Qualite | Harhar H.,University Mohammeddal | Kartah B.E.,University Mohammeddal | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2013

Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180°C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.


Chafchaouni-Moussaoui I.,Universiapolis | Charrouf Z.,University Mohammeddal | Guillaume D.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2013

During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals.


Guillaume D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Charrouf Z.,University Mohammeddal
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Argan oil is of food or cosmetic (INCI name: Argania spinosa kernel oil) grade. During the past 15 years cosmetic argan oil, as beauty oil or cosmetic ingredient, has become one of the major actors in the dermocosmetic field. Beauty argan oil is produced by cold-pressing argan-fruit kernels. As a cosmetic ingredient, argan oil is produced by solvent-assisted extraction of the finely crushed kernels. Enriched-argan oil which is produced by distillation of cosmetic argan oil can be supplemented with antioxidants. Hence, it presents an even better cosmetic potential. Argan fruit pulp and argan leaves also contain proteins, peptides, saponins and other chemicals presenting highly interesting dermocosmetics. Therefore, the argan tree (A. spinosa) is sometimes nicknamed A. cosmetosa. We comprehensively review the current knowledge (literature and patent) related to argan oil and argan tree products in the dermocosmetic domain. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Charrouf Z.,University Mohammeddal | Guillaume D.,French National Center for Scientific Research
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Argan oil is nowadays a major and internationally well-established actor on the edible-oil as well as cosmetic-oil markets. Nevertheless, argan oil fame is quite recent. Indeed, due to important quality matters, argan oil had remained ignored for years. During all this time, argan oil's numerous pharmacological properties have provided benefit only to the population of the Essaouira and Sous Massa Draa regions, the part of the world where argan oil is exclusively produced. Argan oil's world-wide success is principally the result of a vast multidisciplinary program initiated by the government of Morocco almost 35 years ago. This program, which began by the chemical characterization of argan oil and argan metabolites, has subsequently allowed the establishment of an official, and internationally recognized, argan oil quality norm, together with good preparation pratice guidelines. Because of this norm and these stringent guidelines argan oil has got the trust of customers. This has led to the triggering of its international recognition. Concomittantly, private, governmental and non-governmental organizations have taken great care to ensure that a large part of argan-oil derived wealth was redistributed to the Sous Massa Draa population, principally through the building of woman-managed argan oil preparation cooperatives. This paper relates the major steps of the argan oil saga. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Dezileau L.,Montpellier University | Perez-Ruzafa A.,University of Murcia | Blanchemanche P.,Montpellier University | Degeai J.-P.,Montpellier University | And 5 more authors.
Climate of the Past | Year: 2016

Storms and tsunamis, which may seriously endanger human society, are amongst the most devastating marine catastrophes that can occur in coastal areas. Many such events are known and have been reported for the Mediterranean, a region where high-frequency occurrences of these extreme events coincides with some of the most densely populated coastal areas in the world. In a sediment core from the Mar Menor (SE Spain), we discovered eight coarse-grained layers which document marine incursions during periods of intense storm activity or tsunami events. Based on radiocarbon dating, these extreme events occurred around 5250, 4000, 3600, 3010, 2300, 1350, 650, and 80 years calBP. No comparable events have been observed during the 20th and 21st centuries. The results indicate little likelihood of a tsunami origin for these coarse-grained layers, although historical tsunami events are recorded in this region. These periods of surge events seem to coincide with the coldest periods in Europe during the late Holocene, suggesting a control by a climatic mechanism for periods of increased storm activity. Spectral analyses performed on the sand percentage revealed four major periodicities of 1228±327, 732±80, 562±58, and 319±16 years. Amongst the well-known proxies that have revealed a millennial-scale climate variability during the Holocene, the ice-rafted debris (IRD) indices in the North Atlantic developed by Bond et al. (1997, 2001) present a cyclicity of 1470±500 years, which matches the 1228±327-year periodicity evidenced in the Mar Menor, considering the respective uncertainties in the periodicities. Thus, an in-phase storm activity in the western Mediterranean is found with the coldest periods in Europe and with the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. However, further investigations, such as additional coring and high-resolution coastal imagery, are needed to better constrain the main cause of these multiple events. © 2016 Author(s).


PubMed | University Mohammeddal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) | Year: 2011

Virgin argan oil, which is harvested from argan fruit kernels, constitutes an alimentary source of substances of nutraceutical value. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of argan oil prepared from argan kernels roasted for different times were evaluated and compared with those of beauty argan oil that is prepared from unroasted kernels. Prolonged roasting time induced colour development and increased phosphorous content whereas fatty acid composition and tocopherol levels did not change. Oxidative stability data indicate that kernel roasting for 15 to 30 min at 110 C is optimum to preserve virgin argan oil nutritive properties.

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