Ben Guerir, Morocco
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Barakat A.,CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Monlau F.,CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Monlau F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Solhy A.,University Mohammed Polytechnique | Carrere H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

Mechanical size reduction is considered as a primordial step of current and future lignocellulosic biorefinery. In this sense, it is of high interest to understand who are the biochemical and structural features of the lignocellulosic biomass, which affect the Specific Energy Requirement (SER), and in consequence the cost of mechanical size reduction processes. First, it was shown that the initial moisture content of the lignocellulosic biomass affect the SER and the final particle size distribution. The highest the moisture content gives raise the highest SER. Then, at fixed initial moisture content (≈7% DW), structural and biochemical features of lignocellulosic biomass that can affect the SER were determined. It was noticed that both arabinose/xylose ratio and accessible surface area lead to increasing the SER. On the contrary, the content of cellulose, lignin, crystallinity and p-coumaric acids links were found to have a positive effect on the reduction of the SER. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Monlau F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sambusiti C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Antoniou N.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Zabaniotou A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

The robust supramolecular structure of biomass often requires severe pretreatments conditions to produce soluble sugars. Nonetheless, these processes generate some inhibitory compounds (i.e. furans compounds and aliphatic acids) deriving mainly from sugars degradation. To avoid the inhibition of the biological process and to obtain satisfactory sugars conversion level into biofuels, a detoxification step is required. This study investigates the use of two pyrochars derived from solid anaerobic digestates for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. At a pyrochar concentration of 40gL-1, more than 94% of 5-HMF and 99% of furfural were removed in the synthetic medium after 24h of contact time, whereas sugars concentration remained unchanged. Furfural was adsorbed faster than 5-HMF by both pyrochars and totally removed after 3h of contact. Finally, the two pyrochars were found efficient in the detoxification of corn stalks and Douglas fir wood chips hydrolysates without affecting the soluble sugars concentrations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and University Mohammed Polytechnique
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2015

The robust supramolecular structure of biomass often requires severe pretreatments conditions to produce soluble sugars. Nonetheless, these processes generate some inhibitory compounds (i.e. furans compounds and aliphatic acids) deriving mainly from sugars degradation. To avoid the inhibition of the biological process and to obtain satisfactory sugars conversion level into biofuels, a detoxification step is required. This study investigates the use of two pyrochars derived from solid anaerobic digestates for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. At a pyrochar concentration of 40gL(-1), more than 94% of 5-HMF and 99% of furfural were removed in the synthetic medium after 24h of contact time, whereas sugars concentration remained unchanged. Furfural was adsorbed faster than 5-HMF by both pyrochars and totally removed after 3h of contact. Finally, the two pyrochars were found efficient in the detoxification of corn stalks and Douglas fir wood chips hydrolysates without affecting the soluble sugars concentrations.


Samuelsson P.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Storm P.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Lager T.,University Mohammed Polytechnique
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management | Year: 2016

Purpose - A robust description of the material transformation system is fundamental for understanding its capabilities and thus for communicating, prioritising and changing the system. Deploying a previously developed configuration model the purpose of this paper is to test the industrial usability of the model as an instrument to gain a better understanding of the material transformation system through externalising the generic production capabilities of the system. Design/methodology/approach - In a multiple case study approach and using a prior conceptual configuration model of the material transformation system in the process industries as a research instrument, company-generic production capabilities were investigated in three companies representing the mineral, food and steel industries. Findings - The empirical results supported the utility of the model as an instrument in providing a coherent set of elements that define operations and thus serve as a platform to model company-generic production capabilities and serve as input to strategizing though implicating needed change to the material transformation system. The theoretical contribution was mainly the empirical validation of the previously developed conceptual model as a tool in knowledge formation of the capabilities of the system and to outline the concept of "production capabilities configuration". Research limitations/implications - Three sectors of the process industries were studied but it is recommended that the results should be replicated in complementary case studies or a survey of larger samples from the process industries. Those studies should not only be limited to increase the empirical knowledge base, but possibly to identify additional new variables, further refine the set of variables in the present model and investigate their relationships. Practical implications - It is argued that the model can already be used as a tool to support both horizontal and vertical communication on production capabilities, thus facilitating, e.g. manufacturing strategy development. Originality/value - The validated conceptual model supported by the empirical evidence is new knowledge to be used in the analysis of company-generic production capabilities in the process industries. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


PubMed | Helmholtz Center Berlin, Uppsala University, University Mohammed Polytechnique and Cadi Ayyad University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: ChemSusChem | Year: 2016

The cathode material P2-Nax Co2/3 Mn2/9 Ni1/9 O2, which could be used in Na-ion batteries, was investigated through synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). Nondestructive analysis was made through the electrode/electrolyte interface of the first electrochemical cycle to ensure access to information not only on the active material, but also on the passivation layer formed at the electrode surface and referred to as the solid permeable interface (SPI). This investigation clearly shows the role of the SPI and the complexity of the redox reactions. Cobalt, nickel, and manganese are all electrochemically active upon cycling between 4.5 and 2.0V; all are in the 4+ state at the end of charging. Reduction to Co(3+), Ni(3+), and Mn(3+) occurs upon discharging and, at low potential, there is partial reversible reduction to Co(2+) and Ni(2+). A thin layer of Na2 CO3 and NaF covers the pristine electrode and reversible dissolution/reformation of these compounds is observed during the first cycle. The salt degradation products in the SPI show a dependence on potential. Phosphates mainly form at the end of the charging cycle (4.5V), whereas fluorophosphates are produced at the end of discharging (2.0V).


Chuetor S.,CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Luque R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Barron C.,CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Solhy A.,University Mohammed Polytechnique | And 2 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2015

The separation of lignocellulose into its major components (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) is a key step in lignocellulosic biorefineries. Most pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass into chemicals or biofuels are currently based on expensive chemical and energy consuming processes, which entail significant resource consumption (e.g. water) and generate a number of residual streams. In this work, two innovative dry fractionation technologies (physical fractionation: turbo- and electrostatic separation of lignocellulose particles) have been developed for rice straw "RS" fractionation and bioconversion to sugars and biofuels. Turbo-fractionation technology (TF-T) comprises particle separation according to their size and density, whereas electrostatic fractionation technology (EF-T) is based on the separation of particles according to their surface properties (chemical composition and charges). TF-T and EF-T are suitable for producing lignocellulose fractions displaying very different structures, biochemical compositions and reactive surfaces without extensively damaging the raw fibers as well as minimizing waste generation (E-factor: 0.7-0.75). The produced fractions could be hydrolyzed, being able to produce large quantities of glucose (250-280 g kg-1 RS) after 72 h of hydrolysis and subsequently ethanol (130-150 g kg-1 RS) after fermentation. TF-T and EF-T can therefore improve the economic feasibility by low energy consumption and produce reactive lignocellulose particles with different physicochemical structures in a short time, which can be easily converted to biofuels, minimizing waste (no effluent generation). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Essoumhi A.,Sultan Moulay Slimane University | Solhy A.,University Mohammed Polytechnique | El Kazzouli S.,Euro-Mediterranean University
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2016

LaFe0.57Co0.38Pd0.05O3 perovskite-type oxide catalysts were synthesized via flash combustion method. Then, their structural and textural properties were studied. Depending on the thermal treatment, amorphous or crystalline materials with different particle sizes were obtained. The catalytic activity of these systems was investigated in Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the materials operate following "release and catch" mechanism. "Ingress and Egress" of palladium in perovskite systems constitute a driving force for the preparation of new chemicals with low metal contamination.


Sambusiti C.,CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Licari A.,CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Solhy A.,University Mohammed Polytechnique | Aboulkas A.,Sultan Moulay Slimane University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was the application of an innovative dry chemo-mechanical pretreatment using different mechanical stresses to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The effect of different milling methods on physicochemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, bioethanol production and energy efficiency was also evaluated. SB was pretreated with NaOH and H3PO4 at high materials concentration (5kg/L). Results indicate that vibratory milling (VBM) was more effective in the reduction of particles size and cellulose crystallinity compared to centrifugal (CM) and ball (BM) milling. NaOH pretreatment coupling to BM and VBM was preferred to enhance glucose yields and bioethanol production, while CM consumed less energy compared to BM and VBM. Moreover, the highest energy efficiency (η=0.116kgglucose/kWh) was obtained with NaOH-CM. Therefore, the combination of dry NaOH and CM appears the most suitable and interesting pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from SB. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Lager T.,University Mohammed Polytechnique
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2016

The "family" of process industries spans multiple industrial sectors and thus constitutes a substantial part of all manufacturing industries, including petrochemicals and chemicals, food and beverage, mining and metals, mineral and materials, pharmaceuticals, pulp and paper, steel, and utilities. This article begins by reviewing methods and tools used in the process industries for effectiveness improvements, such as technology road-mapping, R&D strategy development, and portfolio balancing. Next, more efficiency-related areas of R&D like work processes and methodologies like quality function deployment, and collaboration in an open innovation approach are introduced. Both areas relate to product and process innovation from idea generation to implementation. Starting from this platform of current knowledge, future perspectives on the need for new approaches and tools for improved Management of Innovation & Technology in the process industries are reviewed and discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Charles Gerhardt Institute, CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University Mohammed Polytechnique and Sultan Moulay Slimane University
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was the application of an innovative dry chemo-mechanical pretreatment using different mechanical stresses to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The effect of different milling methods on physicochemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, bioethanol production and energy efficiency was also evaluated. SB was pretreated with NaOH and H3PO4 at high materials concentration (5 kg/L). Results indicate that vibratory milling (VBM) was more effective in the reduction of particles size and cellulose crystallinity compared to centrifugal (CM) and ball (BM) milling. NaOH pretreatment coupling to BM and VBM was preferred to enhance glucose yields and bioethanol production, while CM consumed less energy compared to BM and VBM. Moreover, the highest energy efficiency (=0.116 kg glucose/kWh) was obtained with NaOH-CM. Therefore, the combination of dry NaOH and CM appears the most suitable and interesting pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from SB.

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